July 17, 2019, 08:58:26 am

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#### Joseph41

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11700 on: May 28, 2019, 02:17:24 pm »
+1
hey guys can you all please do my quick biology survey it takes 1 minute and no prior bio knowledge is needed its for a SAC and I need quite a few responses please . https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7V3WS8L

Hey,

Have completed the survey. I wasn't sure how to answer some of the questions, though, because I don't know what the warrior gene is!
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#### Reeva.xx

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11701 on: May 28, 2019, 02:58:10 pm »
0
Hey,

Have completed the survey. I wasn't sure how to answer some of the questions, though, because I don't know what the warrior gene is!

haha I just realised that I forgot to add background info on that but thank you so much doing it much appreciated

#### Joseph41

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11702 on: May 28, 2019, 02:59:12 pm »
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haha I just realised that I forgot to add background info on that but thank you so much doing it much appreciated

No worries at all - good luck with it!
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#### Sine

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11703 on: May 28, 2019, 03:08:54 pm »
+1
hey guys can you all please do my quick biology survey it takes 1 minute and no prior bio knowledge is needed its for a SAC and I need quite a few responses please . https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7V3WS8L
Completed survey

sidenote: I thought the background info was written well for a "lay" audience.

#### AlphaZero

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11704 on: May 28, 2019, 03:17:31 pm »
+1
hey guys can you all please do my quick biology survey it takes 1 minute and no prior bio knowledge is needed its for a SAC and I need quite a few responses please . https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/7V3WS8L

Did the survey. Some very really interesting questions there. Best of luck with your SAC
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#### Joseph41

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11705 on: May 28, 2019, 03:31:05 pm »
0

haha I just realised that I forgot to add background info on that but thank you so much doing it much appreciated

Background info looks great now.
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#### sarah15

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11706 on: May 29, 2019, 06:00:58 pm »
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Hi, I was wondering if it is necessary to know the types of pathogens the various immune cells eliminate. Do neutrophils engulf bacteria, or would it be better to say microbes?

#### PhoenixxFire

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11707 on: May 29, 2019, 06:11:00 pm »
+4
Hi, I was wondering if it is necessary to know the types of pathogens the various immune cells eliminate. Do neutrophils engulf bacteria, or would it be better to say microbes?
It depends a bit on the context. In general, it's a good idea to be as specific as possible - but you also have to avoid being so specific that you're wrong.

Normally the question you're answering will tell you what pathogen is involved in the stem of the question. If it tells you, then use that. Neutrophils engulf bacteria, but you could just say that they engulf extracellular pathogens and you'd be fine. I'd recommend using pathogen rather than microbe though if you want to use a more general term because you're better off using the same terminology that is used in the study design.
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#### alanihale

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11708 on: May 29, 2019, 07:28:11 pm »
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hi! I was a little confused as to why antibody levels are not at zero before given any immunisation??
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#### DBA-144

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11709 on: May 29, 2019, 07:39:16 pm »
+4
hi! I was a little confused as to why antibody levels are not at zero before given any immunisation??

Because there may have been prior exposure to the particular antigen and hence some antibodies may be present in the blood prior to immunisation. (immunisation may be booster dose).

Could also refer to antibodies in general, in which case the body may have passively, but naturally acquired antibodies via the placenta, mother's milk from breastfeeding, or other form of antibody acquisition.

Edit: beaten. Also, memory cells! (like jack.cameron said)

#### vox nihili

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11710 on: May 29, 2019, 08:21:10 pm »
+2
hi! I was a little confused as to why antibody levels are not at zero before given any immunisation??

Also just because the cells are already there and do pop out a few antibodies even before they've ever been activated, but this is probably not really something to worry about in VCE.
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#### DBA-144

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11711 on: May 29, 2019, 10:15:10 pm »
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Can someone please explain the role of B memory cells during re infection?

What do they do? secrete antibodies or proliferate into B plasma cells and more B memory cells?

Thanks.

#### Erutepa

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11712 on: May 30, 2019, 08:28:27 am »
+5
Can someone please explain the role of B memory cells during re infection?

What do they do? secrete antibodies or proliferate into B plasma cells and more B memory cells?

Thanks.
when naive b cells are exposed to its specific antigen and receives the necessary costimulation from its corresponding t helper cell, it will differentiate and proliferate. Most of the cells produced from this differentiation are plasma b cells which produce antibodies in large quantities, however memory b cells are also produced. While these plasma b cells are only short lived (they will undergo apoptosis when infection is gone) memory b cells are much longer lived. As such they function to remain resident in the body such to contribute to a faster and stronger secondary immune response to their specific antigen.
In this secondary antigen exposure they will be activated much like a naive b cell (also requiring that t helper cell interaction) and will similarly differentiate and proliferate into plasma and more memory. The reason this secondary response is faster and stronger is that there is simply a greater number of memory b cells for a specific antigen in these secondary infections than there would have been niave b cells in the primary exposure to the antigen.

Hope this helps and please note that this depth of knowledge is not all that relevant to the course. But it is good to try to understand the processes in a bit of extra depth.
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#### sarah15

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11713 on: May 31, 2019, 06:43:10 pm »
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Are the mucous membranes an example of a physical AND chemical barrier to pathogens? Physical because they trap pathogens and chemical because they secrete mucus?

#### Erutepa

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##### Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #11714 on: May 31, 2019, 08:08:51 pm »
+1
Are the mucous membranes an example of a physical AND chemical barrier to pathogens? Physical because they trap pathogens and chemical because they secrete mucus?
The mucus itself is not so much a chemical barrier. It is more a physical barrier in that it physically prevents pathogens from entering the body. Chemical barriers would be digestive enzymes that might be secreted in mucosal membranes, but are not the mucosal membrane itself. One of these is lysozyme
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