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July 29, 2021, 01:26:19 pm

Author Topic: VCE Psychology Question Thread!  (Read 292676 times)  Share 

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amanaazim

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1680 on: July 10, 2020, 12:26:49 pm »
0
thanks 1729 and coolmate but wanted to ask coolmate, isn't child 1 and child 2 response of flight  and fight suppose to be the opposite way. Cause how is child 2 flighting the situation if he is happy isn't he fighting the situation.

whys thank you for always helping me appreciate it so much, but since you said the FFF response isn't activated in my mcq options it says

somatic ns
peripheral ns
sympathetic ns
parasympathethic ns

hey i am having trouble with this question.

Discuss two physiological and two psychological stress reactions and clearly outline the difference between these two types of reactions

Mod Edit: merged triple post
« Last Edit: January 10, 2021, 01:52:16 pm by Erutepa »

Evolio

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1681 on: July 10, 2020, 12:54:27 pm »
+6
Hello!

Which specific part were you struggling with? If we know that, then we'll be able to target the areas you're struggling with.

Here, they want you to discuss two aspects of the stress response: physiological and psychological.

You could attribute the physiological (body processes) reactions to what happens when the sympathetic nervous system activates the flight-fight response. Eg: breathing rate increases, allowing more oxygen to be taken in, and transported to the muscles so that energy can be produced through cellular respiration.

Then, since they haven't specified, you could attribute the psychological response (what happens in the brain, including thought processes) to the Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional model. You could say that the individual would appraise the situations (including primary+secondary appraisal) and you could also talk about how they may evaluate their different coping options i.e avoidance and approach coping strategies.
« Last Edit: July 10, 2020, 03:15:24 pm by Evolio »

Coolgalbornin03Lo

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1682 on: July 10, 2020, 10:56:15 pm »
0
HELP HOW TO WRITE HYPOTHESIS/RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS???

So when we are talking about if x blah blah then y...

Is the y what we are measuring or what the experiment is proving overall??? I.e the role of aspirin in preventing an increase in dementia patients symptoms. This was measured through cognitive testing.

Hypothesis 1

It was hypothesised that those who take aspirin everyday will have slower progression of their symptoms than dementia patients who don’t

Hypothesis 2

It was hypothesised those who take aspirin everyday will score higher on their cognitive tests than dementia suffers who didn’t.


The answer was number one. But I think in bio sometimes they’ll take number two (what they are measuring.

P.S I know in bio you don’t put “it was hypothesised”
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whys

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1683 on: July 11, 2020, 10:26:00 am »
+4
whys thank you for always helping me appreciate it so much, but since you said the FFF response isn't activated in my mcq options it says

somatic ns
peripheral ns
sympathetic ns
parasympathethic ns
FFF is activated, you just can't tell which FFF response occurred from the scenario. In this case the answer would be C because the sympathetic nervous system caused the physiological changes in both children.

HELP HOW TO WRITE HYPOTHESIS/RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS???

So when we are talking about if x blah blah then y...

Is the y what we are measuring or what the experiment is proving overall??? I.e the role of aspirin in preventing an increase in dementia patients symptoms. This was measured through cognitive testing.

Hypothesis 1

It was hypothesised that those who take aspirin everyday will have slower progression of their symptoms than dementia patients who don’t

Hypothesis 2

It was hypothesised those who take aspirin everyday will score higher on their cognitive tests than dementia suffers who didn’t.


The answer was number one. But I think in bio sometimes they’ll take number two (what they are measuring.

P.S I know in bio you don’t put “it was hypothesised”
The second hypothesis looks more operationalised, whilst the first is general. In psych, note whether the question mentions an 'operationalised' hypothesis - this is where you precisely describe the IV and DV for the purpose of ensuring accurate replication of the experiment. If it just asks for research hypothesis, generally they will accept both the operationalised or general hypotheses.
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a weaponized ikea chair

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1684 on: July 30, 2020, 11:19:22 am »
+1
Hello,

Which neurotransmitter is responsible for forming new memories and to transfer them to your long-term storage?

I said it was dopamine but then the teacher said it was norepinephrine. Doesn't norepinephrine relieve stress? Can someone please explain this?

whys

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1685 on: July 30, 2020, 02:41:26 pm »
+6
Hello,

Which neurotransmitter is responsible for forming new memories and to transfer them to your long-term storage?

I said it was dopamine but then the teacher said it was norepinephrine. Doesn't norepinephrine relieve stress? Can someone please explain this?
Glutamate promotes the growth and strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons within a neural pathway. The more often glutamate can excite an adjacent neuron, the more it contributes to LTP.

Adrenaline can enhance the consolidation of long-term memories of emotionally arousing experiences. When released during heightened arousal, adrenaline induces the release of noradrenaline in the amygdala. Then, the amygdala signals the hippocampus that the details of the experience are significant and its long-term storage should be strengthened. Memories formed under circumstances of emotional arousal are often vital for survival, e.g. remembering that scary dog that was chasing you, so you can avoid it next time as it poses a threat to your survival. Moderate doses of adrenaline enhance consolidation. Too much or too less adrenaline at the time of memory formation can be counterproductive to the consolidation of memory.

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) is not responsible for forming new memories - glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS that is also involved with learning & memory, so I would assume it is also responsible for the formation of new memories. Norepinephrine is, like 1729 has mentioned, sort of like a regulator that can have an effect on the formation of memories. As for VCE psych, you would not say norepinephrine is the primary neurotransmitter for forming new memories and transferring to LTM - this is much more likely to be glutamate in an exam question.

Noradrenaline doesn't relieve stress, I'm not sure where you got that from? Noradrenaline and adrenaline are released in response to activation of the sympathetic nervous system when confronted with a stressor. They activate visceral muscles, organs and glands and are responsible for physiological changes such as dilated pupils, relaxed bladder, increased heart rate, etc. When the stressor has been eliminated/dealt with, your body will return to homeostasis through the dominance of the parasympathetic nervous system.

You really only need to know about dopamine in terms of Parkinson's disease as a neurotransmitter that controls voluntary muscle movement.
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1729

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1686 on: July 30, 2020, 11:04:16 pm »
+5
I would like to add to whys fantastic and detailed response. As well as my previous response.

I would definitely challenge your teacher to provide some justification for why norepinephrine is the best choice. I would have said acetylcholine because reduced ACh levels are strongly associated with dementia. In addition, most of the architecture of the hippocampus is comprised of glutamatergic neurons. There is not much evidence to suggest that norepinephrine regulates the secretion of glutamate in the hippocampus.

I checked a few of my sources and came across this one quote from an old article (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9882017/):
Quote from: National Library of Medicine
The interaction of cholinergic and noradrenergic pathways has an important role in memory processes (Ayyagari et al., 1991). It is proposed that ACh released from cholinergic axon terminals sets the background, non-synaptic steady-state concentration of NA in the hippocampus via nAChRs. The hypothesis that hippocampal nicotinic receptors may contribute to memory functions was supported by the finding that chronic infusion of nicotine improved the working memory performance of rats in a radialarm maze task. This effect was blocked by the nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine (Levin et al., 1997).

However, if your instructor is arguing that norepinephrine secretion plays a major role in long-term emotional memory formation, I would be inclined to agree. The evidence for that is very strong (e.g., this article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352154616302157?via%3Dihub). All memories, though? Definitely not.

Also, norepinephrine does not relieve stress; rather, it is a major stress inducer! Sympathetic output can be massive and nonspecific, as in the fight-or-flight response, or selective for specific target organs. It has been known for quite some time (since the early 1970s, at least) that glutamate, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels in the brain elevate in patients who develop anxiety and other stress responses.

Norepinephrine is also modulator if memory. Yes it does relieve stress but because it can also regulate synaptic mechanisms. Depending on your emotional state outside of just relieving stress it can also be responsible for the enhancement of memory. Being in a less stressed state does stabilize your anxiety and enhance memory. So it’s kind of like cause and effect.

However. Both, Dopamine and Norepinephrine are similar with slight difference so I would assume dopamine was wrong because your teacher felt norepinephrine was simply the better answer. In my opinion your answer should be valid and correct I recall reading a few articles comparing the two as they are similar. It might be because dopamine focuses more on working memory and increasing activity while norepinephrine actually improves the memory.

EDIT: Merged The 2 Responses
« Last Edit: July 31, 2020, 09:24:40 am by 1729 »

Bri MT

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1687 on: July 31, 2020, 08:19:07 am »
+6

Just adding to the above two responses to agree that in VCE psychology when you talk about noradrenaline's role in memory it's about signalling for enhanced/strengthened consolidation rather than noradrenaline actually doing the consolidating.

Whys' response in particular demonstrates again strong familiarity with the study design.
Thanks 1729 as well for your 2nd reply

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1688 on: August 13, 2020, 01:26:08 pm »
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next year i will be in year 11 and am going to do Units 3&4 Psychology without Units 1&2. What stuff should i read up on before hand to catch up a little bit, and what kind of stuff is the most important to know??

Bri MT

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1689 on: August 13, 2020, 01:46:25 pm »
+5
next year i will be in year 11 and am going to do Units 3&4 Psychology without Units 1&2. What stuff should i read up on before hand to catch up a little bit, and what kind of stuff is the most important to know??

Hey!

Welcome to the forums :)

Above all definitely don't stress - psych is a relatively easy subject to pick up. Second of all, I've made a list here which goes lists that info. Definitely prioritise research methods.

Please feel free to ask any follow up questions etc. :)

tigerclouds

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1690 on: August 20, 2020, 05:59:50 pm »
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Hi guys,
Can anyone help me with the following questions I have about U4 AOS1?
1. Why is it said that the sleep-wake cycle shift is moved forwards during adolescence if there is a delay in the secretion of melatonin? Shouldn't it be pushed backwards? The meaning of the word forward is confusing me because later on, when my book explains bright light therapy, it says that shifting the phase forward helps the circadian rhythm advance to an earlier time (not later as implied before)

2.  How does hypnosis help people increase self-control (eg: to quit smoking)? Aren't they more susceptible to suggestion and control by others in this state?

3. Why is it that with jet lag, when we follow the apparent pathway of the sun (travelling west) the effects are less severe? I understand that it relates to our naturally-occurring 25hr biological clock but I don't fully understand how the sun plays a role here.

4. Also, why is it better for people who do shift work to have longer periods on each shift before rotating to the next one? The book says it enables them to have a longer period off between one shift rotation and the next but I don't get that!

« Last Edit: August 20, 2020, 06:23:23 pm by tigerclouds »

Evolio

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1691 on: August 20, 2020, 06:28:31 pm »
+4
Hello.

1. Yeah, the sleep-wake cycle should be pushed backwards, rather than forwards. Due to the delayed release of melatonin, the adolescent would feel more sleepier later, and thus sleep later, and wake up later. This means that the sleep-wake cycle is delayed as their falling asleep and waking up times are shifted later. Basically, with bright light therapy, you would want to expose the individual to light (from the light box) earlier in the day, such as in the early morning, so that they are more likely to feel sleepier earlier. This is because they have been awake for longer (I'm not 100% sure on this point), and so their sleep-wake cycle would be shifted forward (or advanced), making them sleep earlier.

2. They are susceptible to suggestions but as a result of them being more likely to follow the suggestions, they are more likely to stop bad habits . For instance, if someone has a bad smoking habit, since hypnosis makes them more likely to follow suggestions, they are more likely to follow the suggestion to quit smoking (or any other bad habit for that matter).

3. When we travel in a westerly direction, we are following the pathway of the sun. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west, and so when we travel in a westerly direction, we are following the pathway of the sun, meaning that when we land in the destination, it is easier for us to adapt our sleep-wake cycle to the day-night cycle of the time zone.

4. Yeah, I was confused about this as well. Basically, if there is a longer period off between the different shifts, the individual has more time to adapt their sleep-wake cycle to the required work shift schedule. That is, it would be much better to have more time off between shifts, rather than quickly shifting from an afternoon shift to an evening one where there is no time for the individual to adapt their sleep-wake cycle to the desired shift. Hopefully this helps.

Hope this helps!
« Last Edit: August 20, 2020, 06:38:08 pm by Evolio »

tigerclouds

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1692 on: August 20, 2020, 08:21:43 pm »
0
Thank you so much for your reply, I really appreciate it!

1. See your explanation makes sense so I don't know why the term 'forwards' is being used for the sleep-wake cycle shift in adolescence. Surely the book isn't wrong?

2. Ohhhh that makes sense!

3. Does that mean that if we leave a place when it's daytime and we travel west, we'll arrive at the destination when it's still daytime so it's almost like we froze time and so our sleep-wake cycle isn't too affected whereas the change from day to night would be more abrupt travelling east so has greater effects? Sorry, I still don't fully understand this.

4. That makes sense and that's the explanation the book gives but I think the book is implying that the shift itself is longer so I don't get how those two relate?

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1693 on: August 20, 2020, 08:32:03 pm »
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Hi everyone,
I'm currently in Year 9, going to study Year 10 Unit 1&2 Psychology next year and was wondering if there was any advice that people who have recently done Psych can enlighten me with. I plan to spend my school holidays at the end of the year focusing on going over the curriculum and starting my notes. Also is there a specific practice exam site that someone found the most helpful in regards to their exams?
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Evolio

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1694 on: August 20, 2020, 10:04:18 pm »
+5
Thank you so much for your reply, I really appreciate it!

1. See your explanation makes sense so I don't know why the term 'forwards' is being used for the sleep-wake cycle shift in adolescence. Surely the book isn't wrong?

2. Ohhhh that makes sense!

3. Does that mean that if we leave a place when it's daytime and we travel west, we'll arrive at the destination when it's still daytime so it's almost like we froze time and so our sleep-wake cycle isn't too affected whereas the change from day to night would be more abrupt travelling east so has greater effects? Sorry, I still don't fully understand this.

4. That makes sense and that's the explanation the book gives but I think the book is implying that the shift itself is longer so I don't get how those two relate?


1. Hmm, yeah, I'm not completely sure why they used forwards.

3. I think it's more to do with the day being lengthened which is in accordance with our body's inclination to shift toward a longer 25-hour day or sleep-wake cycle since our sleep-wake cycle is being lengthened when we travel westerly. We sort of have more time to adjust to the day-night cycle in the new time-zone, thus making it easier to adjust. However, if we travel in an easterly direction, our day is becoming shortened as well as our sleep-wake cycle, where this is the opposite to our body's natural inclination to move toward a longer 25 hour day. When you say it was daytime at the destination and so when we arrive, it'll be daytime, that's not necessarily true. For example, London (in the west) is 9 hours behind Melbourne time. So, if we left Melbourne at 8 am and landed in London at 7 am the next day (Melb time), that would be 10 pm the same day we left Melbourne which is not daytime.

4. I'm not 100% sure about why the shift duration being longer would be better. If I've figured it out, I'll let you know though.

Hi everyone,
I'm currently in Year 9, going to study Year 10 Unit 1&2 Psychology next year and was wondering if there was any advice that people who have recently done Psych can enlighten me with. I plan to spend my school holidays at the end of the year focusing on going over the curriculum and starting my notes. Also is there a specific practice exam site that someone found the most helpful in regards to their exams?
Hello.
I personally didn't prepare going into 1 2 Psych but I think it would be useful to go through research methods as it's an important part of both 1 2 and 3 4 and it'd be good to have a deep understanding of the key principles involved.
In terms of sites/resources https://epsychvce.com/ has tests that you can do to test your understanding. Also, I'm not sure which textbook you'll be using, but if you're using the Jacaranda textbook, there's an online platform where they have heaps of questions/exams you can complete for extra practice.