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Author Topic: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!  (Read 163777 times)  Share 

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Pineapple66

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #315 on: September 25, 2016, 03:09:32 am »
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A failure to encode information can explain a limitation of which of the following forgetting theories?

A. Retrieval failure
B. Motivated forgetting
C. Decay theory
D. State- dependent cues


Hey there! :) I think its A. I don't think its C which considers forgetting as a physiological process where memory is laid out as a physical or chemical trace that will fade overtime suggesting the memory is no longer available. State - dependent cues is not a forgetting theory so not D. I think it's A because retrieval failure theory suggests that forgetting occurs because you don't have the right cues- so this theory emphasises that the memory is available but simply not accessible. However 'forgetting' due to failure to encode the information in the first place contradicts Retrieval failure Theory in that it proposes forgetting occurs because the memory is unavailable (rather than inaccessible.). Hope that's right haha..
« Last Edit: September 25, 2016, 11:36:03 am by Pineapple66 »

Pineapple66

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #316 on: September 25, 2016, 03:13:25 am »
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also have a few questions of my own..

Q. When devika was a little girl, she was bitten by a dog and now is terrified of all dogs. The problem often causes embarrassment and disruption in Devika’s adult life. She goes to a psychologist to try and overcome this problem. The psychologist has to decide whether to use graduated exposure, flooding or aversion therapy. Using the language of classical conditioning, explain how flooding could be used in this scenario to assist Devika with overcoming her fear of dogs.

In the answer she overcomes the fear through extinction. As in the dog is the conditioned stimulus which will produce the conditioned response of fear. And so to get over it (via extinction) she would have to be repeatedly exposed to a dog without the unconditioned stimulus (biting) to extinguish her fear response. That makes sense… but I always thought aversion therapy works by associating a relaxation response (from the relaxation techniques the therapist teaches her before exposure – the unconditioned stimulus) with the previously feared stimuli (which would be neutral)..

Q.Also how do you explain Graduated exposure in terms of classical conditioning as well?

Q. What is the difference between voluntary behaviour and active participants in terms of operant conditioning?

Q. What is the difference between research hypotheses and experimental? Which one do you include operationalised variables in?

thanks!! :)

nadiaaa

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #317 on: September 25, 2016, 07:32:47 pm »
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also have a few questions of my own..

Q. When devika was a little girl, she was bitten by a dog and now is terrified of all dogs. The problem often causes embarrassment and disruption in Devika’s adult life. She goes to a psychologist to try and overcome this problem. The psychologist has to decide whether to use graduated exposure, flooding or aversion therapy. Using the language of classical conditioning, explain how flooding could be used in this scenario to assist Devika with overcoming her fear of dogs.

In the answer she overcomes the fear through extinction. As in the dog is the conditioned stimulus which will produce the conditioned response of fear. And so to get over it (via extinction) she would have to be repeatedly exposed to a dog without the unconditioned stimulus (biting) to extinguish her fear response. That makes sense… but I always thought aversion therapy works by associating a relaxation response (from the relaxation techniques the therapist teaches her before exposure – the unconditioned stimulus) with the previously feared stimuli (which would be neutral)..

i think you have Aversion Therapy mixed up, as Aversion Therapy involves associating the conditioned stimulus with an 'aversive stimulus'  so like maybe to stop someone from biting their nails you paint their nails with a nail polish chemical that makes it biting nails have a gross taste and therefore the person learns to associate biting nails with it being undesirable -thereby extinguishing it. Does that make sense? Like u cant associate relaxation techniques because thats a behaviour not a stimulus where is more operant conditioning..
Q.Also how do you explain Graduated exposure in terms of classical conditioning as well?
So in an exam i'd probs write: Involves presenting successive approximations of the CS until the CS itself doesn't produce the conditioned response. So you first teach the individual relaxation techniques that they can apply while you gradually expose the client to the increasingly similar stimuli until they're desensitized to the fear and then id add an example.

Q. What is the difference between voluntary behaviour and active participants in terms of operant conditioning?
SO voluntary behaviour means that the person voluntarily does the behaviour whereas active participants mean they're actively placed themselves in the environment where a punishment or reinforcement will be received - whereas in CC the participant doesnt need to do anything for the CS or UCS to be presented.
Q. What is the difference between research hypotheses and experimental? Which one do you include operationalised variables in?
What do you mean? Do you mean research hypothesis and operational hypothesis?
thanks!! :)
« Last Edit: September 25, 2016, 07:37:15 pm by nadiaaa »

HasibA

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #318 on: September 25, 2016, 08:58:59 pm »
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when questions ask for assumptions of theories, is that always limitations/criticism or can there be instances where you simply write something that is assumed for a theory eg craik and lockhearts levels of processing theory, on a question i wrote an genuine assumption, but was told it had to be a 'text'book' limitation. thanks guys [hope i made sense]!
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nt2387

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #319 on: September 25, 2016, 09:18:17 pm »
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when questions ask for assumptions of theories, is that always limitations/criticism or can there be instances where you simply write something that is assumed for a theory eg craik and lockhearts levels of processing theory, on a question i wrote an genuine assumption, but was told it had to be a 'text'book' limitation. thanks guys [hope i made sense]!
Assumptions don't usually mean limitations / criticisms.

I wrote the deeper the processing the easier the retrieval for the assumption. I got the mark, but it doesn't sound right since that's pretty much the entire theory.

Hope that helps.
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HasibA

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #320 on: September 25, 2016, 09:25:40 pm »
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Assumptions don't usually mean limitations / criticisms.

I wrote the deeper the processing the easier the retrieval for the assumption. I got the mark, but it doesn't sound right since that's pretty much the entire theory.

Hope that helps.
hmm, thought so, didn't get the mark on the assessment i did, so i guess this was something my teacher just was against ? :/

anyways:
can someone describe what inferential, and descriptive stats. are- and why conclusions cannot be drawn from descriptive stats? :)
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DailyInsanity

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #321 on: September 26, 2016, 05:08:26 pm »
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Has anybody else done some of the Engage education free practice exams? Because in the solutions, particularly the multiple choice a lot of the answers seem to be wrong and a lot of the questions seem to be on content outside of the study design or very ambiguous.

Are other people having this experience or is it just me, and would you recommend actually doing these practice exams or are they perhaps misleading?

TooLazy

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #322 on: September 26, 2016, 05:11:57 pm »
+1
Has anybody else done some of the Engage education free practice exams? Because in the solutions, particularly the multiple choice a lot of the answers seem to be wrong and a lot of the questions seem to be on content outside of the study design or very ambiguous.

Are other people having this experience or is it just me, and would you recommend actually doing these practice exams or are they perhaps misleading?

Hmm. I have them already printed off, im planning on starting trials after i finish revision. Could you please reference which questions you think are incorrect. Ill take a look at them right now. :)
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Pineapple66

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #323 on: September 26, 2016, 07:40:04 pm »
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That makes sense… but I always thought aversion therapy works by associating a relaxation response (from the relaxation techniques the therapist teaches her before exposure – the unconditioned stimulus) with the previously feared stimuli (which would be neutral)..

i think you have Aversion Therapy mixed up, as Aversion Therapy involves associating the conditioned stimulus with an 'aversive stimulus

Oh whoops i think I accidentally typed  'aversion therapy' instead of 'flooding' haha :P but thank you!! think I got it.

With regards to the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad in working memory, do they act as STM 'stores'? So if the question was:
Veronica is going for her driver's licence. Her driving instructor gives her a series of instructions during her 30-minute driving test. Describe how each of the four components of her working memory will help her during the test.
 
Would these be correct:
Phonological loop - stores the instructions Veronica's instructor is telling her
Visuo-spatial sketchpad: stores visual information as she drives, such as other cars, traffic lights and signs.

or is what i said considered more sensory memory and i should focus more on the cognitive functions applied to the visual and auditory information (rehearsing and visualising) like their answers which was:

Phonological loop- would assist veronica to rehearse the verbal instructions from the driving instructor
Visuo-spatial sketchpad- would enable her to mentally visualise the pathway to her car when instructed to turn a corner by the driving instructor.

I thought the PL and VSS were simply stores and it was the central executive that integrates and manipulates the information?

DailyInsanity

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #324 on: September 27, 2016, 12:34:27 am »
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Hmm. I have them already printed off, im planning on starting trials after i finish revision. Could you please reference which questions you think are incorrect. Ill take a look at them right now. :)

Well so far I've only done the 'A' and 'E' Exams but for example in 'A', Qns 34,40 and 66 in the MP (questions 44 and 61 not sure about), Qn 7 of the short answer refer to 'working memory' in terms of Atkinson and Shiffrin model and then in the answers refer to Sensory memory, STM and LTM. But also in the multiple choice a number of questions refer to GABA, CBT etc... and other things outside the SD and use language that we probably haven't been exposed to.

TooLazy

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #325 on: September 27, 2016, 01:45:03 pm »
+2
Well so far I've only done the 'A' and 'E' Exams but for example in 'A', Qns 34,40 and 66 in the MP (questions 44 and 61 not sure about), Qn 7 of the short answer refer to 'working memory' in terms of Atkinson and Shiffrin model and then in the answers refer to Sensory memory, STM and LTM. But also in the multiple choice a number of questions refer to GABA, CBT etc... and other things outside the SD and use language that we probably haven't been exposed to.

Hmm, I'll take a look later on. I am skeptical in regards to other companies and if they focus on the SD.

I also had a question for you guys:
Why are association areas in the brain so important, and how are they involved in processes?
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nadiaaa

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #326 on: September 27, 2016, 02:15:18 pm »
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Would these be correct:
Phonological loop - stores the instructions Veronica's instructor is telling her
Visuo-spatial sketchpad: stores visual information as she drives, such as other cars, traffic lights and signs.
i like what you said here and i think it is correct as well as its similar to the answer, however for the visuo-spatial sketchpad their answer is more correct that yours. For visuo-spatial sketchpad think like its a mental sketchbook, its used to like mentally calculate 15+7 like that, so for driving the visuo-spatial sketchpad is helping her visualise like the traffic she will see when she turns the road. Do you get that? Its all mentally visualising something for the future whereas sensory memory in particular the Iconic memory is more of what you described! 

or is what i said considered more sensory memory and i should focus more on the cognitive functions applied to the visual and auditory information (rehearsing and visualising) like their answers which was:

Phonological loop- would assist veronica to rehearse the verbal instructions from the driving instructor
Visuo-spatial sketchpad- would enable her to mentally visualise the pathway to her car when instructed to turn a corner by the driving instructor.

I thought the PL and VSS were simply stores and it was the central executive that integrates and manipulates the information?
Yes they are, think of them like stores for the future its stores everything you're about to say or do and then the central executive intergrates what you'll and do and then you can act it out

minerva

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #327 on: September 28, 2016, 10:46:48 pm »
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Hi, could someone please explain the difference between stratified sampling and random-stratified sampling? Using stratified sampling, how would participants be selected if it is not random? Also, I went to a psych lecture and we were told that the results can't be generalised if a stratified sample was used but can be if a random-stratified sample was used - why is this the case?
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Burt Macklin

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #328 on: September 30, 2016, 10:18:16 pm »
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Hi, could someone please explain the difference between stratified sampling and random-stratified sampling? Using stratified sampling, how would participants be selected if it is not random? Also, I went to a psych lecture and we were told that the results can't be generalised if a stratified sample was used but can be if a random-stratified sample was used - why is this the case?

That's a good question!

Stratified sampling involves dividing your population into strata and then selecting your a sample from each stratum in the same proportions that they occur in the population. Here, you're not making any effort to randomly select (i.e. you might select the first 50 participants in a list for a particular stratum)

Random-stratified sampling is basically the same thing - however, instead you are randomly selecting them with the aid of number generators etc.

Stratified sampling would usually involve randomly selection anyways. If you were conducting a study and planning to have a stratified sample, it would be remiss of you to not randomly select because participant characteristics could impact on results in a systematic way.

That's the reason why the results can't be generalised if you have a stratified sample that was not randomly selected. A group could contain a higher proportion of variables that 1) is not representative of the population and 2) could bias the results.

For example, let's say you're conducting a study on how hours of sleep affects exam performance in a Psych class (population). You've stratified your sample into male and female, but since you have not randomly sampled, the males you chose may have studied more than all the males in the class. This could potentially leave you with results that are not really representative of the population and, therefore, they can't be generalised.

Hope that helps!

TooLazy

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Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #329 on: October 02, 2016, 06:01:59 pm »
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Use the following information to answer Question 51-54.
Kim, Lonnie and Vivian are good friends who play together in a Soccer team on Saturday mornings. Their mothers take them each week and while the girls are playing their mothers have a coffee and a chat. They usually complain about having to tidy up after the girls. They decide that they will each use a different strategy to encourage their girls to keep their rooms tidy and report back on which is the most effective after 4 weeks.

Question 51
Kim’s mother decides to use a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement where she
A. gives Kim extra pocket money if her room is tidy when she checks it each week on Sunday.
B. checks the room daily but won’t always give Kim extra pocket money, even if she finds the room
tidy.
C. checks the room daily and rewards Kim at irregular intervals, as long as the room is tidy.
D. checks the room daily and always gives Kim pocket money as long as the room is tidy.

Question 52
Kim’s mother notices a continuing trend with the schedule of reinforcement she has chosen to use.
A. Kim’s room is always clean.
B. Kim’s room is never clean.
C. Kim’s room is cleaned on Saturday night and is dirty again by Tuesday morning.
D. Kim’s room is cleaned on Sunday night and is dirty again by Tuesday morning.

Question 53
Which schedule of reinforcement would be more effective in encouraging Kim to keep her room tidy throughout the week?
A. Continuousreinforcement B. Variable-ratio
C. Fixed-interval
D. Variable-interval.

If someone could take the time to answer these and explain why, it would be very much appreciated :)
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