Login | Register

Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

February 23, 2020, 03:28:43 pm

Author Topic: PDHPE Feedback  (Read 50 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.


  • Adventurer
  • *
  • Posts: 6
  • Respect: 0
PDHPE Feedback
« on: February 14, 2020, 11:07:14 pm »
Hi below are some HSC PDHPE questions I've answered and was wondering if anybody can provide me some feedback on my responses.

1.   2015 - Why is it important for governments to prioritise health issues? (5)

It is imperative that the Australian government prioritises health issues to provide sufficient funding for the healthcare industry to implement prevention strategies. The government can successfully accomplish this by recognising the social justice principles when prioritising population disadvantaged groups such as the aboriginal Torres strait islanders (ATSI). For instance, the close the gap initiative new directions: babies and mothers provide resources to ATSI mothers with extra assistance and support from ATSI nurses showcasing a sense of comfortability and cultural sensitivity. Therefore, establishing a supportive environment as it promotes equity to mothers who lacked access to health care facilities in which as a result creates a culture to positive health outcomes for expecting mothers. Prioritising disadvantaged groups such as ATSI allows for the potential for prevention of diseases and illnesses from occurring in which will increase their life expectancy. For example, ATSI peoples experience the largest gap in health outcomes in Australia by having a life expectancy for ATSI females to be 83.1 years compared to non-indigenous female Australias which is 73.7 years. Consequently, it is pivotal that the government strives to prevent disease in the ATSI community by making them aware of the risk factors involved in their behaviors which will, therefore, decrease the prevalence of health issues significantly.

2.   2013 - Outline TWO indicators of morbidity. Include examples in your answer. (3) 

Morbidity refers to the rates for the prevalence and incidence of disease, illness, injury, and disability. Hospital use is an indicator of morbidity as they provide important information about prominent patterns of serious diseases. For instance,  within the Liverpool hospital there have been 28 incidences of lung cancer. Therefore, this data is beneficial in showcasing the common chronic diseases that must be addressed and prioritised to increase life expectancy and decrease incidences. Additionally, health surveys and reports contribute to epidemiological data as it provides a range of key health indicators and collects together an extensive range of health data. For example, in 2016 there were 496 incidences of lung cancer in South Western Sydney. Hence, health surveys are effective indicators of showcasing the increase in chronic health diseases that must be prioritised.

2012 - How is epidemiology used to improve the health of Australians? Provide examples (6)

Epidemiology is the study of the pattern of disease in a population including the apparent causes of disease. Epidemiological data provide valuable information that can identify Australia’s health priorities as a result of collecting, analyzing and verifying data of diseases. This showcases the incidence and prevalence of certain diseases in which require further attention within a specific community. For instance, in 2019, an estimated 396 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed each day in Australia, on average. Hence, Epidemiology is significantly improving the health of Australians as its targeting specific health needs that must be attended to reduce the incidence and prevalence of cancer in Australia.

Epidemiology is measured by utilising health indicators such as mortality rates, infant mortality rates, morbidity and life expectancy. These health indicators allow for health professionals such as doctors, the government and researchers to focus and prioritise particular health issues in Australia such as cancer by establishing preventative programs, strategies, and frameworks. For example, the government has implemented policies such as the NSW health smoke-free health care policy in which has banned the use of cigarettes in health buildings, grounds and in vehicles. As a result of this, it has restricted individuals from smoking and therefore decreasing the incidence and prevalence of lung cancer from occurring in Australia.  Thus, epidemiology successfully promotes health priorities in Australia by striving to identify a prominent health issue and prevent it through the use of policies and strategies.

4.2019 - Explain why cancer continues to be identified as a priority health issue in Australia. Use examples to support your answer (7) 

Cancer continues to be a priority health issue in Australia due to social justice principles such as equity, diversity and supportive environments that are not being effectively met. Australian Torres strait islanders (ATSI) is a disadvantaged population group that is often known to have a high incidence of cancer. For instance, between 2011 and 2015, there was an average of 551 cancer-related deaths each year for Indigenous Australians. This is a result of the inequities ATSI encounters which is not being fairly allocated resources and entitlements such as access to health care facilities, programs, and initiatives dedicated to the diverse ATSI group to create a supportive environment that allows ATSI individuals to improve their health status. Hence, cancer is prioritised in Australia as a result of the increasing incidences occurring in various communities and groups,

Cancer is a heavily prioritised health issue in Australia due to the immense increase in incidences within population groups such as ATSI. Therefore, pritosing ATSI allows for potential prevention methods and early interventions to be established amongst this community specifically in order to reduce mortality and morbidity rates. For instance, BreastScreen NSW provides free mammograms for ATSI aged 50-74 allowing for breast cancer to be detected earlier which creates a greater chance of overall survival. Cancer can as well be prevented by raising awareness of the risk factors  such as introducing seminars dedicated to ATSI that highlights the detrimental outcomes of smoking tobacco. Subsequently, the prevalence for cancer within a ATSI community will immensely decrease along with a reduction in morbidity,mortality and an increase in life expectancy.

Indirect and direct costs will occur as a result of the prominence of cancer within ATSI which can impact the individual and community greatly. The direct costs of an individual  consists of the capital used to pay for medication and treatment hospital fees Whereas, indirect costs for cancer refer to the inability to work due to the individual being too ill. For example, an individual who is ATSI that possesses a low income status will be affected significantly due to being too  ill to attend work which results in the individual not being capable of paying their direct costs. Likewise, the community is as well impacted indirectly as absenteeism increases due to the individual being too ill to work and as a result are not able to pay their taxes therefore negatively affecting the community as they require capital to fund facilities. Direct costs refer to the prevention programs required to be implemented,pharmaceuticals and a more effective education system to reduce the likelihood of groups such as ATSI from having cancer. Consequently, cancer is identified as a priority health issue in Australia due to the outstandingly outcome it has on indirect and direct cost on the individual and community.