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July 13, 2020, 01:57:54 pm

Author Topic: Unit 3 in a Nutshell  (Read 1449 times)

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K.Smithy

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Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« on: December 28, 2019, 01:14:51 am »
+15
Hi all - just your friendly neighbourhood biology student passing through ;D

The QCE forums are a bit quiet, so I thought I would try to liven it up a bit :)
This thread will contain my class notes that I will write up as I am completing unit 3 Biology - so I hope that it is of some use to other QCE (maybe even HSC and VCE?? Who knows...) students out there 8) I will also include any thoughts or questions (and hopefully some answers to those questions) that I have had throughout unit 3. If my notes are any good I might also upload them to the notes section of ATAR notes.

I will also make one of these threads for Psychology and Physics - so feel free to come say hi ;D

This thread will follow a simple structure, and I will try to be as consistent as possible to ensure comprehensibility. I will follow the criteria set out by the syllabus - which can be accessed here. If you haven't checked out the syllabus, I recommend you do so. After all, on the external exam QCAA can't ask any questions relating to content outside of the syllabus. Anywho, please feel free to contribute your own notes and help this thread grow :D Also, don't be shy to ask/answer any questions :)

So lets kick this thread off, shall we!

Topic 1: Part 1
Describing Biodiversity

Biodiversity
Important Formula

Simpson's Diversity Index
SDI is used to quantify the biodiversity within a habitat - in other words, it tells you the probability that two individuals from a sample will belong to a different species. Results will range between 0 and 1. For example, a SDI of 0.65 tells you that there is a 65% chance that any two individuals that are randomly selected from a sample will belong to different species.

Higher SDI = Higher diversity



Where:
N = total number of organisms of all species
n = number of organisms in one species

- recognise that biodiversity includes the diversity of species and ecosystems

Biodiversity refers to the variety of species and ecosystems within a given area. Variation is important! A greater variety of species boosts ecosystem productivity. Having a variety of different ecosystems also benefits different species. Every organisms has an ecological niche, this describes the conditions that will either benefit a particular organism or harm it and includes the organisms position within its ecosystem and the interactions it has with other organisms - I have put a graph in this post down below :)
The definition of ecosystem is: a biological community of living organisms that interact with each other and their surroundings.

- determine diversity of species using measures such as species richness, evenness (relative species abundance), percentage cover, percentage frequency and Simpson's Diversity Index

Species richness (S): when looking at an ecosystem, ask yourself: How many different species can I see? This will give you your species richness. Put simply, species richness is the number of different species in an ecosystem - it does not pay any attention whatsoever to evenness, distribution, population size of each species, etc.. It is simply, how many different species there are.

Relative species abundance: aka evenness. It is a measurement that describes how common or rare a species is compared to other species in a particular area.

Percentage cover: this describes how much space a particular species in a sample occupies. It focuses on the geographical distribution of species within an ecosystem.

Percentage frequency: this is a measurement describing how often a species pops up when taking a sample of an ecosystem - it gives us insight into how common particular species are. 

Simpson's Diversity Index: this was discussed above, so I won't discuss it in this section.

*note: I will post some example questions and practice questions later on so that we can really tick off the "determine" criteria - also, I don't want to make this post too long, so stay tuned for my next post in this thread :)

- use species diversity indices, species interactions (predation, competition, symbiosis, disease) and abiotic factors (climate, substrate, size/depth or area) to compare ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales

Species Diversity Indices
This relates to the dot point above ^^^
You can use the measure of species diversity (species richness, relative species abundance, percentage frequency, percentage cover, and SDI) in order to compare different ecosystems. E.g. does one species have a higher percentage frequency in one ecosystem than it does in another? Does one ecosystem have an increased species richness than another ecosystem

Species Interactions
Species interactions are very important within ecosystems. The definition of an ecosystem is quite literally: a biological community of organisms interacting with each other and their environment. Species interactions help keep balance and order in the ecosystem.

Predation: when thinking of predation, it is common to just go: predator eats prey. However, if we look at predation ecologically, predation can be defined as being any interaction between two organisms that results in the transfer of energy. There are four commonly recognised types of predation: 1) carnivory, 2) herbivory, 3) parasitism and 4) mutualism (3 and 4 will be explored when looking at symbiosis).

*note: in some cases, mutualism may not be considered a form of predation (there is a lack of scientific literature supporting mutualism as being predation). However, in some cases, mutualism may involve the transfer of energy from one organism to another and thus, under the definition stated above, some mutualistic interactions may be considered a form of predation.

Carnivory = the consumption of meat (a predator kills prey)
Herbivory = the consumption of autotrophs 

*note: the syllabus does not state how in depth it wants us to explore predation. So I am unsure as to whether or not we need to know the 4 commonly recognised types of predation or just the whole predator eats prey thing. My textbook (Biology for Queensland: An Australian Perspective - the Oxford textbook) defines predator as: "an organism that captures, kills and feeds on another animal." So I am assuming that their definition of predation is the simple: predator eats prey (which is essentially an interaction between two organisms that results in the transfer of energy)

When comparing predation across ecosystems it may be beneficial to examine the species diversity in particular areas and the abundance of prey.

Competition: competition is a biological interaction that can be intraspecific (between organisms of the same species) or interspecific (between organisms of different species). It is defined as the struggle between organisms for a specific resource(s). Resources are aspect or components of the environment that are necessary for survival or reproduction - e.g. food, water, shelter, light, space... Organisms may also compete for a mate.

As with predation, to compare competition across different ecosystems or areas within an ecosystem, it may be beneficial to pay attention to species abundance, species distribution, species diversity... Competition will increase if resources are limited.

Symbiosis: There are 5 types of symbiosis:
1) Obligate mutualism: both species benefit from necessary interaction - this interaction is vital for their survival (e.g. the relationship between ants and the acacia plant - the plant provides food and shelter for the ants, and the ants defend the plant from herbivores)
2) Facultative mutualism: each species benefits from the interaction, but the presence of one is not essential to the survival of the other (e.g. the relationship between sea anemones and hermit crabs. Sea anemones provide the crab defence against predators - if attacked, the crab can retreat into its shell while the anemone stings the attacker. By living on the crab's shell, it allows the anemone to disperse offspring more efficiently (because the crab is moving) and they can share food. When the crab changes shells it just puts the anemone on it's new shell. If you are interested, you can watch a video of this shell-changing process here - it starts at 46 seconds)
3) Commensalism: a biotic interaction in which one organism is benefitted while the other is not affected (e.g. epiphytic ferns and orchids on rainforest trees). *note: examples of commensalism may be difficult to come across due to the fact that it is unlikely that an interaction has no affect at all on one party
4) Amensalism: one species inhibits another - one is negatively affected, while the other isn't affected at all (e.g. antibiosis. An example of antibiosis can be observed with the black walnut - it secretes juglone, which is a substance that can destroy herbaceous plants within its root zone... Definition of antibiosis (according to the dictionary that pops up when I google "antibiosis definition" ;D): "an antagonistic association between two organisms (especially microorganisms), in which one is adversely affected.")
5) Parasitism: a biotic relationship in which one organism (the parasite) is benefitted at the expense of another (the host). Parasites can live on or in the host, reducing the host's fitness but increasing its own (e.g. human parasites include roundworms. They can infest the human digestive tract and use the human body to stay alive and reproduce. Symptoms of roundworm infection can include: high temperatures, mild stomach pain, nausea and vomiting and diarrhoea)

*note: my textbook had the first two as mutualism and cooperation, but after discussing this with Bri we believe that there may have been an error in the textbook. There doesn't exist any scientific literature (from what I can find) that considers cooperation a form of symbiosis. Additionally, the definition for mutualism provided by the textbook perfectly describes obligate mutualism and the definition provided for cooperation perfectly describes facultative mutualism.

When comparing ecosystems, you can look at how the frequency of the various types of symbiosis differs. E.g. does one ecosystem contain more organisms that exhibit mutualistic interactions than another ecosystem?

*note: the syllabus does not state how in depth we need to explore symbiosis - you may not need to know all of these types of symbiosis

Disease: a disease is defined as being an abnormal condition that negatively impacts the structure or function of an organism (or part of an organism), that isn't resultant of external injury. Populations of organisms with higher densities may allow for the easy transmission of disease - thus, potentially resulting in a reduction in population size.

Comparing the rates of disease in different ecosystem can be used to draw conclusions about population density.

Spatial and Temporal Scales
Spatial relates to space
Temporal relates to time

In regard to the spatial aspects of an ecosystem, you can look at and compare:
- substrate: the surface organisms live (you can use it to look at sources of nutrients in the environment and to infer what types of organisms would live there - furthermore, you can look at how a change in/to a substrate over time would affect the species living in that ecosystem)
- size of area: the larger the ecosystem, the more room there is for organisms (allowing for larger population sizes). A larger ecosystem may also mean that there is less competition for land/territory.
- topography: topographic features can affect illumination, temperature, moisture, etc. - how does topography affect populations within different ecosystems?
- shelter: the availability of shelter is crucial for many different types of organisms - how does the availability/unavailability of shelter affect the populations within different ecosystems?

Soil
- pH: can influence the distribution of plants in soil - compare between ecosystems.
- mineral salts and trace elements: the chemical composition of the soil also affects the distribution of plants - compare between ecosystems.
- water retention: differing types of soils retain water to differing extents, this affect the types of plants within certain areas - compare between ecosystems.

In regard to the temporal aspects of an ecosystem, you can look at and compare:
Climate
How has the climate changed over the past however many years? Has this change in climate affected diversity/abundance/distribution/etc.?Furthermore, you could look at how temperature and weather changes cyclically throughout the year (or you could look at anthropogenic climate change and how that is rapidly changing certain aspects of the climate and how that is affecting populations of organisms within particular ecosystems).
- seasons: summer, autumn, winter, spring, rain season - how do different seasons affect populations in different ecosystems?
- water: an organisms ability to conserve water determines how well it can tolerate dry conditions - how available is this resource in different ecosystems?
- radiant energy: light is essential for life - how available is this resource in different ecosystems?
- humidity: affects water evaporation - high humidity can affect an organisms ability to cool itself, low humidity can affect an organisms ability to withstand drought. How does humidity affect populations of organisms differently in different ecosystems?
- wind and air current: strong wind currents can affect plants with a weak root system. Wind and air currents do, however, provide a means of dispersing insects, spores and seeds. Additionally, they are important for flight and gliding modes of locomotion. How do differing air and wind currents affect the distribution/abundance/diversity of species within ecosystems?

You can link these abiotic environmental factors (the spatial and temporal stuff) to ecological niches and use this in you comparison between ecosystems.

ecological niche

Image credits: BioNinja

- explain how environmental factors limit the distribution and abundance of species in an ecosystem

There are many limiting factors that may affect the distribution and abundance of species within an ecosystem. These include:
Density-independent factors: an abiotic factor (independent of population density) that affects the population size. Examples include environmental disasters and pollution
Density-dependent factors: any factor that influences population regulation and has a greater impact on populations as their density increases. Examples include competition, predation and infection.

Definition of limiting factors: conditions that limit the growth, abundance or distribution of a population of organisms

Each population within an environment will be affected by the carrying capacity of the environment. The carrying capacity describes the size of a population that is able to be supported by an environment. Environmental resistance (the sum of all environmental limiting factors) ensures that a population will not become too large. It can be observed that if a population rises above the point of equilibrium (the point at which the population size can be supported) limiting factors will cause the population size to decrease. If it falls below the point of equilibrium the population will rise again. This repeats and the population size will fluctuate around the point of equilibrium. This is an example of ecological homeostasis.

population fluctuation around carrying capacity

Image credits: BioNinja

*note: the syllabus does not state that we need to talk about the fluctuation of population size around the carrying capacity. So instead, you may just want to focus on a normal logistic growth (S) curve (aka a sigmoidal curve) when looking at K-selection. This looks almost identical to the graph above, it just doesn't include any fluctuation.

normal sigmoidal curve

Image credits: Study.com

Definition of ecological homeostasis, as provided by my textbook: "maintenance of a population size commensurate with environmental limiting factors, mediated by feedback systems."

EDIT: Thank you Bri for the awesome feedback and for helping this thread to be as beneficial and accurate as possible! :)
« Last Edit: February 23, 2020, 08:47:18 am by K.Smithy »
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K.Smithy

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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #1 on: December 28, 2019, 01:52:33 pm »
+9
Practice Questions

Below is a random sample of birds you found at a local park:
SpeciesNumber
Crow10
Magpie5
Pigeon2
Unknown1

1. Calculate Simpson's Diversity Index

answer
SDI = 1- (10(10-1)+5(5-1)+2(2-1)+1(1-1) / 18(18-1))
SDI = 1 - ((10*9)+(5*4)+(2*1) / (18*17))
SDI = 1 - ((90 + 20 + 2) / 306)
SDI = 1 - (112 / 306)
SDI = 1 - 0.37 (2 d.p)
SDI = 0.63 (2 d.p)

2. Identify species richness

answer
What species are there? Crow, magpie, pigeon and unknown. So species richness = 4

3. Calculate the relative species abundance for crows

answer
10/18 = 0.56 (2 d.p)

_______________________

Percentage cover

I don't have any practice questions for this one, but here is a video explaining how it works.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cS4qwSK-Mqw

If anyone has any practice questions please feel free to share them :)

Percentage frequency

I also don't have any practice questions for this one... However, how you calculate it is:
Quote from: Bri MT
percentage frequency of a species in a given area is just: (frequency of that species)/(sum frequency of all species) * 100
« Last Edit: December 28, 2019, 08:21:44 pm by K.Smithy »
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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #2 on: December 28, 2019, 04:42:25 pm »
+8
Thanks for creating this thread! I'm sure it'll be a great help for many students in the future :D

One thing I do want to note is that the description of niches you have provided only considers fundamental niches which are defined by abiotic conditions. Ecological niches, like fundamental niches are constrained by abiotic conditions but ecological niches also consider interactions between organisms.

I would not describe co-operation as a type of symbiosis and please note that mutualism does not have to involve dependency for survival. Co-operation necessarily involves both organisms benefitting (as in mutualism) however symbiosis exclusively describes scenarios where the organisms are in intimate long-term association whereas co-operation does not necessarily have to be long term. Co-operation is not necessarily long-term. To distinguish between mutualism where there is survival-dependency and not, the terms you are looking for are obligate mutualism (the mutualistic relationship is necessary for survival) and facultative mutualism (the mutualistic relationship is not necessary for survival).

Also, if you were going to distinguish between types of symbiosis on the basis of survival you would also want to distinguish between parasites and parasitoids however I do not believe this is required for the QCE syllabus.

I am not sure why you have included mutualism as a form of predation. Mutualism can involve predation (generally of a 3rd party :P) but I certainly wouldn't consider mutualism to be a subset of predation and I have been unable to find any ecological literature that describes mutualism as a type of predation.

I doubt amensalism will be focused on in QCE biology but it also hasn't been ruled out so no harm in including it but I wouldn't focus on it all that much.

In regards to population growth, in the syllabus the phrasing used is "logistic growth S curve" and thus I doubt you are expected to show fluctuation of population size around the carrying capacity.

percentage frequency of a species in a given area is just: (frequency of that species)/(sum frequency of all species) * 100



Overall really fantastic job and thank you again for creating this :)

K.Smithy

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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #3 on: December 28, 2019, 08:08:43 pm »
+5
One thing I do want to note is that the description of niches you have provided only considers fundamental niches which are defined by abiotic conditions. Ecological niches, like fundamental niches are constrained by abiotic conditions but ecological niches also consider interactions between organisms.


Yeah, that one was my bad... I think got carried away thinking about all the abiotic aspects of ecosystems (in hindsight, I probably shouldn't have wrote the post in the weird order that I did ;D) - I will correct this error and ensure that I don't omit important information like this in future posts. Thanks for bringing it to my attention :)

I would not describe co-operation as a type of symbiosis and please note that mutualism does not have to involve dependency for survival. Co-operation necessarily involves both organisms benefitting (as in mutualism) however symbiosis exclusively describes scenarios where the organisms are in intimate long-term association whereas co-operation does not necessarily have to be long term. Co-operation is not necessarily long-term. To distinguish between mutualism where there is survival-dependency and not, the terms you are looking for are obligate mutualism (the mutualistic relationship is necessary for survival) and facultative mutualism (the mutualistic relationship is not necessary for survival).

Oh wow, I haven't even heard of obligate mutualism and facultative mutualism... you really do learn something new every day ;D As for describing cooperation as a type of symbiosis, the five that I mentioned are what my textbook talks about and what my teacher has brought up in class - so that's why I included it. But the syllabus is very vague about a lot of things so I don't even know if we need to know all the different types of symbiosis. I'm interested to know if other QCE bio students have learnt about the different types of symbiosis and whether their textbooks consider cooperation as being a type of symbiosis too. Hopefully next year more QCE students will join the forums and offer some insight.

I'm trying to pinpoint where I may have said or suggested that mutualism involves dependency for survival. Would you be able to point me in the right direction so I can fix that up?

I am not sure why you have included mutualism as a form of predation. Mutualism can involve predation (generally of a 3rd party :P) but I certainly wouldn't consider mutualism to be a subset of predation and I have been unable to find any ecological literature that describes mutualism as a type of predation.

Honestly, ngl I was hella confused last night when I read that mutualism was a form of predation. I never would have thought of considering it a type of predation but here are some links to resources that explain it:
https://biologydictionary.net/predation/
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Ecology/Predation_and_Herbivory

I highly doubt, however, that QCAA will expect us to look at parasitism and mutualism as forms of predation and instead will focus on the whole predator eats prey idea. Would you suggest that I remove mutualism as a form of predation in my initial post?
 
I doubt amensalism will be focused on in QCE biology but it also hasn't been ruled out so no harm in including it but I wouldn't focus on it all that much.

Me too, but my teachers reckons that we might get a multiple choice question on the types of symbiosis. Something like "Which of the following is not a type of symbiosis" or something like that.

In regards to population growth, in the syllabus the phrasing used is "logistic growth S curve" and thus I doubt you are expected to show fluctuation of population size around the carrying capacity.

I originally wasn't going to include the sigmoidal/logistic curve in my post (mainly because we haven't covered K- and r-selection in class yet so we haven't looked at them), but I thought "why not?". Anywho, the textbook had a whole big scary section on the fluctuation of population size so I thought I would include it just to be safe (knowing my luck, if I don't include it and I don't study it, it's going to be on the exam ;D)

percentage frequency of a species in a given area is just: (frequency of that species)/(sum frequency of all species) * 100

Awesome, thank you! :)

Overall really fantastic job and thank you again for creating this :)

Thank you for all the awesome feedback and for taking the time to read through it! You are a legend :D
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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #4 on: December 28, 2019, 09:05:25 pm »
+4
Yeah, that one was my bad... I think got carried away thinking about all the abiotic aspects of ecosystems (in hindsight, I probably shouldn't have wrote the post in the weird order that I did ;D) - I will correct this error and ensure that I don't omit important information like this in future posts. Thanks for bringing it to my attention :)

No worries! Don't beat yourself up about leaving it out - there's so much you did remember to include and AN is a safe place to make and learn from errors like that :)


Oh wow, I haven't even heard of obligate mutualism and facultative mutualism... you really do learn something new every day ;D As for describing cooperation as a type of symbiosis, the five that I mentioned are what my textbook talks about and what my teacher has brought up in class - so that's why I included it. But the syllabus is very vague about a lot of things so I don't even know if we need to know all the different types of symbiosis. I'm interested to know if other QCE bio students have learnt about the different types of symbiosis and whether their textbooks consider cooperation as being a type of symbiosis too. Hopefully next year more QCE students will join the forums and offer some insight.

I'm trying to pinpoint where I may have said or suggested that mutualism involves dependency for survival. Would you be able to point me in the right direction so I can fix that up?

The only reason I brought up facultative and obligate mutualism is because of this:

Symbiosis: There are 5 types of symbiosis:
1) Mutualism: both species benefit from the interaction (e.g. the relationship between an oxpecker (a kind of bird) and a rhino is mutualistic. The oxpecker eats ticks and parasites that live on a rhino's skin. The rhino free of pests and the oxpecker gets food).
2) Cooperation: each species benefits from the interaction, but the presence of one is not essential to the survival of the other (e.g. the relationship between sea anemones and hermit crabs. Sea anemones provide the crab defence against predators - if attacked, the crab can retreat into its shell while the anemone stings the attacker. By living on the crab's shell, it allows the anemone to disperse offspring more efficiently (because the crab is moving) and they can share food. When the crab changes shells it just puts the anemone on it's new shell. If you are interested, you can watch a video of this shell-changing process here - it starts at 46 seconds)

To me, this read as though you were implying that the distinction between cooperation and mutualism is that in cooperation the presence of one is not essential for the survival of the other.



Honestly, ngl I was hella confused last night when I read that mutualism was a form of predation. I never would have thought of considering it a type of predation but here are some links to resources that explain it:
https://biologydictionary.net/predation/
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Ecology/Predation_and_Herbivory

I highly doubt, however, that QCAA will expect us to look at parasitism and mutualism as forms of predation and instead will focus on the whole predator eats prey idea. Would you suggest that I remove mutualism as a form of predation in my initial post?
Those came up when I ran a search to see why they were being grouped as a type of predation but they don't provide links to scientific literature or other reputable authority so I remain unconvinced. I would write something along the lines of "mutualism can involve transfer of energy from one organism to another and therefore, in those cases, may be considered a form of predation under this definition".



Me too, but my teachers reckons that we might get a multiple choice question on the types of symbiosis. Something like "Which of the following is not a type of symbiosis" or something like that.
Better to be safe than sorry (especially since it actually is a type of symbiotic interaction ;)

I originally wasn't going to include the sigmoidal/logistic curve in my post (mainly because we haven't covered K- and r-selection in class yet so we haven't looked at them), but I thought "why not?". Anywho, the textbook had a whole big scary section on the fluctuation of population size so I thought I would include it just to be safe (knowing my luck, if I don't include it and I don't study it, it's going to be on the exam ;D)
K and r selection are life history strategies and you definitely don't need to know them to understand logistic population growth :)

Textbooks always include more than you need to know so - even though I agree that it's better safe than sorry - it's good to look at some of this stuff as extra/extension/insurance rather than needed info :)


Awesome, thank you! :)

Thank you for all the awesome feedback and for taking the time to read through it! You are a legend :D

No worries at all! I love ecology and I love helping (especially teaching) others so it's a win-win  :D 

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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #5 on: May 26, 2020, 10:08:46 am »
0
Hi would you be able to do this with the rest of the topics in units 3 and 4 as well. That would be great. Cheers :)

K.Smithy

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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #6 on: May 26, 2020, 10:36:44 am »
+2
Hi would you be able to do this with the rest of the topics in units 3 and 4 as well. That would be great. Cheers :)

Hi! I'm hoping to finish up the notes for Unit 3 within the next few weeks, and will start a Unit 4 thread ASAP :)
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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #7 on: May 26, 2020, 10:39:32 am »
+3
Hi! I'm hoping to finish up the notes for Unit 3 within the next few weeks, and will start a Unit 4 thread ASAP :)

You're a legend. I'm happy to take a look over at any additions if you'd like :)

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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #8 on: June 04, 2020, 02:22:31 pm »
+3
You're a legend. I'm happy to take a look over at any additions if you'd like :)

Would be awesome, if you have time of course :)
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Re: Unit 3 in a Nutshell
« Reply #9 on: June 13, 2020, 12:19:06 pm »
+1
NOTE: this is just the structure - i will fill it out soon

Topic 1:  Part 2
Describing Biodiversity

Classification Process

- interpret cladograms to infer the evolutionary relatedness between groups of organisms








- analyse data from molecular sequences to infer species evolutionary relatedness








- recognise the need for multiple definitions of species







- identify one example of an interspecific hybrid that does not produce fertile offspring (e.g. mule, Equus mulus)








- explain the classification of organisms according to the following species interactions: predation, competition, symbiosis and disease







- understand that ecosystems are composed of varied habitats (microhabitat to ecoregion)







- interpret data to classify and name an ecosystem







- explain how the process of classifying ecosystems is an important step towards effective ecosystem management (consider old-growth forests, productive soils and coral reefs)







- describe the process of stratified sampling in terms of

- purpose (estimating population density, distribution, environmental gradients and profiles, zonation, stratification)

- site selection

- choice of ecological surveying technique (quadrants, transects)

- minimising bias (size and number of samples, random-number generators, counting criteria, calibrating equipment and noting associated precision)

- methods of data presentation and analysis
« Last Edit: June 21, 2020, 11:12:10 am by K.Smithy »
QCE 2020: Physics || Psychology || Biology || Mathematical Methods || General English || Study of Religion

Aspirations: Secondary Education - Mathematics and Science

Are you a 2020 QCE student interested in joining a bio or english study group? Let s110820 or myself know! :)