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October 14, 2019, 04:51:16 pm

Author Topic: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!  (Read 154924 times)  Share 

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whys

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1515 on: September 15, 2019, 08:20:25 pm »
+3
What is the difference between a 'specific environment trigger' and being classically conditioned? for e.g. a person being chased and bitten by a large dog, and after this experience having a phobia of dogs. This is a specific environmental trigger but is it not technically classically conditioning them to associate the dog with fear. Just wondering about the distinction between the two. idk.
Thanks !

Quoted from the textbook: "Often, an initial fear response to a specific environmental trigger becomes a conditioned fear response through classical conditioning processes and is produced whenever the stimulus (or a generalised version) is subsequently encountered."

Classical conditioning is the term used to describe the learning that occurs through multiple associations of the phobic stimulus and another fear-inducing stimulus to produce fear (or just one association if the experience is traumatic enough). Specific environmental triggers refer to the actual stimuli that cause a fear response, whereas classical conditioning is the process through which the phobia is precipitated.

In your example, the traumatic experience with the dog could be the specific environmental trigger. However, associating dogs with this fear-inducing experience is classical conditioning.

Classical conditioning - originally, the NS produces no or irrelevant response. Only with learning does the NS become the CS and produce the fear response. If we were to relate this to classical conditioning, the specific environmental trigger would be akin to the UCS. I hope this made sense! Here is the drawn-out version:

Before conditioning
NS (dogs) ---> no or irrelevant response
UCS (being chased and bitten by a dog) ---> UCR (fear response due to being chased and bitten by a dog)

During conditioning
NS + UCS ---> UCR
Repeated associations between the NS and UCS produce the UCR (fear response due to being chased and bitten by a dog)

After conditioning
CS (dogs) ---> CR (fear response due to dogs)

The specific environmental trigger in this case would be being chased and bitten by a dog.

Another quote from the textbook: "For example, a single experience of being bitten by a dog might be sufficient to produce and maintain a dog phobia even if the person is never bitten again, whereas barking might not lead to a dog phobia until after a number of subsequent exposures to a barking dog. People who develop a phobia after a single traumatic encounter with a phobic stimulus (i.e. a specific environmental trigger) are usually able to identify that particular traumatic event as causing their phobia."

In a sac or exam question, there will be explicit hints as to whether they want you to talk about specific environmental triggers or classical conditioning in your answer. If they mention something like 'the process that precipitated x's phobia' they are hinting at classical conditioning. If it's more like 'identify the factor that contributed to x's phobia' it would be hinting at specific environmental triggers. Keep in mind classical conditioning is a psychological risk factor, whereas specific environmental triggers are a social risk factor, while both are precipitating.

EDIT: Looks like Erutepa bet me to it ;)
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cfalzon

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1516 on: October 03, 2019, 12:23:38 pm »
0
Hey guys!

I've been going over research methods and feel that I still don't have a great grasp of conclusions and generalisations. My question is: what are some factors that prevent a conclusion or generalisation being drawn?

What I know so far when drawing a generalisation:
-No ethical guidelines must have been breached
-There should be no major extraneous variables in the experiment
-Convenience sampling must not have been used
-A very small sample size shouldn't have been used

What I know so far when drawing a conclusion:
-Results must be statistically significant

Can anyone please provide some insight? Thank you! :)

Matthew_Whelan

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1517 on: October 03, 2019, 12:41:32 pm »
+1
Hey guys!

I've been going over research methods and feel that I still don't have a great grasp of conclusions and generalisations. My question is: what are some factors that prevent a conclusion or generalisation being drawn?

What I know so far when drawing a generalisation:
-No ethical guidelines must have been breached
-There should be no major extraneous variables in the experiment
-Convenience sampling must not have been used
-A very small sample size shouldn't have been used

What I know so far when drawing a conclusion:
-Results must be statistically significant

Can anyone please provide some insight? Thank you! :)

Just a few things.

The experiment must be valid for the conclusion to be valid, therefore, a significant relationship between the independent and dependent variable is demonstrated.
The results need to be reproducible, this accounts for systematic errors and incorrect experimental design, if the results can be produced by other researchers then the results are considered reliable. Factors that compromise the reliability of the results include; inaccuracy of measurement, precision, methods of selection (double blind procedure for example) and extraneous variables that are not accounted for.

Hence, a conclusion can be drawn from the results if the experiment meets these requirements. If there is a confounding variable (a variable other than the IV/DV that changes during the experiment) then the conclusion cannot be drawn.
A generalisation can usually be made if the sample used is representative of the population, this includes the size of and sampling method of the sample.
Also, a breach in ethical guidelines does not necessarily compromise the conclusion drawn, but it does affect the credibility of the experiment as it would not be reproducible.
« Last Edit: October 03, 2019, 12:47:55 pm by Matthew_Whelan »
2018: Psychology
2019: English, Methods, Chemistry, Biology, Physics

cfalzon

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1518 on: October 03, 2019, 12:50:46 pm »
0
Just a few things.

The experiment must be valid for the conclusion to be valid, therefore, a significant relationship between the independent and dependent variable is demonstrated.
The results need to be reproducible, this accounts for systematic errors and incorrect experimental design, if the results can be produced by other researchers then the results are considered reliable. Factors that compromise the reliability of the results include; inaccuracy of measurement, precision, methods of selection (double blind procedure for example) and extraneous variables that are not accounted for.

Hence, a conclusion can be drawn from the results if the experiment meets these requirements. If there is a confounding variable (a variable other than the IV/DV that changes during the experiment) then the conclusion cannot be drawn.
A generalisation can usually be made if the sample used is representative of the population, this includes the size of and sampling method of the sample.
Also, a breach in ethical guidelines does not necessarily compromise the conclusion drawn, but it does affect the credibility of the experiment as it would not be reproducible.

Thanks so much! This is super helpful :)

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1519 on: October 04, 2019, 01:30:13 pm »
0
Hey everyone,
Another question from me!

I was doing a practice exam and came across this question:
For an upcoming 20-year school reunion, Georgia was trying to remember the twenty-three other students that were in her Year 12 homeroom. She was initially surprised that she could only remember the names of five students. She then looked at a photo of the year level and was able to recall the names of eighteen students.

In terms of methods of retrieval, explain why Georgia can remember more names when looking at the photo of the year level.


I looked at the answers and it says that Georgia can remember more names because she's using recognition which is a more sensitive measure of retention than recall. However, I thought in this case Georgia was using cued recall. From my understanding, recognition involves identifying the correct information from a set of alternatives. Recognition would be like Georgia looking at a photo of the whole year and circling those in her homeroom. I thought in this case she was using cued recall because the photo acts as a retrieval aid.

Am I correct?

whys

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1520 on: October 04, 2019, 01:40:34 pm »
+1
Hey everyone,
Another question from me!

I was doing a practice exam and came across this question:
For an upcoming 20-year school reunion, Georgia was trying to remember the twenty-three other students that were in her Year 12 homeroom. She was initially surprised that she could only remember the names of five students. She then looked at a photo of the year level and was able to recall the names of eighteen students.

In terms of methods of retrieval, explain why Georgia can remember more names when looking at the photo of the year level.


I looked at the answers and it says that Georgia can remember more names because she's using recognition which is a more sensitive measure of retention than recall. However, I thought in this case Georgia was using cued recall. From my understanding, recognition involves identifying the correct information from a set of alternatives. Recognition would be like Georgia looking at a photo of the whole year and circling those in her homeroom. I thought in this case she was using cued recall because the photo acts as a retrieval aid.

Am I correct?

At first glance, I also thought you were correct. But remember that this reunion is just with her year 12 homeroom, not her whole year level. She was given a picture of the whole year level, so when she looked at the picture of her whole year level, she was able to identify who was in her homeroom. Just a sneaky wording of the question, I guess.

EDIT; the answer guide for the practice exam is correct, as she used recognition the second time.
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cfalzon

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1521 on: October 04, 2019, 01:44:58 pm »
0
At first glance, I also thought you were correct. But remember that this reunion is just with her year 12 homeroom, not her whole year level. She was given a picture of the whole year level, so when she looked at the picture of her whole year level, she was able to identify who was in her homeroom. Just a sneaky wording of the question, I guess.

EDIT; the answer guide for the practice exam is correct, as she used recognition the second time.

Ah ok I see that I misread the question! Thanks for bringing that to my attention :)

prag.ahmad

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1522 on: October 07, 2019, 08:53:19 pm »
0
can anyone give an indication of what exam score to aim for for a 35 study score? I'm in a weak cohort (~250 in the state) and ranked above average. thanks!! xx
2019: Psychology [ ]
2020: Legal Studies [ ] Accounting [ ]
2021: Philosophy [ ] Methods [ ] English [ ]

Ionic Doc

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1523 on: October 08, 2019, 08:48:38 am »
0
Hey

https://twmpublications.com/statistics

Use that website, be mindful it doesn't include SAC rankings and scores.

Last year you needed around 75% for a 35 study score
class of 2020
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2020 -   English - Chemistry - Biology - Methods - Further

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1524 on: October 11, 2019, 03:17:50 pm »
0
Hey everyone!
Can someone please help me out by explaining the concept of 'reconstruction' in the below dot point:

Reliability of memory
•methods to retrieve information from memory or demonstrate the existence of information in memory, including
recall, recognition, relearning and reconstruction

Edrolo says it's 'rearranging the parts of an original task into sequence or order', but every other resource describes it in terms of filling in gaps in a memory based on past experience, etc. to form a complete memory.

Help please! :)

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1525 on: October 11, 2019, 03:36:15 pm »
+3
Hey everyone!
Can someone please help me out by explaining the concept of 'reconstruction' in the below dot point:

Reliability of memory
•methods to retrieve information from memory or demonstrate the existence of information in memory, including
recall, recognition, relearning and reconstruction

Edrolo says it's 'rearranging the parts of an original task into sequence or order', but every other resource describes it in terms of filling in gaps in a memory based on past experience, etc. to form a complete memory.

Help please! :)
I would say what edrolo has said is more part of the process, but not a definition as such whereas what the other sources have said better summarises the process of memory reconstruction.
In order to reconstruct a memory it needs to be first pieced together from elements of that memory stored throughout the brain. This seems to be what you've said edrolo is saying, but the real process of memory reconstruction is the filling in of the incomplete memory as influenced by personal experience and expectations and what not.
You will mostly be asked this within the context of memories of events being altered over time or within the context of leading questions on memory.
Hopefully this clarifies things.
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whys

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1526 on: October 11, 2019, 06:41:17 pm »
0
Hey everyone!
Can someone please help me out by explaining the concept of 'reconstruction' in the below dot point:

Reliability of memory
•methods to retrieve information from memory or demonstrate the existence of information in memory, including
recall, recognition, relearning and reconstruction

Edrolo says it's 'rearranging the parts of an original task into sequence or order', but every other resource describes it in terms of filling in gaps in a memory based on past experience, etc. to form a complete memory.

Help please! :)

I'd like to add what I think onto this too! There are two definitions, or explanations, of reconstruction.
1. method to retrieve information
2. as described by Loftus.

The first definition, which is referred to in the study design dot point above that you've pasted, involves breaking up the original task and rearranging the parts into sequence or order. For example, if I break apart a doll into its head, body, arms and legs, reconstruction would involve you putting the pieces back together to form what you think the doll originally looked like. This is what edrolo is referring to.
From my memory, there hasn't been any questions that have required you to have knowledge of the above definition (for VCAA), however as it is mentioned in the study design, it is good to know. I personally haven't learnt this in class, although my psych teacher is a literal god, so it probably means it's near irrelevant but it is good to know anyways. It's better to be safe than sorry on the exam.

The second definition is as described by Elizabeth Loftus, who did work into the reconstruction of memory, as you've probably already learnt. This is highlighted in this dot point in the study design:

"The reconstruction of memories as evidence for the fallibility of memory, with reference to Loftus’ research into the effect of leading questions on eye-witness testimonies."

So, as you can see, the study design refers to reconstruction in two different parts of the study design. VCAA loves to test students on Loftus' reconstruction. Reconstruction involves combining stored information with other available information to form what is believed to be a more coherent or accurate memory.

If you aren't sure which type of reconstruction to use to answer the question, I would almost always go for the second one because this is most commonly tested. However, it won't be difficult to discern which one to use. If the question references Loftus' research or refers to eyewitness testimony, reconstructive nature of memory, etc, then you'd use the second one. I have yet to come across a question that wants you to use the first definition of reconstruction.

This is what I think, and I hope it helps :)
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Erutepa

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1527 on: October 11, 2019, 07:12:24 pm »
+1
I'd like to add what I think onto this too! There are two definitions, or explanations, of reconstruction.
1. method to retrieve information
2. as described by Loftus.

The first definition, which is referred to in the study design dot point above that you've pasted, involves breaking up the original task and rearranging the parts into sequence or order. For example, if I break apart a doll into its head, body, arms and legs, reconstruction would involve you putting the pieces back together to form what you think the doll originally looked like. This is what edrolo is referring to.
From my memory, there hasn't been any questions that have required you to have knowledge of the above definition (for VCAA), however as it is mentioned in the study design, it is good to know. I personally haven't learnt this in class, although my psych teacher is a literal god, so it probably means it's near irrelevant but it is good to know anyways. It's better to be safe than sorry on the exam.

The second definition is as described by Elizabeth Loftus, who did work into the reconstruction of memory, as you've probably already learnt. This is highlighted in this dot point in the study design:

"The reconstruction of memories as evidence for the fallibility of memory, with reference to Loftus’ research into the effect of leading questions on eye-witness testimonies."

So, as you can see, the study design refers to reconstruction in two different parts of the study design. VCAA loves to test students on Loftus' reconstruction. Reconstruction involves combining stored information with other available information to form what is believed to be a more coherent or accurate memory.

If you aren't sure which type of reconstruction to use to answer the question, I would almost always go for the second one because this is most commonly tested. However, it won't be difficult to discern which one to use. If the question references Loftus' research or refers to eyewitness testimony, reconstructive nature of memory, etc, then you'd use the second one. I have yet to come across a question that wants you to use the first definition of reconstruction.

This is what I think, and I hope it helps :)
While I may be wrong, I do think it best not to think about Elizabeth Loftus' findings of memory reconstruction as different to 'normal' memory reconstruction.
How I think you should think about it (and how I interpret the study design) is the memory reconstruction is the process by which memory is retrieved and pieced together with any 'gaps' in memory being 'filled in' based off the individual's expectation of how the memory should be. Often this works effectively to reconstruct (mostly) accurate memories, however, Elizabeth Loftus' research shows us that this can sometimes be influenced by factors that render the reconstructed memory false. Specifically, she found that leading questions shaped peoples expectations of what the memory should be, ultimately shaping the reconstructed memory.

Hopefully, my point is understandable. I mean to say that memory reconstruction should be considered as one concept, where Elizabeth loftus' findings fit within this theory and explain how the memory reconstructive process leads to false memories. Also, note for those reading this that what I have said here is a general overview of what I think you should know and by no means all that you should know - I recommend reading a bit more in-depth for that - but hopefully this can help sort out the ideas in your head.
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whys

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1528 on: October 11, 2019, 07:16:53 pm »
0
While I may be wrong, I do think it best not to think about Elizabeth Loftus' findings of memory reconstruction as different to 'normal' memory reconstruction.
How I think you should think about it (and how I interpret the study design) is the memory reconstruction is the process by which memory is retrieved and pieced together with any 'gaps' in memory being 'filled in' based off the individual's expectation of how the memory should be. Often this works effectively to reconstruct (mostly) accurate memories, however, Elizabeth Loftus' research shows us that this can sometimes be influenced by factors that render the reconstructed memory false. Specifically, she found that leading questions shaped peoples expectations of what the memory should be, ultimately shaping the reconstructed memory.

Hopefully, my point is understandable. I mean to say that memory reconstruction should be considered as one concept, where Elizabeth loftus' findings fit within this theory and explain how the memory reconstructive process leads to false memories. Also, note for those reading this that what I have said here is a general overview of what I think you should know and by no means all that you should know - I recommend reading a bit more in-depth for that - but hopefully this can help sort out the ideas in your head.

Ahhh I see I see...
So Loftus' findings prove that memory is reconstructive and further add to the original idea of it.
How would I explain reconstruction as a method of retrieval? And how sensitive of a measure is it compared to recall, recognition and relearning??

Alsooo I have a question: which one is more sensitive: free or serial recall, and why? I've known free recall to have the least sensitivity out of all the types of recall, however I've never known why serial recall has better sensitivity.
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Erutepa

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Re: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
« Reply #1529 on: October 11, 2019, 07:43:50 pm »
0
Ahhh I see I see...
So Loftus' findings prove that memory is reconstructive and further add to the original idea of it.
How would I explain reconstruction as a method of retrieval? And how sensitive of a measure is it compared to recall, recognition and relearning??

Alsooo I have a question: which one is more sensitive: free or serial recall, and why? I've known free recall to have the least sensitivity out of all the types of recall, however I've never known why serial recall has better sensitivity.
I think the way you've put it is perfect!
while the study design dot points are separate, its important to link ideas together because (as I have heard from teachers and lectures time and time again) questions are becoming more holistic in the sense that they are wanting you to combine the knowledge.

While the study design does call it a "method of retrieval" I have never seen it talked about with reference to sensitivity. It is certainly a process by which we retrieve information, but it isn't talked about in the same way that recall, recognition and relearning are and the questions from exams (that I've seen at least) reflect this. You won't be asked how sensitive reconstruction is, pretty much all questions just want to describe how a memory may be reconstructed (and usually) falsely.

In regards to the sensitivity of different recall methods, I always thought that you just needed to know that recall was the least sensitive, followed by recognition with relearning as the most sensitive. I am not sure about the sensitivity of serial recall vs. free recall - I did a quick search and found a few times this same question was asked and there are conflicting opinions.
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