August 08, 2020, 06:37:23 pm

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#### Bri MT

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12720 on: July 02, 2020, 07:55:33 pm »
+9
Does non random mating introduce variation into a population

I think this is a very broad question which is hard to give a quick answer to but my short answer is: probably not in general since you said "introduce"

Heads up going that I'm going well and truly outside the study design here:

One aspect of genetic variation is heterozygosity which is influenced by non-random mating but in this case you'd already have heterozygosity present (just at a different level) under random mating (e.g. under HW equilibrium) - it wouldn't be introduced by it.

There is the argument that that outbreeding or disassortative mating would increase allelic diversity (which is positively correlated with heterozygosity) by increasing probability of reproduction with organisms from other populations. Imo, this would only introduce variation if you had an organism leaving, mating in another population with unique alleles, then producing offspring back in the original population.

Others have alluded above that assortative mating or inbreeding (these are different but similar terms) would decrease genetic diversity whereas the opposites would increase it. This is true but may not be reflected in all measures of genetic diversity and is also influenced by metapopulation dynamics. For example, if looking at Wright's F statistics $F_{IS}$ reflects how random mating is whereas $F_{ST}$ reflects variation between subpopulations & if looking at an isolated population with no dispersal things will be different than if looking at a stepping stone type metapopulation structure.

#### Chocolatepistachio

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12721 on: July 02, 2020, 10:47:00 pm »
+1
How are homologous chromosomes randomly assorted into the two daughter cells resulting from meiosis 1

#### 1729

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12722 on: July 03, 2020, 09:45:20 am »
+6
How are homologous chromosomes randomly assorted into the two daughter cells resulting from meiosis 1
Thats what recombination is:
---A---B---C---
---a---b---c---
Imagine this arrangement of alleles recombination would do this:
---a---B---C---
---A---b---c---
This could happen to any allele switching the position of alleles leads to random assortment alleles are 'independent' in this sense. Does that make sense? Please correct me if I'm wrong because I'm rusty on this stuff.
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#### Chocolatepistachio

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12723 on: July 03, 2020, 11:28:19 am »
+1
No I don’t understand it

#### 1729

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12724 on: July 03, 2020, 12:18:00 pm »
+7
No I don’t understand it
In metaphase, the homologous chromosomes (maternal/paternal) line up on the equator in either:
- Maternal copy left/Paternal right
- Paternal left/Maternal right

This process is random hence the name random assortment
What my avatar is
If you are wondering about my avatar, It was inspired by a problem I did which asked me to prove that the graphs of xy = 1 and y^2 = x^2 + 2 intersected at a 90 degree angle. The resulting figure in the middle kinda like a 8-sided square in hyperbolic space. It also resembles the conformal map of the complex square root.
Subjects: EngLang, Lit, Methods, Spesh, Chemistry, Biology, Physics.

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#### Chocolatepistachio

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12725 on: July 03, 2020, 05:42:39 pm »
-1
Chromosome replication sometimes results in abnormal formation of chromosomes. What possible problems would arise if a chromosome was a) missing a centromere and b) dicentric- had an extra centromere

#### Owlbird83

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12726 on: July 03, 2020, 06:42:45 pm »
+5
Chromosome replication sometimes results in abnormal formation of chromosomes. What possible problems would arise if a chromosome was a) missing a centromere and b) dicentric- had an extra centromere
If there's no centromere, the spindle fibres won't be able to attach to the kinetochores (protein complex on centromere), if the spindle fibres don't attach, the chromosomes can't be pulled to the cell poles, and mitosis cannot happen.

(I googled this part, so someone else answer if they have a better understanding) The spindle fibres can attach to both centromeres, and pull them in different directions, this leads to the chromosomes breaking, and reattaching in different places.
I found it a bit hard to understand from the things I read, but this short youtube clip I found makes it really clear. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VuzeD_VyBO4
Hope that helps
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#### 1729

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12727 on: July 03, 2020, 09:57:11 pm »
+7
Chromosome replication sometimes results in abnormal formation of chromosomes. What possible problems would arise if a chromosome was a) missing a centromere and b) dicentric- had an extra centromere
If a centromere is not present, the split can't occur anymore... or well.. the cell cycle actually wouldn't proceed at all. It's the most important part of a chromosome. These sorts of issues are often found in cancerous cells. If a chromosome is dicentric, it's also unstable. This is because the microtubules will pull either centromere to different ends of the cell during mitosis, which basically creates something called a chromosome bridge. This breaks the chromosome open, letting DNA leak out. Looks like this:
What my avatar is
If you are wondering about my avatar, It was inspired by a problem I did which asked me to prove that the graphs of xy = 1 and y^2 = x^2 + 2 intersected at a 90 degree angle. The resulting figure in the middle kinda like a 8-sided square in hyperbolic space. It also resembles the conformal map of the complex square root.
Subjects: EngLang, Lit, Methods, Spesh, Chemistry, Biology, Physics.

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#### Chocolatepistachio

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12728 on: July 03, 2020, 11:01:49 pm »
0
Why do fish living in freshwater produce urine that contains ammonia

How does the structure of glycoprotein and glycolipid relate to their function

#### Sine

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12729 on: July 03, 2020, 11:09:44 pm »
+6
Why do fish living in freshwater produce urine that contains ammonia

How does the structure of glycoprotein and glycolipid relate to their function
What have you thought about so far?

It is important that when anyone asks a content-related question they include their current understanding levels to allow for others to be able to target the users' weaknesses and misconceptions so that they can address those directly

#### Chocolatepistachio

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12730 on: July 03, 2020, 11:44:25 pm »
+2
In the freshwater fish the water diffuses into the fish via the gills , there is diffusion of salt from the gills

#### 1729

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12731 on: July 04, 2020, 10:47:10 am »
+8
Why do fish living in freshwater produce urine that contains ammonia

How does the structure of glycoprotein and glycolipid relate to their function
Hey there! I'd thought I share some of my notes relating to this topic.
For the first part of the question:

And for the second one (brief overview)

flexing how good my handwriting was two years ago, now its not so good
What my avatar is
If you are wondering about my avatar, It was inspired by a problem I did which asked me to prove that the graphs of xy = 1 and y^2 = x^2 + 2 intersected at a 90 degree angle. The resulting figure in the middle kinda like a 8-sided square in hyperbolic space. It also resembles the conformal map of the complex square root.
Subjects: EngLang, Lit, Methods, Spesh, Chemistry, Biology, Physics.

Goals: Melbuni | Doctor

#### Chocolatepistachio

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12732 on: July 04, 2020, 06:37:24 pm »
0
Thanks!
What is the difference between discontinuous and continuous inheritance

Why do your fingers get wrinkled when in water of a long time-
Is it because of water going in due to osmosis

#### Owlbird83

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12733 on: July 04, 2020, 07:13:25 pm »
+5
Thanks!
What is the difference between discontinuous and continuous inheritance

Why do your fingers get wrinkled when in water of a long time-
Is it because of water going in due to osmosis

Discontinuous inheritance is when a trait is controlled by one or only a small amount of genes. For example eye colour, there's blue/(green) or brown. Continuous variation is when a trait is controlled by a number of genes (polygenic), for example, height is continuous and there is not just a couple of set heights that people are, there is variation between short/tall and everywhere in between.

I thought this too actually, but I looked it up to make sure and found:
Quote
Pruney fingers occur when the nervous system sends a message to the blood vessels to become narrower. The narrowed blood vessels reduce the volume of the fingertips slightly, causing loose folds of skin that form wrinkles.
So vasoconstriction occurs in the finger blood vessels, and osmosis isn't the cause of the wrinkling.

Edit: Also I love your notes 1729!! So pretty and satisfying to look at! (Is the black pen a pentel touch pen?I have one and I love it but I have a problem with needing to buy too many brush pens)
« Last Edit: July 04, 2020, 07:19:40 pm by Owlbird83 »
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#### 1729

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #12734 on: July 04, 2020, 07:29:20 pm »
+5
Why do your fingers get wrinkled when in water of a long time-
Is it because of water going in due to osmosis
I don't think you should be asking googlable questions on the forum (like your second one).The people who answer your questions are more here to provide clarification on concepts you don't understand, so like if you google the answer and it doesn't make sense, then ask, and include what you don't understand. (This just makes it easier for me to help).
What is the difference between discontinuous and continuous inheritance
In regards to your first question discontinuous is affected by alleles of a single gene and continuous is a combination of several genes & their alleles. But to elaborate, think of it as discrete inheritance means you either have it or you don't. Whilst continuous is you can have varying levels of it.

Edit: Also I love your notes 1729!! So pretty and satisfying to look at! (Is the black pen a pentel touch pen?I have one and I love it but I have a problem with needing to buy too many brush pens)
Thank you so much! Most of it was with was written with pentel touch, I prefer the metal tip, or fountain pens or gel pens. Muji pens are the best though.
However the pen that I used for those notes was the Pentel Energel 0.5
« Last Edit: July 04, 2020, 09:29:01 pm by 1729 »
What my avatar is
If you are wondering about my avatar, It was inspired by a problem I did which asked me to prove that the graphs of xy = 1 and y^2 = x^2 + 2 intersected at a 90 degree angle. The resulting figure in the middle kinda like a 8-sided square in hyperbolic space. It also resembles the conformal map of the complex square root.
Subjects: EngLang, Lit, Methods, Spesh, Chemistry, Biology, Physics.

Goals: Melbuni | Doctor