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August 15, 2020, 06:27:30 pm

Author Topic: VCE Psychology Question Thread!  (Read 215911 times)  Share 

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whys

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1680 on: July 09, 2020, 09:04:02 pm »
+6
There are some great answers above me, but I'd like to clarify a few things.

Firstly, the fact that one child is clinging to their mother and is feeling apprehensive and the other is excited and enthusiastic is not an example of the fight and flight response (it is more an example of the aftereffect). The fight-flight-freeze response is involuntary and automatic, and occurs regardless of the individual's appraisal of the situation. For a question like this, I don't think we can conclude if the child is fighting, fleeing or freezing because we are only told of their voluntary behaviours and how they are feeling. We can only conclude that they have experienced the FFF response and the effects of the sympathetic nervous system.

Another thing to be aware of is that the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems aren't turned 'on' or 'off'. They are both always active. What does occur is that one asserts dominance over the other during certain periods of time. The sympathetic nervous system isn't always activated by a threat (it would be technically incorrect to say this), it is activated by any stimulus the individual appraises as stressful. As you are aware, the stressor may induce distress or eustress and this can determine how the individual feels about it.
« Last Edit: July 09, 2020, 09:07:54 pm by whys »

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1681 on: July 09, 2020, 09:30:43 pm »
+6

I don't do VCE Psychology, but I will try and help with your question. :)



Still amazes me that HSC doesn't have psych. Whys has addressed the points where your answer doesn't work but thanks for giving it a go regardless.

amanaazim

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1682 on: July 10, 2020, 12:26:49 pm »
0
thanks 1729 and coolmate but wanted to ask coolmate, isn't child 1 and child 2 response of flight  and fight suppose to be the opposite way. Cause how is child 2 flighting the situation if he is happy isn't he fighting the situation.

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1683 on: July 10, 2020, 12:31:54 pm »
0
whys thank you for always helping me appreciate it so much, but since you said the FFF response isn't activated in my mcq options it says

somatic ns
peripheral ns
sympathetic ns
parasympathethic ns

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1684 on: July 10, 2020, 12:42:06 pm »
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hey i am having trouble with this question.

Discuss two physiological and two psychological stress reactions and clearly outline the difference between these two types of reactions

Evolio

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1685 on: July 10, 2020, 12:54:27 pm »
+6
Hello!

Which specific part were you struggling with? If we know that, then we'll be able to target the areas you're struggling with.

Here, they want you to discuss two aspects of the stress response: physiological and psychological.

You could attribute the physiological (body processes) reactions to what happens when the sympathetic nervous system activates the flight-fight response. Eg: breathing rate increases, allowing more oxygen to be taken in, and transported to the muscles so that energy can be produced through cellular respiration.

Then, since they haven't specified, you could attribute the psychological response (what happens in the brain, including thought processes) to the Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional model. You could say that the individual would appraise the situations (including primary+secondary appraisal) and you could also talk about how they may evaluate their different coping options i.e avoidance and approach coping strategies.
« Last Edit: July 10, 2020, 03:15:24 pm by Evolio »
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Coolgalbornin03Lo

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1686 on: July 10, 2020, 10:56:15 pm »
0
HELP HOW TO WRITE HYPOTHESIS/RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS???

So when we are talking about if x blah blah then y...

Is the y what we are measuring or what the experiment is proving overall??? I.e the role of aspirin in preventing an increase in dementia patients symptoms. This was measured through cognitive testing.

Hypothesis 1

It was hypothesised that those who take aspirin everyday will have slower progression of their symptoms than dementia patients who don’t

Hypothesis 2

It was hypothesised those who take aspirin everyday will score higher on their cognitive tests than dementia suffers who didn’t.


The answer was number one. But I think in bio sometimes they’ll take number two (what they are measuring.

P.S I know in bio you don’t put “it was hypothesised”
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whys

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1687 on: July 11, 2020, 10:26:00 am »
+4
whys thank you for always helping me appreciate it so much, but since you said the FFF response isn't activated in my mcq options it says

somatic ns
peripheral ns
sympathetic ns
parasympathethic ns
FFF is activated, you just can't tell which FFF response occurred from the scenario. In this case the answer would be C because the sympathetic nervous system caused the physiological changes in both children.

HELP HOW TO WRITE HYPOTHESIS/RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS???

So when we are talking about if x blah blah then y...

Is the y what we are measuring or what the experiment is proving overall??? I.e the role of aspirin in preventing an increase in dementia patients symptoms. This was measured through cognitive testing.

Hypothesis 1

It was hypothesised that those who take aspirin everyday will have slower progression of their symptoms than dementia patients who don’t

Hypothesis 2

It was hypothesised those who take aspirin everyday will score higher on their cognitive tests than dementia suffers who didn’t.


The answer was number one. But I think in bio sometimes they’ll take number two (what they are measuring.

P.S I know in bio you don’t put “it was hypothesised”
The second hypothesis looks more operationalised, whilst the first is general. In psych, note whether the question mentions an 'operationalised' hypothesis - this is where you precisely describe the IV and DV for the purpose of ensuring accurate replication of the experiment. If it just asks for research hypothesis, generally they will accept both the operationalised or general hypotheses.

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1688 on: July 30, 2020, 11:19:22 am »
+1
Hello,

Which neurotransmitter is responsible for forming new memories and to transfer them to your long-term storage?

I said it was dopamine but then the teacher said it was norepinephrine. Doesn't norepinephrine relieve stress? Can someone please explain this?
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whys

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1689 on: July 30, 2020, 02:41:26 pm »
+6
Hello,

Which neurotransmitter is responsible for forming new memories and to transfer them to your long-term storage?

I said it was dopamine but then the teacher said it was norepinephrine. Doesn't norepinephrine relieve stress? Can someone please explain this?
Glutamate promotes the growth and strengthening of synaptic connections between neurons within a neural pathway. The more often glutamate can excite an adjacent neuron, the more it contributes to LTP.

Adrenaline can enhance the consolidation of long-term memories of emotionally arousing experiences. When released during heightened arousal, adrenaline induces the release of noradrenaline in the amygdala. Then, the amygdala signals the hippocampus that the details of the experience are significant and its long-term storage should be strengthened. Memories formed under circumstances of emotional arousal are often vital for survival, e.g. remembering that scary dog that was chasing you, so you can avoid it next time as it poses a threat to your survival. Moderate doses of adrenaline enhance consolidation. Too much or too less adrenaline at the time of memory formation can be counterproductive to the consolidation of memory.

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) is not responsible for forming new memories - glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS that is also involved with learning & memory, so I would assume it is also responsible for the formation of new memories. Norepinephrine is, like 1729 has mentioned, sort of like a regulator that can have an effect on the formation of memories. As for VCE psych, you would not say norepinephrine is the primary neurotransmitter for forming new memories and transferring to LTM - this is much more likely to be glutamate in an exam question.

Noradrenaline doesn't relieve stress, I'm not sure where you got that from? Noradrenaline and adrenaline are released in response to activation of the sympathetic nervous system when confronted with a stressor. They activate visceral muscles, organs and glands and are responsible for physiological changes such as dilated pupils, relaxed bladder, increased heart rate, etc. When the stressor has been eliminated/dealt with, your body will return to homeostasis through the dominance of the parasympathetic nervous system.

You really only need to know about dopamine in terms of Parkinson's disease as a neurotransmitter that controls voluntary muscle movement.

1729

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1690 on: July 30, 2020, 11:04:16 pm »
+5
I would like to add to whys fantastic and detailed response. As well as my previous response.

I would definitely challenge your teacher to provide some justification for why norepinephrine is the best choice. I would have said acetylcholine because reduced ACh levels are strongly associated with dementia. In addition, most of the architecture of the hippocampus is comprised of glutamatergic neurons. There is not much evidence to suggest that norepinephrine regulates the secretion of glutamate in the hippocampus.

I checked a few of my sources and came across this one quote from an old article (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9882017/):
Quote from: National Library of Medicine
The interaction of cholinergic and noradrenergic pathways has an important role in memory processes (Ayyagari et al., 1991). It is proposed that ACh released from cholinergic axon terminals sets the background, non-synaptic steady-state concentration of NA in the hippocampus via nAChRs. The hypothesis that hippocampal nicotinic receptors may contribute to memory functions was supported by the finding that chronic infusion of nicotine improved the working memory performance of rats in a radialarm maze task. This effect was blocked by the nicotinic antagonist, mecamylamine (Levin et al., 1997).

However, if your instructor is arguing that norepinephrine secretion plays a major role in long-term emotional memory formation, I would be inclined to agree. The evidence for that is very strong (e.g., this article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352154616302157?via%3Dihub). All memories, though? Definitely not.

Also, norepinephrine does not relieve stress; rather, it is a major stress inducer! Sympathetic output can be massive and nonspecific, as in the fight-or-flight response, or selective for specific target organs. It has been known for quite some time (since the early 1970s, at least) that glutamate, norepinephrine, and epinephrine levels in the brain elevate in patients who develop anxiety and other stress responses.

Norepinephrine is also modulator if memory. Yes it does relieve stress but because it can also regulate synaptic mechanisms. Depending on your emotional state outside of just relieving stress it can also be responsible for the enhancement of memory. Being in a less stressed state does stabilize your anxiety and enhance memory. So it’s kind of like cause and effect.

However. Both, Dopamine and Norepinephrine are similar with slight difference so I would assume dopamine was wrong because your teacher felt norepinephrine was simply the better answer. In my opinion your answer should be valid and correct I recall reading a few articles comparing the two as they are similar. It might be because dopamine focuses more on working memory and increasing activity while norepinephrine actually improves the memory.

EDIT: Merged The 2 Responses
« Last Edit: July 31, 2020, 09:24:40 am by 1729 »
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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1691 on: July 31, 2020, 08:19:07 am »
+5

Just adding to the above two responses to agree that in VCE psychology when you talk about noradrenaline's role in memory it's about signalling for enhanced/strengthened consolidation rather than noradrenaline actually doing the consolidating.

Whys' response in particular demonstrates again strong familiarity with the study design.
Thanks 1729 as well for your 2nd reply

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1692 on: August 13, 2020, 01:26:08 pm »
0
next year i will be in year 11 and am going to do Units 3&4 Psychology without Units 1&2. What stuff should i read up on before hand to catch up a little bit, and what kind of stuff is the most important to know??

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Re: VCE Psychology Question Thread!
« Reply #1693 on: August 13, 2020, 01:46:25 pm »
+4
next year i will be in year 11 and am going to do Units 3&4 Psychology without Units 1&2. What stuff should i read up on before hand to catch up a little bit, and what kind of stuff is the most important to know??

Hey!

Welcome to the forums :)

Above all definitely don't stress - psych is a relatively easy subject to pick up. Second of all, I've made a list here which goes lists that info. Definitely prioritise research methods.

Please feel free to ask any follow up questions etc. :)