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VCE Stuff => VCE Science => VCE Mathematics/Science/Technology => VCE Subjects + Help => VCE Psychology => Topic started by: brenden on February 15, 2015, 02:22:43 pm

Title: VCE Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: brenden on February 15, 2015, 02:22:43 pm
VCE PSYCHOLOGY Q&A THREAD

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What is this thread for?
If you have general questions about the VCE Psychology course or how to improve in certain areas, this is the place to ask! 👌


Who can/will answer questions?
Everyone is welcome to contribute; even if you're unsure of yourself, providing different perspectives is incredibly valuable.

Please don't be dissuaded by the fact that you haven't finished Year 12, or didn't score as highly as others, or your advice contradicts something else you've seen on this thread, or whatever; none of this disqualifies you from helping others. And if you're worried you do have some sort of misconception, put it out there and someone else can clarify and modify your understanding! 

There'll be a whole bunch of other high-scoring students with their own wealths of wisdom to share with you, including TuteSmart tutors! So you may even get multiple answers from different people offering their insights - very cool.


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Original post.
Hey guys! There are some very talented Psychology students on these forums, but so far there's been no dedicated Psychology thread the same as Specialist/Methods etc. So, feel free to leave all of your Psychology questions in this thread!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on February 15, 2015, 03:43:37 pm
Hey thanks so much for creating this!

I'll kick it of with one of my own questions - can someone please explain how visual stimuli is received/processed? How does the whole each half eye thing work? Cheers! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: evelynandrews on February 15, 2015, 04:58:38 pm
Hey thanks so much for creating this!

I'll kick it of with one of my own questions - can someone please explain how visual stimuli is received/processed? How does the whole each half eye thing work? Cheers! :)

Visual stimuli is processed in the primary visual cortex; the major destination of visual information from sensory    receptors. The visual field (everything we see when looking straight ahead) can be divided into two fields: the left visual field and the right visual field. Information from left visual field is processed in the right hemisphere, and information from the right visual field is processed in the left hemisphere. (NOTE: information from each eye is processed in both hemispheres of the brain, it is not true that information from the right eye goes only to the left hemisphere, or vice versa). Our eyes work like a camera- the image is reversed. So any image in the right field of view will be received on the left part of the retina, and mapped to the left hemisphere.

To give an example, if I was standing at a zoo and a giraffe stood on the right hand side of my field of view, the image of the giraffe will project onto the left part of the retina (of each eye), and be processed in the left hemisphere.

Hope that answers your question!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on February 19, 2015, 06:27:26 pm
So in the grivas textbook and the 2015 tsfx notes it says the Broca's area is only in the left frontal lobe but my psych teacher said today that the broca's area is in the left and right frontal lobe. Which one is correct? I'm so confused now
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: brenden on February 19, 2015, 06:37:26 pm
So in the grivas textbook and the 2015 tsfx notes it says the Broca's area is only in the left frontal lobe but my psych teacher said today that the broca's area is in the left and right frontal lobe. Which one is correct? I'm so confused now
I've never heard of someone saying Broca's area is in the left 1and right frontal lobe, but I have a sneaking suspicion that ~5% of people have their Broca's area in the right lobe. It's generally just in the left side, close to the primary motor cortex. (If you think about it, it's near the primary motor cortex, which means it controls the neck, jaw, tongue/lip muscles that are involved with speech, so when it's damaged, it's you ability to make words with your mouth that is damaged - but not your actual language abilities).

Edit: So TECHNICALLY, your teacher is correct, because Broca's area can be in the left and right frontal lobe, but mostly it sits in the left lobe. There can also be multiple Broca's areas for skilled bilingual children, if I remember correctly!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on February 20, 2015, 11:26:49 am
Subbed.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on February 20, 2015, 01:58:41 pm
Hi everyone :)
Here are a few questions which i'm kind of confused about:

- what is a simple task and a complex task (I.e. How would you classify it?)
- why does sleep deprivation affect the ability to complete simple tasks but not nessecarily complex tasks?
- what are some limitations of sleep data (e.g. The graphs that show sleep patterns, sleep deprivation experiments)

Please excuse the silliness of these questions  :)
I am new to 3/4 psych and am still trying to learn the basics   :P

Thanks in advance!

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on February 20, 2015, 06:16:41 pm
I have a question!
What are perceptual and cognitive distortions? And does time orientation not come under perceptual distortions because i wrote this in a practice Sac and got no marks for contradicting myself lol
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: JackSonSmith on February 20, 2015, 10:43:09 pm
Hi everyone :)
Here are a few questions which i'm kind of confused about:

- what is a simple task and a complex task (I.e. How would you classify it?)
- why does sleep deprivation affect the ability to complete simple tasks but not nessecarily complex tasks?
- what are some limitations of sleep data (e.g. The graphs that show sleep patterns, sleep deprivation experiments)

Please excuse the silliness of these questions  :)
I am new to 3/4 psych and am still trying to learn the basics   :P

Thanks in advance!

I view simple tasks as things that you are able to do easily/without paying much attention and complex tasks as those where you do need to pay attention.

Sleep deprivation affects simple tasks more because it is believed that sleep deprivation affects motivation more than ability. ie. I'm tired and can't be stuffed doing this.

Limitations of sleep data may include: data was taken while participant was not in natural environment
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on February 21, 2015, 10:56:51 am
I view simple tasks as things that you are able to do easily/without paying much attention and complex tasks as those where you do need to pay attention.

Sleep deprivation affects simple tasks more because it is believed that sleep deprivation affects motivation more than ability. ie. I'm tired and can't be stuffed doing this.

Limitations of sleep data may include: data was taken while participant was not in natural environment


Thanks for your help!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: brenden on February 21, 2015, 01:01:21 pm
Hi everyone :)
Here are a few questions which i'm kind of confused about:

- what is a simple task and a complex task (I.e. How would you classify it?)
- why does sleep deprivation affect the ability to complete simple tasks but not nessecarily complex tasks?
- what are some limitations of sleep data (e.g. The graphs that show sleep patterns, sleep deprivation experiments)

Please excuse the silliness of these questions  :)
I am new to 3/4 psych and am still trying to learn the basics   :P

Thanks in advance!
I view simple tasks as things that you are able to do easily/without paying much attention and complex tasks as those where you do need to pay attention.

Sleep deprivation affects simple tasks more because it is believed that sleep deprivation affects motivation more than ability. ie. I'm tired and can't be stuffed doing this.

Limitations of sleep data may include: data was taken while participant was not in natural environment
Extending upon this, sleep deprivation impacts both motivation and general mental functioning... So when you're doing a simple task - say, making burgers if you're a veteran McDonald's worker, and you haven't slept, it would be very easy to accidentally put a slice of cheese on a McChicken if you're making a bunch of Quarter Pounders with one McChicken also needing to be made. (A McChicken has no cheese, and a QtrPounder has two slices of cheese... so if you have a block of cheese with you and you go "Bang bang bang bang bang" putting cheese on burgers, it's easy to accidentally put one on a McChicken if you aren't thinking straight).

But think of something more complex, like parallel parking for a learner driver. Whether you've had 9 or 5 hours of sleep - you aren't going to make a silly mistake. You might screw it up, just because you're a bad driver, but probably not because of sleep deprivation. You can force yourself to concentrate on this. The sleep deprivation takes away basic focus and concentration, but when push comes to shove, your body can handle the complex stuff.

As for simple and complex, I might think of it like automatic and controlled processes.


I have a question!
What are perceptual and cognitive distortions? And does time orientation not come under perceptual distortions because i wrote this in a practice Sac and got no marks for contradicting myself lol
Ummm. Okay, this is really bringing me back and challenging my memory. I understand what you're saying - your perceptions are screwed up if you think 15 minutes has passed and it's actually been an hour, but from my (very sketchy) memory... This question would have been something like "give an example of perceptual and cognitive distortions that may occur in an ASC".

Because this question is targeting altered states of consciousness, it's targeting the knowledge of what MAKES an ASC. There's four things. It's like... (and this is getting REALLY sketchy)

Distortions of something (control?)
Distortions in perception and cognition
Time orientation
Controlling yourself (something something)

So, what they wanted is specifically NOT time control - it was testing "distortions in perception and cognition", which is something more like... if you take Smurf pills (which is a drug that makes you think you're tiny) - you have distorted perceptions. Or if you take LSD (hallucinogens) and stuff like that, it screws around with your perceptions and ability to think.

In general, your 'perception of time' might be screwed up, and that's correct in real life, but for the purpose of VCE Psychology, they wanted to test ONE of the FOUR of those little "checkboxes" for an ASC, and you chose the wrong one.

I might be wrong here, and I would sincerely appreciate being corrected on this just in case I give someone the wrong information (it's been a good 3 years since I've done this), but I believe that might be the answer.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Burt Macklin on February 22, 2015, 11:38:40 am
I've got conflicting answers in my textbook and notes on REM sleep. Is it a period of light sleep or deep sleep and, therefore, is it easier to be woken from REM sleep or harder?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: brenden on February 22, 2015, 12:36:43 pm
I've got conflicting answers in my textbook and notes on REM sleep. Is it a period of light sleep or deep sleep and, therefore, is it easier to be woken from REM sleep or harder?
Both! For this very reason, REM sleep is often referred to as "paradoxical sleep" - so this little confusion should help you remember it pretty well - just think of the paradox. 

One reason it might be considered light is that REM sleep occurs at the end of a sleep cycle, which means it's closer to the top of a graph. I.e, things go, Stage 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM, and the next cycle might have REM after Stage 3. The point is, REM doesn't occur after Stage 4, or at the bottom of a graph - it occurs at the top of the graph - where the comparatively  "lighter" stages of sleep are also occurring. So, even though it's sometimes called "Stage 5" sleep, REM sleep definitely doesn't occur after Stage 4 (and you'll probably be asked this in a multi-choice designed to trick you).

Another reason it might be considered "light" is because of the beta-like, or sawtooth waves, present in an EEG. *Really important to say beta-like and not beta waves*. These brain waves are obviously the brain waves associated with being awake and alert, so with beta-like waves being present in sleep, maybe you could consider it 'light'. Your heart rate and breathing also quickens during REM, whereas they are very slow in Stage 4.

Why would it be considered deep or paradoxical? Because the EMG readings (reading muscle activity) are lowest in this stage of sleep - despite brain activity and heart rate going up, voluntary muscles are paralysed. Think of what would happen if someone paralysed all your muscles but left you awake and they were about to torture you. That's what REM sleep is like - you can't move, but your brain and heart is going off tap (obviously less than if you'd been tortured).

Now... before I answer your question... disclaimer... I haven't touched this type of stuff in three years, so trying to remember perfectly is like you trying to remember what you did for the first three weeks of year 9, so I very well could be wrong and I would ask your teacher to clarify.

That said, I believe for the purposes of VCE Psychology REM is considered a stage of light sleep, and that stage 4 is considered the hardest stage to wake up from. Question 9 of the 2012 exam asked what type of waves indicated "deep sleep" - TandD waves obvs, http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Documents/vce/psychology/psych-spec-sampexam-w.pdf and you'll see in those little graphs that REM is represented as being between Stage 1 and awake, which is the standard representation. I think because of this, REM should be considered as being 'light sleep'... particularly as Stage 3 and 4 are often referred to as the "deep stages" of sleep. Truthfully, I can't tell you whether it's easier or harder to wake someone up from REM in comparison to Stage 4, as I tried to Google to confirm my answer and I also got jumbled information... What does Grivas say? I wouldn't really call REM deep sleep for VCE Psych, but I'm not sure whether that means it's easy to wake someone up in REM. The whole thing about "paradoxical sleep" is making me doubt whatever answer I think it is.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on February 23, 2015, 09:42:20 pm
is the primary motor cortex just in the frontal lobes? Or is it everywhere around the cerebrum? My teacher said that the motor cortex is distributed around the cerebrum buT in my notes it just says its in the frontal lobes
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: JackSonSmith on February 23, 2015, 09:58:15 pm
is the primary motor cortex just in the frontal lobes? Or is it everywhere around the cerebrum? My teacher said that the motor cortex is distributed around the cerebrum buT in my notes it just says its in the frontal lobes

If I remember correctly, there are motor areas in each lobe. However the primary motor cortex is located in only the frontal lobes.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on February 23, 2015, 11:10:36 pm
 Hello  :)

I was wondering if someone could explain what the following terms actually mean?
I get the basic idea for most of them but I am struggling to put it into words...

- content limitations
- perceptual and cognitive distortions
- emotional awareness

The textbook tells me how vary in NWC and ASC, however it doesn't actually tell me what they mean.

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yearningforsimplicity on February 23, 2015, 11:28:07 pm
Hello  :)

I was wondering if someone could explain what the following terms actually mean?
I get the basic idea for most of them but I am struggling to put it into words...

- content limitations
- perceptual and cognitive distortions
- emotional awareness

The textbook tells me how vary in NWC and ASC, however it doesn't actually tell me what they mean.

Thanks

Here are some very general definitions as to what each of those characteristics mean :) :-

Content limitations:
refers to the level of control that you have in being able to allow or block out what you pay attention to in your environment and what consequently enters (or does not enter) your consciousness. E.g. if thinking about a particular person or object triggers a traumatic memory, you can choose to kind of suppress that in NWC so it doesn't enter your conscious awareness. But you can't stop or "limit" that "content" from creeping its way into your head (in perhaps a more unsettling way) during an ASC (e.g. during sleep and dreams).

Perceptual and cognitive distortions: relates to your efficiency in being able to perceive things in your environment (including sensory perception, e.g. pain) and the extent to which your cognitions (your thoughts and memories) are clear and organised.

Emotional awareness: refers to your experience of feelings, emotions and being able to have some control over your emotional reactions in a situation.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Burt Macklin on February 28, 2015, 01:27:41 pm
Why are short, complex, difficult tasks not usually affected by sleep deprivation?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on February 28, 2015, 03:13:47 pm
Why are short, complex, difficult tasks not usually affected by sleep deprivation?

Because it is believed that sleep deprivation doesn't affect ability, it affects motivation
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yearningforsimplicity on February 28, 2015, 09:47:41 pm
Why are short, complex, difficult tasks not usually affected by sleep deprivation?

Usually controlled tasks (which can be more complex or generally complex for people attempting it for the first time) require a lot of conscious effort, attention and generally create more cognitive load for the individual. Because they are required to put in more effort for such tasks, they are more likely to pay attention and exert more effort into the task and not be impacted if they are sleep deprived. This might also be due to the controlled task being something novel (new) to them, so they might be more motivated/interested to see how things work and to succeed in the task.

If you compare that to getting someone to do an automatic task, which usually requires less conscious effort and less cognitive load (because it is presumed that the individual has already 'mastered' that task/action/behaviour), individuals who are sleep deprived may be more likely to 'slack off' as they are unmotivated to do well (probably because it's not a new or interesting task but rather just something ordinary that they do frequently/everyday).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on February 28, 2015, 11:33:47 pm
Hello :)

Does anyone know any advantages of qualitative data over quantitative data?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yearningforsimplicity on March 01, 2015, 12:55:05 pm
Hello :)

Does anyone know any advantages of qualitative data over quantitative data?

Qualitative data can be more descriptive and can give us a lot of insight into traits, qualities, or characteristics of some behaviour or aspect of psychology that we're exploring (e.g. personality). This means it can be very helpful for diagnosing mental disorders (e.g. through getting a patient to explain and report their symptoms) and conditions and can also help us to better understand the nature of a behaviour that is being studied.

Also, because you're not really standardising qualitative data (i.e. you're not running any statistical tests on it), you can gather and compile a rich source of data on particular individuals to gain insight into uncommon disorders/behaviours (this is often done in case study research where the behaviour/condition being studied is rare in the population).

There are also a number of issues surrounding qualitative research, e.g. social desirability (you construct responses to make yourself look like a 'good person'), misinterpretations of self-reports, difficult to run statistical testing and code responses to gather data for very large samples, etc :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on March 02, 2015, 05:03:37 pm
So does broca's area control articulation of speech and the understanding of human speech?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yearningforsimplicity on March 02, 2015, 09:22:36 pm
So does broca's area control articulation of speech and the understanding of human speech?

Broca's area is involved in the production, control and articulation of speech as well as speech fluency (so the words you say make sense and form a coherent sounding sentence so people can make meaning of what you say).

The wording "understanding of human speech" could be misinterpreted to refer to the Wernickes area, which is majorly involved in speech comprehension by helping US to understand the speech and language of others.

 Just clearly indicate that the Broca's area is associated with speech fluency, which helps us to construct coherent and fluent language/speech so that other people can understand what WE are saying and so our speech doesn't sound like a meaningless jumble of words :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on March 03, 2015, 08:48:40 pm
What are the key terms i should know in psychology? e.g. analyse, compare etc. Our teacher gave us a list that was very vague. Could someone please provide me with a list that is much more detailed e.g. analyse means to talk about advantages and disadvantages?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on March 04, 2015, 08:11:05 pm
Hello :)

I have a question about the sleep-wake cycle/circardian rhythm:

During adolescence is melatonin released at a later time (hence the reason adolescents fall asleep at a later time) or is less melatonin produced during adolescence which causes sleepiness at a later time?

Thanks :)

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on March 04, 2015, 08:45:35 pm
Melatonin is released 1-2 hours later
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yearningforsimplicity on March 04, 2015, 08:49:50 pm
Hello :)

I have a question about the sleep-wake cycle/circardian rhythm:

During adolescence is melatonin released at a later time (hence the reason adolescents fall asleep at a later time) or is less melatonin produced during adolescence which causes sleepiness at a later time?

Thanks :)

The Sleep-Wake Cycle shift in adolescence is due to biological/physiological changes associated with the hormone Melatonin (responsible for sleep onset) being released later in the night, which causes adolescents to 'feel sleepy' 1-2 hours later than younger children.

 This also makes it difficult for adolescents to wake up earlier in the morning as their 'circardian/biological clock' (which is controlled by a region in the brain known as the Supachiasmatic Nucleus and works by detecting how light or dark it is) has been shifted 1-2 hours forward :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on March 09, 2015, 10:26:40 pm
Hi guys! I'm struggling to get my head around association areas and the different association areas in the cerebral cortex lobes and was wondering if anyone would be able to elaborate and explain what association areas and the different ones in the four lobes are? - Sorry if this is a bit vague!! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: kimmytaaa on March 10, 2015, 12:26:38 pm
Hi guys
when we are writing up a hypothesis, are we allow to write it like if we are writing an chemistry report? Cos my teacher said we have to use the hypothesis recipe which is a bit confusing to use sometimes do I still lose mark in the final exam if I use the normal hypothesis?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on March 11, 2015, 06:57:46 pm
Hi guys! I'm struggling to get my head around association areas and the different association areas in the cerebral cortex lobes and was wondering if anyone would be able to elaborate and explain what association areas and the different ones in the four lobes are? - Sorry if this is a bit vague!! :)

Ok so I'll try my best
Association area are in all four lobes of the brain. They integrate info from other lobes and allow for higher order mental functions such as thinking and learning. Association areas in the parietal lobe will have a role in spatial reasoning and attention. Association area visual in the occipital lobe will interact with the visual cortex in each occipital lobe to integrate visual info with memory, language and sounds (from other lobes) to give meaning to visual info.

This is all explained better in the Grivas textbook
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on March 11, 2015, 06:58:48 pm
Does damage to Wernicke area impair fluency of speech as well as understanding the meaning of speech?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: JackSonSmith on March 13, 2015, 06:26:56 pm
Does damage to Wernicke area impair fluency of speech as well as understanding the meaning of speech?

Speech would still be fluent albeit nonsensical.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on March 13, 2015, 09:58:16 pm
Ok so I'll try my best
Association area are in all four lobes of the brain. They integrate info from other lobes and allow for higher order mental functions such as thinking and learning. Association areas in the parietal lobe will have a role in spatial reasoning and attention. Association area visual in the occipital lobe will interact with the visual cortex in each occipital lobe to integrate visual info with memory, language and sounds (from other lobes) to give meaning to visual info.

This is all explained better in the Grivas textbook

Are Broca's and Wernicke's areas classed as association areas?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: fightingchance on March 14, 2015, 08:38:19 pm
Are Broca's and Wernicke's areas classed as association areas?

I dont believe so.

How does one diagnose Broca's aphasia? Does a neurologist simply ask the patient a question and if they have difficulty speaking, diagnose it as Broca's Aphasia?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on March 14, 2015, 09:56:47 pm
I dont believe so.


Doesn't the Oxford text say that Broca's and Wernicke's areas are though?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on March 14, 2015, 10:04:24 pm
I dont believe so.

How does one diagnose Broca's aphasia? Does a neurologist simply ask the patient a question and if they have difficulty speaking, diagnose it as Broca's Aphasia?
Lol no it ain't that simple. There are probably brain scans involved
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: fightingchance on March 15, 2015, 09:39:17 pm
Doesn't the Oxford text say that Broca's and Wernicke's areas are though?

Im using Grivas and it mentions nothing about Broca's and Wernicke's Area as being association areas. Did a google search and it yielded no results, so I think the safest thing would be to not consider them as association areas.

Lol no it ain't that simple. There are probably brain scans involved

Yeah, I thought so, just making sure, thanks  :P
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on March 17, 2015, 06:42:17 pm
Hello  :)

This is a really stupid question but could someone please tell me what the cerebral cortex actually is?
Like is it just the outer layer of the brain or is it a collective term for the different lobes?

The study design says we need to know the 'roles of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex' so does that mean the lobes are kind of like a subcategory of the cerebral cortex?

I'm so confused :P
Thankyou
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on March 17, 2015, 07:03:55 pm
Hello  :)

This is a really stupid question but could someone please tell me what the cerebral cortex actually is?
Like is it just the outer layer of the brain or is it a collective term for the different lobes?

The study design says we need to know the 'roles of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex' so does that mean the lobes are kind of like a subcategory of the cerebral cortex?

I'm so confused :P
Thankyou

Its the outer layer your right, the squiggly bit. The four lobes are just parts/areas of it. Whats underneath the outer layer doesn't matter to us as much in pyschology, it controls all the boring stuff like um your body lol
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on March 18, 2015, 10:20:13 pm
Hello  :)

This is a really stupid question but could someone please tell me what the cerebral cortex actually is?
Like is it just the outer layer of the brain or is it a collective term for the different lobes?

The study design says we need to know the 'roles of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex' so does that mean the lobes are kind of like a subcategory of the cerebral cortex?

I'm so confused :P
Thankyou
Cerebral cortex is the convoluted outer covering of the brain. This outer layer is divided into 4 cortical lobes
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: melissaromeo on March 19, 2015, 09:34:45 pm
hello, I just wanted to know how do you write an aim? what's included in it?

how come studies on animals cannot be generalised onto humans? I understand the concept of this but not quite sure how i would answer it

thanks  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: InsaneMDot on March 22, 2015, 11:17:21 pm
hello, I just wanted to know how do you write an aim? what's included in it?

For the aim just keep it simple:
'To investigate the effects of (input IV here) on (input DV here)'. This may be different depending on the type of study done but one sentence should usually suffice.

how come studies on animals cannot be generalised onto humans? I understand the concept of this but not quite sure how i would answer it
I wouldn't worry too much about that. I don't think you will ever need to answer it in an exam, but I guess because animals have different functioning and structures so there's no evidence to prove it will have the same effects on humans.
Also, the sample can only be generalised to the population, which wouldn't be humans in this case.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on March 25, 2015, 07:23:25 pm
Hello :)

I'm a little confused about association areas...
I've been reading through some notes and getting confused when, for example, it says 'Frontal lobe association areas are important in the process of planning and thinking' - what is meant by an association area??

Thankyou :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: xleannenguyen on March 26, 2015, 07:37:26 pm
Hello :)

I'm a little confused about association areas...
I've been reading through some notes and getting confused when, for example, it says 'Frontal lobe association areas are important in the process of planning and thinking' - what is meant by an association area??

Thankyou :)

Association area is anything outside its primary area within a lobe. These are involved in integrating information between motor and sensory areas and higher-order mental processes such as decision-making, planning, etc.
i.e. Frontal Lobe; Primary Area: Primary Motor Cortex - its association area is anything outside the primary motor cortex within the frontal lobe :)

Hope that makes sense!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on March 26, 2015, 08:49:59 pm
Association area is anything outside its primary area within a lobe. These are involved in integrating information between motor and sensory areas and higher-order mental processes such as decision-making, planning, etc.
i.e. Frontal Lobe; Primary Area: Primary Motor Cortex - its association area is anything outside the primary motor cortex within the frontal lobe :)

Hope that makes sense!

Great explanation! Thanks heaps  :) :) :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on April 10, 2015, 12:50:05 pm
This surgery was most effective in reducing her epileptic seizures because
A. an implanted pulse generator (IPG) causes interference with neural activity.
B. the corpus callosum was severed, eliminating all communication between the two hemispheres.
C. the corpus callosum was severed, preventing communication at the higher cortical levels.
D.the two hemispheres were separated at the subcortical level.

Can anyone explain please why the answer is D? I thought it was C but the answer says otherwise. Thanks in advance :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on April 10, 2015, 02:59:39 pm
I remember doing this question and I'm pretty sure the answer was C...
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on April 10, 2015, 04:36:33 pm
I remember doing this question and I'm pretty sure the answer was C...
Thankyou! :) Yeah I thought there was a chance it was a typo in the solutions since this isn't a vcaa exam
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on April 11, 2015, 01:41:53 pm
Hello :)

I read that Broca's area is 'involved in analysing the grammatical structure of a sentence'.
What exactly is meant by this?

I'm kind of confused because can't people with damage to Broca's area (Broca's aphasia) still understand speech (and doesn't this involve understanding the grammatical structure as well?)

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on April 14, 2015, 05:02:51 pm
Hello :)

Does anyone know any criticisms/limitations for Sperry's split brain experiment?
I thought maybe convienence sampling was a limitation, but other than that I'm stuck :P

Also, does each primary auditory cortex receive auditory information from BOTH ears or only one ear (e.g. Does the left auditory receive information from the right ear only or from both ears?)

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on April 14, 2015, 08:08:12 pm
Can people with broca's aphasia still write fluently?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Jay.C on April 18, 2015, 05:24:04 pm
Can some one help me with this question?

"Half of the sample does the Muller-Lyer illusion with the arrows, then they do the "square ends" version of the illusion. The other group do the conditions in the other order. What is the name of this process? Why is it implemented?

Thanks  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Alter on April 18, 2015, 05:41:36 pm
Can some one help me with this question?

"Half of the sample does the Muller-Lyer illusion with the arrows, then they do the "square ends" version of the illusion. The other group do the conditions in the other order. What is the name of this process? Why is it implemented?

Thanks  :)
If I am understanding the question correctly, it is referring to a research methods concept known as "counterbalancing". This involves systematically changing the order of tasks for participants in a 'balanced' way to counter the unwanted effects on performance of any one order.

In the case of this experiment, half of the participants are exposed to version A of the illusion first and then version B second, and vice versa for the second group. By doing so, it is recognised that an order effect could potentially be confounding on the results and by using counterbalancing, you effectively eliminate such an extraneous variable. If this is unclear, let me know and I'll try to rephrase it for you.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chocolate.cake.1 on April 19, 2015, 08:15:06 pm
Hello :)

Would you consider, for example, knowing the definition of 'hypothesis' as a semantic memory?
I'm a little confused because my teacher's notes say that semantic memories are 'resistant to forgetting', however I know that I always forget such definitions lol

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Hipachi on April 20, 2015, 03:16:57 pm
I've got an upcoming research methods sac that will require us to do our own study, and then use the collected data for a written test. However, I've been struggling to think of topics that I can do or turn into operational hypothesis'. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Cheers.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Brightest Witch on April 21, 2015, 09:50:05 pm
I've got an upcoming research methods sac that will require us to do our own study, and then use the collected data for a written test. However, I've been struggling to think of topics that I can do or turn into operational hypothesis'. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

Does it have to relate to anything you've studied throughout the year?
Can it be a replication of some part study (or similar), or do you have to figure it all out yourself?

If you don't have anything you're super interested in, then testing token economies could be an easy one, or any way to modify behaviour, really. Just pick a method to test, pick the way you'll measure behaviour and write a hypothesis that links them!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on May 02, 2015, 04:29:51 pm
Hello :)
Just a quick question, would you guys recommend knowing things like Sperling's experiment for the exam even if they aren't on the study design? my teacher said we had to know it, but i'm not sure whether i should be spending my time learning other things that actually are on the study design instead :-\
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: brenden on May 02, 2015, 06:24:06 pm
Hello :)
Just a quick question, would you guys recommend knowing things like Sperling's experiment for the exam even if they aren't on the study design? my teacher said we had to know it, but i'm not sure whether i should be spending my time learning other things that actually are on the study design instead :-\
If something isn't on the study design, you don't have to learn it.
*beware that things can be on the study design inplicitly*
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on May 12, 2015, 06:37:32 pm
Hi :)

If in an exam or SAC, we were asked to 'write a hypothesis' should we write a research hypothesis or an operational hypothesis?

Thanks!! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: avcestudent on May 12, 2015, 09:57:03 pm
Hi :)

If in an exam or SAC, we were asked to 'write a hypothesis' should we write a research hypothesis or an operational hypothesis?

Thanks!! :)

Definitely research hypothesis for the exam. Operational hypotheses were only required in the old study design.

However, in terms of SACs, it should also be a research hypothesis but you might want to check with your teacher in case they want you to write an operational one.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maddihanna on May 17, 2015, 02:33:57 pm
Could somebody help me out with the overall roles of the cortical lobes? I know the roles of the sensory areas, association areas etc but I'm struggling to work out the overall role of each lobe.

Thanks for your help :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: ashjam on May 18, 2015, 09:01:07 am
Does anyone use Edrolo for Psychology? Is it worth getting?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on May 21, 2015, 09:19:24 pm
Edrolo for psych is my life. I've gotten 100% on every sac so far and all I do is watch her videos, 10/10 wouldn't be getting those marks without Kristy Kendall. Let's just say I got B/c's in year 11 with extensive notetaking/ copying-out-the-textbook- purely because edrolo was non existent to me.

You won't regret it! Can't reccomend edrolo enough :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on May 23, 2015, 02:36:54 pm
Could somebody help me out with the overall roles of the cortical lobes? I know the roles of the sensory areas, association areas etc but I'm struggling to work out the overall role of each lobe.

Thanks for your help :)

Frontal lobes - "Higher order thinking," voluntary movements (through motor cortices), speech production (through Broca's area), planning, organising, problem-solving, emotions and personality.
Parietal lobes - Sense perception (through somatosensory cortices), and attention.
Temoral lobes - Memory, speech comprehension (through Wernicke's area) and auditory perception (through auditory cortex).
Occipital lobes - Primarily involved in vision (through visual cortex).

Hope this helps! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: bshielchase on May 29, 2015, 01:02:35 pm
Please Help-
I have  a ERA sac on memory and im having difficulties explaining the role of the neuron in memory formation, its only meant to be sentence  or two.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: #inori on June 09, 2015, 09:05:18 pm
Uh hi, I'm having trouble with understanding the whole concept of memory and its models. Much appreciated if people can help me with that thanks. :-[ :-[
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: #inori on June 09, 2015, 09:11:47 pm
Frontal lobes - "Higher order thinking," voluntary movements (through motor cortices), speech production (through Broca's area), planning, organising, problem-solving, emotions and personality.
Parietal lobes - Sense perception (through somatosensory cortices), and attention.
Temoral lobes - Memory, speech comprehension (through Wernicke's area) and auditory perception (through auditory cortex).
Occipital lobes - Primarily involved in vision (through visual cortex).

Hope this helps! :)

The amgdala is in the medial temporal lobe right? So would that mean that the temporal lobe would play part in emotions??  ???
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on June 14, 2015, 09:14:45 pm
For those that have done psych, what were your sacs for unit 4 like?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on June 18, 2015, 07:19:45 pm
For those that have done psych, what were your sacs for unit 4 like?

Hi :)
Not sure if this is much help (as I am doing psych this year), but in case you were interested, the sacs my school is having are:
- Media response
- Test
- Annotated folio

Hope this helps :)

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on June 18, 2015, 07:22:09 pm
Hi :)

Just wondering if anyone knows which specific brain structures we need to know for AOS1 (learning)?
Do we just need to know the hippocampus/amygdala or should we know others as well (like cerebellum/basal ganglia, etc.)?

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on June 18, 2015, 07:34:13 pm
Hi :)

Just wondering if anyone knows which specific brain structures we need to know for AOS1 (learning)?
Do we just need to know the hippocampus/amygdala or should we know others as well (like cerebellum/basal ganglia, etc.)?

Thanks :)
Not the cerebellum/basal ganglia or hypothalamus. Hippocampus and amygdala are key and the neural structure they consist of.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: avcestudent on June 18, 2015, 09:10:42 pm
For those that have done psych, what were your sacs for unit 4 like?

My SACs were:
- Annotated folio
- Poster (on chosen mental illness)
- Test on mental health
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on June 22, 2015, 12:30:10 am
The amgdala is in the medial temporal lobe right? So would that mean that the temporal lobe would play part in emotions??  ???

Yes that's correct - the Frontal Lobe is primarily involved in controlling and expressing emotions, however the temporal lobe also has a bit to do with emotions (primarily in regards to emotional memory) :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: acm9 on June 25, 2015, 08:41:55 pm
Hi!

So we have to create an ERA about learning. I've chosen observational learning, and in particular, the aspect of reproduction. I need help with thinking of a creative, convenient and quick experiment. The only thing i can think of involves an online puzzle, but my teacher said it's too simple :(

I'm tossing up between two different IV's: gender, or exposure to model. While the former will mean that there is only one condition, there isn't a lot of prior research with this IV. However, the latter option will entail more work cause it requires two conditions (I sound like a lazy pig, but I'm just seriously stuck).

If anyone could share any ideas or inputs, that would be great. It is also important that the experiment can be completel within a few minutes during school- nothing too cumbersome.

Thankyou!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on June 29, 2015, 09:20:07 pm
Distinguish between continuous and partial reinforcement with reference to a relevant example in a laboratory setting.

What does this question mean by lab setting and what could i perhaps do as an example? Thankyou :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yearningforsimplicity on June 30, 2015, 12:41:20 am
Distinguish between continuous and partial reinforcement with reference to a relevant example in a laboratory setting.

What does this question mean by lab setting and what could i perhaps do as an example? Thankyou :)

Continuous reinforcement means that you give the reinforcer every time the organism shows a correct/desired response. E.g. if a rat in an experiment presses the correct lever, it receives a food pellet EVERY TIME it makes that correct response. Continuous reinforcement is often used in the early stages of operant conditioning when the organism has to initially learn the relationship between a response and its consequence.

Once the organism has learnt the relationship between the operant response and its consequence (e.g. rat pressing lever and then realising that pressing a particular lever causes food to drop into its tray), we can adjust the reinforcement to a partial schedule of reinforcement. This means that we will provide the reinforcement for some of the desired/correct responses that the organism makes, but NOT ALL OF THEM. E.g. we might drop food pellets into the rat's tray the first 2 times it presses the correct lever, but not drop any pellets the 3rd, 4th and 5th time it presses that same lever (i.e. the other times it shows that same correct response). Partial schedules of reinforcement are good for maintaining (i.e. preventing extinction of) the desired/correct operant response (in this case, the rat pressing the correct lever).

Hope this makes sense! Schedules of reinforcement can get a bit confusing haha :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on June 30, 2015, 01:23:08 pm
Continuous reinforcement means that you give the reinforcer every time the organism shows a correct/desired response. E.g. if a rat in an experiment presses the correct lever, it receives a food pellet EVERY TIME it makes that correct response. Continuous reinforcement is often used in the early stages of operant conditioning when the organism has to initially learn the relationship between a response and its consequence.

Once the organism has learnt the relationship between the operant response and its consequence (e.g. rat pressing lever and then realising that pressing a particular lever causes food to drop into its tray), we can adjust the reinforcement to a partial schedule of reinforcement. This means that we will provide the reinforcement for some of the desired/correct responses that the organism makes, but NOT ALL OF THEM. E.g. we might drop food pellets into the rat's tray the first 2 times it presses the correct lever, but not drop any pellets the 3rd, 4th and 5th time it presses that same lever (i.e. the other times it shows that same correct response). Partial schedules of reinforcement are good for maintaining (i.e. preventing extinction of) the desired/correct operant response (in this case, the rat pressing the correct lever).

Hope this makes sense! Schedules of reinforcement can get a bit confusing haha :D
Thanks for that :)
Understanding what they are isn't the problem, it's just what the lab example could be. When you were talking about rats was that your example of a lab setting experiment. Thanks again
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yearningforsimplicity on June 30, 2015, 06:30:35 pm
Thanks for that :)
Understanding what they are isn't the problem, it's just what the lab example could be. When you were talking about rats was that your example of a lab setting experiment. Thanks again


Yes that could be an example of a lab setting environment, as having a rat press a lever in a cage is a setting that an experimenter can control and modify to prompt a particular response from the rat :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: PHEBCF on July 01, 2015, 07:36:11 pm
Hi for section c for the Psych exam if we were asked to write up a hypothesis would it have to be a research or experimental hypothesis? I'm also having a little trouble understanding plasticity including developmental and adaptive. Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: girl1234 on July 08, 2015, 01:16:18 am
Hi for section c for the Psych exam if we were asked to write up a hypothesis would it have to be a research or experimental hypothesis? I'm also having a little trouble understanding plasticity including developmental and adaptive. Thanks!

Usually it would specify which hypothesis they want. (Generally it will be a research hypothesis, however know how to do both)
i did psych last year, so i don't know how i can best explain plasticity to you, but basically, plasticity is the brains ability to change due to learning/experience.
Developmental plasticity occurs generally in children as a response to environment stimuli. EG: the formation of the visual cortex.

Adaptive plasticity is the brains ability to compensate for a lost function (through injury) by changing the neural pathways in the brain (through rerouting and sprouting.) This occurs all throughout our lifespan, but is more effective in children. 

Hope this helped :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Burt Macklin on July 09, 2015, 10:45:13 am
What aspects of classical conditioning are applied to graduated exposure and flooding?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maddihanna on July 09, 2015, 09:22:54 pm
I was just doing a past exam question and it asked about the difference between nightmares and night terrors, do we still have to know this? I believe there isn't a study design dot point on it but maybe it comes under the ASC of sleep? Would somebody be able to clear this up for me?

Thanks for your help! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Burt Macklin on July 09, 2015, 09:44:14 pm
I was just doing a past exam question and it asked about the difference between nightmares and night terrors, do we still have to know this? I believe there isn't a study design dot point on it but maybe it comes under the ASC of sleep? Would somebody be able to clear this up for me?

Thanks for your help! :)
I believe that because it's not on the study design, it's not examinable content. The only ASC you need to know in particular are day-dreaming and alcohol induced states (and sleep, obvs).

Although, I think we need another person to back this up -- I'm not 100% sure.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on July 09, 2015, 10:16:01 pm
I was just doing a past exam question and it asked about the difference between nightmares and night terrors, do we still have to know this? I believe there isn't a study design dot point on it but maybe it comes under the ASC of sleep? Would somebody be able to clear this up for me?

Thanks for your help! :)
It was on the old study design, don't need to know it
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: thaoot on August 03, 2015, 05:05:25 pm
Hi there, just wanted to ask, which is most effective out of fixed-ratio, fixed-interval, variable-ratio and variable-interval reinforcements and why? Thank you!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on August 03, 2015, 10:01:40 pm
Hi there, just wanted to ask, which is most effective out of fixed-ratio, fixed-interval, variable-ratio and variable-interval reinforcements and why? Thank you!

Variable ratio has the highest response rate (and hence can be considered the most effective) because the individual is unaware of when they will be reinforced, and therefore puts in the same amount of effort in each time
If you have a look at your textbook (pg 437 of Grivas book) there is a really good graph that shows the response rate (or just google it :) )
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on August 03, 2015, 10:06:20 pm
Hello :)
I'm a little confused about the order of the elements of observational learning... I've been taught the order of elements for observational learning are: attention, retention, reproduction, motivation and reinforcement.
but, it seems to make more sense to me if motivation was at the very beginning (I.e. You have to be motivated first in order to give attention, etc.).
Why is motivation not at the beginning?

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on August 03, 2015, 10:14:00 pm
Hello :)
I'm a little confused about the order of the elements of observational learning... I've been taught the order of elements for observational learning are: attention, retention, reproduction, motivation and reinforcement.
but, it seems to make more sense to me if motivation was at the very beginning (I.e. You have to be motivated first in order to give attention, etc.).
Why is motivation not at the beginning?

Thanks :)

Just my two cents- someone please correct me or provide a more comprehensive answer.

Basically motivation is included in attention which is the first step. I.e you need to be motivated to focus on key features of a models actions. This is different to motivation which comes last next to reinforcement. In this stage, motivation refers to the willingness to *perform* the learnt behaviour.

I hope that helps to some degree. Check our andrew Scott's youtube videos for psych- he explains it well. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on August 15, 2015, 08:16:30 pm
Not completely related to vce psych, but I came across a thing called enantiostasis, the definition looked quite similar to allostasis, does anyone know any major differences between the two??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: girl1234 on August 15, 2015, 11:14:12 pm
Hello :)
I'm a little confused about the order of the elements of observational learning... I've been taught the order of elements for observational learning are: attention, retention, reproduction, motivation and reinforcement.
but, it seems to make more sense to me if motivation was at the very beginning (I.e. You have to be motivated first in order to give attention, etc.).
Why is motivation not at the beginning?

Thanks :)

Not the best answer, but thats just the way it is. I guess, despite how 'motivated' you are, the task cannot be completed without first actively focusing, remembering how to do the task and being physically able to reproduce the action.
I see what you're saying but just try to remember ARRMR

Hope i helped in someway
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maddihanna on August 16, 2015, 12:29:38 pm
Just in regards to comparing CC & OC, the textbook says that both responses can be involuntary & involve the autonomic nervous system.

But what would be an example for a time when the response to operant conditioning is involuntary? Because I can't think of one at all :/

Thanks in advance for your help :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: girl1234 on August 17, 2015, 10:24:59 pm
Just in regards to comparing CC & OC, the textbook says that both responses can be involuntary & involve the autonomic nervous system.

But what would be an example for a time when the response to operant conditioning is involuntary? Because I can't think of one at all :/

Thanks in advance for your help :)
I can't think of anything that the response to operant conditioning is involuntary (unless it's subconscious?)
I've just had a look at the 2014 VCAA exam report. There's a table comparing operant conditioning and classical conditioning. The nature of the response for operant, according to the table is, 'voluntary, intentional response involving central nervous system' and classical conditioning is 'Involuntary/reflexive/unconscious response, involving the autonomic nervous system.'
I can't imagine they would ask for anything like that on a VCAA exam, but ask your teacher about it for sacs

Good Luck :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: thaoot on August 29, 2015, 11:57:32 am
Variable ratio has the highest response rate (and hence can be considered the most effective) because the individual is unaware of when they will be reinforced, and therefore puts in the same amount of effort in each time
If you have a look at your textbook (pg 437 of Grivas book) there is a really good graph that shows the response rate (or just google it :) )

Realised I didn't thank you for helping me out, so thanks for that!! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on September 05, 2015, 06:16:51 pm
Hey, does anybody have practice questions or sacs on anxiety disorder:specific phobia that they are willing to share?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: melissaromeo on September 11, 2015, 10:20:02 pm
Hello, why is informed consent important in psychology research?
Thanks  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on September 22, 2015, 04:59:04 pm
Hello, why is informed consent important in psychology research?
Thanks  :)

I would say that informed consent is crucial in psychological research because it ensures that all participants are fully aware of what an experiment will entail (to the degree that is necessary) and identifies that given this information, they are willing to participate in the experiment (and have commonly shown this in writing).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on September 23, 2015, 08:55:36 pm
What is a memory trace?

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on September 24, 2015, 07:17:18 pm
Hey can someone have a look at the engage educations psychology practice exam A. For section C, question 3 asks us to identify the research design. The answers say independent groups design but I think it may be matched participants design.

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on September 24, 2015, 09:28:16 pm
Hey can someone have a look at the engage educations psychology practice exam A. For section C, question 3 asks us to identify the research design. The answers say independent groups design but I think it may be matched participants design.

Thanks
What makes you think that just out of interest? :) Is it because of saying '36' to each group? If it was matched participants each of two participants would share the same characteristic. Being a boy is a different characteristic to being a girl haha
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on September 24, 2015, 10:25:03 pm
What makes you think that just out of interest? :) Is it because of saying '36' to each group? If it was matched participants each of two participants would share the same characteristic. Being a boy is a different characteristic to being a girl haha

It said in the scenario:
'A teacher from the nursery school worked with the experimenter to rate each child’s personality and attempt to
construct well-balanced groups'

This made me sorta think it was matched-participant design.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: brooke2014 on September 29, 2015, 09:36:05 am
Does anyone have neap 2014 answers?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on October 08, 2015, 08:57:50 am
Hello :)

If we write an operationalised hypothesis when asked to write a 'research hypothesis' or 'hypothesis' in the exam will we lose a mark?
Because my teacher says to operationalise everything... but I've heard the examiners are really picky so would they take off marks for something like that?

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 08, 2015, 12:31:41 pm
Hello :)

If we write an operationalised hypothesis when asked to write a 'research hypothesis' or 'hypothesis' in the exam will we lose a mark?
Because my teacher says to operationalise everything... but I've heard the examiners are really picky so would they take off marks for something like that?

Thanks :)
Don't need to write operationalised hypothesise. If you do you must operationalise the variables correctly or you lose marks. There's an examiners report (one of the recentish ones) in the section c comments about this
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on October 08, 2015, 12:32:31 pm
Yep. If it asks specifically for a research hypothesis, I wouldn't bother operationalising anything.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on October 11, 2015, 09:58:45 am
Confused about the role of the amygdala in memory formation. What do we need to know other than it helps to form stronger memories for highly emotional experiences?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 11, 2015, 10:48:59 am
Confused about the role of the amygdala in memory formation. What do we need to know other than it helps to form stronger memories for highly emotional experiences?

-The acquisition of conditioned fear response
-Processing and regulating emotional reactions, particularly fear and anger.
-Allows you to detect danger and recognise fearful expressions in others
-Encoding and storage of emotional memories.
-Increased amount of neurotransmitter norepinephrine in the amygdala during times of heightened emotional arousal provides a signal to the hippocampus to store important emotion details and strengthen it’s storage
-Learning and memory of fear responses involving implicit memory.

It is believed that the amygdala sends a signal to the hippocampus to ‘tag’ the memory of an emotionally arousing event with important emotional details and strengthen its long-term storage.

Just some things about the amygdala, I think that's all we need to know? Maybe someone else can answer this question better.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 12, 2015, 12:31:38 pm
Just to make sure, we are not required to know about anxiety, schizophrenia, etc for the exam, that was purely for SAC's?

Also can someone please help differentiate between homeostasis and allostasis?

Thank you :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 12, 2015, 01:25:38 pm
Just to make sure, we are not required to know about anxiety, schizophrenia, etc for the exam, that was purely for SAC's?

Also can someone please help differentiate between homeostasis and allostasis?

Thank you :)
Yes I can 100% confirm we do NOT need that knowledge (I guarantee this, but look at the study design if you don't believe a random person like me  :P)
Second part-> homeostasis=body's ability to maintain stability in low fluctuations of the internal and external environment. Allostasis allows the body to achieve stability through change, usually due to high fluctuations in internal/external environment.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 12, 2015, 02:57:23 pm
Yes I can 100% confirm we do NOT need that knowledge (I guarantee this, but look at the study design if you don't believe a random person like me  :P)
Second part-> homeostasis=body's ability to maintain stability in low fluctuations of the internal and external environment. Allostasis allows the body to achieve stability through change, usually due to high fluctuations in internal/external environment.

Yey, good to know! Thanks :)

Do by any chance have an example of allostasis vs homeostasis, I understand how allostasis is stability by change, but isn't homeostasis also by changing . . .   :-X
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 12, 2015, 06:47:57 pm
Yey, good to know! Thanks :)

Do by any chance have an example of allostasis vs homeostasis, I understand how allostasis is stability by change, but isn't homeostasis also by changing . . .   :-X
Nah can't really think of one...if you come across something in multi choice giving a scenario, it's usually the case that the allostatic response will involve a component of the fight-flight response so it's easy enough to pick out if you approach it that way. Maybe as an example, say you're near a venomous snake, you're heart rate increases and perspiration increases to allow the body to maintain stability through change (allostasis). While homeostasis normally keeps the body temperature under control in controlled environments, it wouldn't be able to in this scenario
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 12, 2015, 07:26:35 pm
Nah can't really think of one...if you come across something in multi choice giving a scenario, it's usually the case that the allostatic response will involve a component of the fight-flight response so it's easy enough to pick out if you approach it that way. Maybe as an example, say you're near a venomous snake, you're heart rate increases and perspiration increases to allow the body to maintain stability through change (allostasis). While homeostasis normally keeps the body temperature under control in controlled environments, it wouldn't be able to in this scenario

That sounds good, thanks so much!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on October 13, 2015, 05:26:28 pm
Can someone please explain the difference between a secondary appraisal and a reappraisal?

I'm confused :-\

Thanks! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on October 13, 2015, 06:30:11 pm
Hahaha I just started proper revision but everything is coming back to me
For anyone who uses both textbooks or have multiple sources of notes,
I have encountered two definitions for ATTENTION

- The concentration of mental activity that involves focusing on one specific stimuli whilst ignoring others ( Macmillain and A few other trusted notes sources)
- Something about actively processing information , can't remember it all but IT DID NOT MENTION ANYTHING ABOUT IGNORING SOME STIMULI AND FOCUSING ON OTHERS. the key word was actively processing. ( Oxford written by chief examiner )

so which one do i choose ? :(
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 13, 2015, 06:43:32 pm
Hahaha I just started proper revision but everything is coming back to me
For anyone who uses both textbooks or have multiple sources of notes,
I have encountered two definitions for ATTENTION

- The concentration of mental activity that involves focusing on one specific stimuli whilst ignoring others ( Macmillain and A few other trusted notes sources)
- Something about actively processing information , can't remember it all but IT DID NOT MENTION ANYTHING ABOUT IGNORING SOME STIMULI AND FOCUSING ON OTHERS. the key word was actively processing. ( Oxford written by chief examiner )

so which one do i choose ? :(

I use the first one :/
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on October 13, 2015, 07:08:15 pm
I use the first one :/

Yeah my only concern is that the second one is from the head assessor for psych so idk man
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 13, 2015, 07:26:32 pm
Yeah my only concern is that the second one is from the head assessor for psych so idk man
The first one describes selective attention, not attention in general. Shouldn't really matter though
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 13, 2015, 07:54:35 pm
The first one describes selective attention, not attention in general. Shouldn't really matter though

hmm, yep that's true. So I guess for attention in a general way, you could use: Attention relates to information you are actively processing, either within our conscious awareness, or outside it.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 14, 2015, 06:47:22 pm
Can someone please help me with the following question?

-According to the multi-store model of memory, information is:

A. Stored and processed in each of the three stores.

B. Processed in each of the three stores, but stored only in the long term store.

C. Stored in each of the three stores, but processed only while in the short term store.

D. Processed in the first toe stores, and stored (but not processed) in the long term store.

Answer is A.
What exactly does processing mean?

Also why does spatial neglect only occur in left visual field?

And, is it true that for hemispheric specialisation both hemis can peform the function however one is dominant over the other?

Thanks! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 14, 2015, 07:17:59 pm
Can someone please help me with the following question?

-According to the multi-store model of memory, information is:

A. Stored and processed in each of the three stores.

B. Processed in each of the three stores, but stored only in the long term store.

C. Stored in each of the three stores, but processed only while in the short term store.

D. Processed in the first toe stores, and stored (but not processed) in the long term store.

Answer is A.
What exactly does processing mean?

Also why does spatial neglect only occur in left visual field?

And, is it true that for hemispheric specialisation both hemis can peform the function however one is dominant over the other?

Thanks! :)
Not sure about that multi choice question...VERY doubtful that it'd come up in a vcaa exam (they'll use encoding, storage and retrieval and the question will be simpler).

2nd question. That is not true, spatial neglect can occur as a result of damage to either the left or right parietal lobe. Both of which assist in spatial reasoning, mainly the right parietal lobe though.

3rd question. I wouldn't say that is true. The right hemisphere cannot make a word pronounced (no broca's) whereas the left can, therefore right is dependent on left (so not dominant to it).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: hutchinm on October 15, 2015, 09:49:09 am
Hey just wanting confirmation on being allowed to write answers to the exam in dot point form? and if so are there any tips on how to do it without it seeming disconnected?
Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 16, 2015, 07:30:55 am
Is retrograde/anterograde amnesia to do with our STM or LTM?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 16, 2015, 08:54:45 am
Is retrograde/anterograde amnesia to do with our STM or LTM?
Long term memory! The cause of amnesia is damage to the hippocampi in the medial temporal lobe, the part of the brain that aids in consolidation of info into ltm. bad hippocampi=inability to store (declarative memories that is). This is the case for anterograde amnesia. Retrograde also has LTM affected because while one may be able to use stm still, they cannot retrieve info (retrieval of info is from ltm). :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 16, 2015, 03:43:34 pm
Long term memory! The cause of amnesia is damage to the hippocampi in the medial temporal lobe, the part of the brain that aids in consolidation of info into ltm. bad hippocampi=inability to store (declarative memories that is). This is the case for anterograde amnesia. Retrograde also has LTM affected because while one may be able to use stm still, they cannot retrieve info (retrieval of info is from ltm). :)

Thanks mate :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: ValiantIntellectual on October 17, 2015, 06:41:27 pm
hahah hey guys,
I don't do psych but my little sis goes to macrob which has a pretty strong psych cohort, she has been smashing her sacs by cramming about 2-3 days before. But she hasnt done much for exam prep except light revision,

she is freaking out and has 12 days to the exam, i dropped psych ages ago, any advice her? she is pretty much given up but she is a bright kid!

She doesn't want to start prac exams until she has done enough revision but is that a good idea?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 17, 2015, 06:53:45 pm
hahah hey guys,
I don't do psych but my little sis goes to macrob which has a pretty strong psych cohort, she has been smashing her sacs by cramming about 2-3 days before. But she hasnt done much for exam prep except light revision,

she is freaking out and has 12 days to the exam, i dropped psych ages ago, any advice her? she is pretty much given up but she is a bright kid!

She doesn't want to start prac exams until she has done enough revision but is that a good idea?

I'd say revise if you have completely no idea and literally can't do a practice exam, but if you're a bit rusty and still know most of the content, do practice exams, highlight your weak areas and then revise those.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 17, 2015, 11:15:26 pm
How much of the DSM and ICD stuff do we need to know?
Also can someone please explain the axis' for both manuals?

Thanks aplenty! :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on October 17, 2015, 11:36:09 pm
How much of the DSM and ICD stuff do we need to know?
Also can someone please explain the axis' for both manuals?

Thanks aplenty! :D

So VCAA released a statement saying that they don't mind if students study the DSM V or DSM 4 but must textbooks study DSM 4, either way, Considering they dont mind which DSM u study, we can rationalize that old features in the DSM 4 that don't carry on to the DSM 5 dont need to be studied. However, keep them in the back of your mind as i got this info from the Cheif assesor and he himself said that this is a logical assumption but VCAA have a tendency to twist their rules. So just know everything in your textbook, then maybe do some readings in the other tetxbooks, and you should be able to take on any question vcaa throw at you.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 18, 2015, 12:01:14 am
So VCAA released a statement saying that they don't mind if students study the DSM V or DSM 4 but must textbooks study DSM 4, either way, Considering they dont mind which DSM u study, we can rationalize that old features in the DSM 4 that don't carry on to the DSM 5 dont need to be studied. However, keep them in the back of your mind as i got this info from the Cheif assesor and he himself said that this is a logical assumption but VCAA have a tendency to twist their rules. So just know everything in your textbook, then maybe do some readings in the other tetxbooks, and you should be able to take on any question vcaa throw at you.

Never heard of a DSM V... but thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on October 18, 2015, 07:02:02 pm
Can you make a conclusion to the study even if the results aren't statistically significant? But you can't generalise, right?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 18, 2015, 07:11:23 pm
Can you make a conclusion to the study even if the results aren't statistically significant? But you can't generalise, right?
Kinda. Except the conclusion won't support the hypothesis usually because the results are probably due to chance. So for a hypothesis like 'it is hypothesised that teenagers will perform better on exams if they have coffee during the exam than those who don't' and say we get some statistically insignificant result. We can conclude that coffee does not appear to affect exam performance. Basically you want a statistically significant result so you can be sure the IV affected the DV in the way expected and not by chance, otherwise the conclusion won't support the hypothesis. Make sense? :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 18, 2015, 08:33:18 pm
Anyone got any exam topic predictions or is it totally random?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on October 18, 2015, 11:23:53 pm
Anyone got any exam topic predictions or is it totally random?

they construct the exam by referring the study design, for every dot point, there will be at least 1 mark dedicated to it. Also, they generally try and make the Short answer questions reflect the study design dot points, as in within MIND BRIAN BODY AND SOUL, or AOS 1, only a tiny portion will be dedicated to States of consciousness as there is only one dotpoint. But All the nervous system stuff will probably be focused upon due to the number of dot points. IN short, go through the whole study design and look at each dot point and say, CAN I ANSWER EVERYTHING ABOUT THAT?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 19, 2015, 01:04:39 pm
Can someone please explain why the answer is A? I put C. The assessor's report says: It is difficult to see why many students chose alternative C. Clearly a low to
moderate number of responses would be most efficient. The alternative of
making it easy to lose tokens is precisely how to make a token economy
ineffective, and favourite foods cannot be tokens.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on October 19, 2015, 09:32:31 pm
Can someone please explain why the answer is A? I put C. The assessor's report says: It is difficult to see why many students chose alternative C. Clearly a low to
moderate number of responses would be most efficient. The alternative of
making it easy to lose tokens is precisely how to make a token economy
ineffective, and favourite foods cannot be tokens.
Think about it, would you stick to a token system if you were only rewarded after every 100 trial exams you did? Or would you be more likely to stick to it if you were rewarded for each one you did?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on October 20, 2015, 09:48:02 am
Hey guys for an example of a automatic task- I usually say driving a car whilst maintains a conversations with someone else, but these are TWO separate tasks and driving a car is generally a controlled processs so I don't know if I am specific enough, do I need to say , " Maintaining a conversation " is a automatic process in particular? Sorry if this is a stupid question hahaha wanna make sure I am specific
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 20, 2015, 09:51:00 am
Think about it, would you stick to a token system if you were only rewarded after every 100 trial exams you did? Or would you be more likely to stick to it if you were rewarded for each one you did?

Thanks I understand, the wording of the question confused me. I immediately thought of shaping for alternative A.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 20, 2015, 09:56:33 am
Hey guys for an example of a automatic task- I usually say driving a car whilst maintains a conversations with someone else, but these are TWO separate tasks and driving a car is generally a controlled processs so I don't know if I am specific enough, do I need to say , " Maintaining a conversation " is a automatic process in particular? Sorry if this is a stupid question hahaha wanna make sure I am specific

Good question, would it be that driving and talking are automatic processes as the divided attention is being used?
If they asked for an automatic task can't you just state on thing like talking and then if they ask for controlled you say driving? Hmm just my 2 cents
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 20, 2015, 10:18:57 am
Hey guys for an example of a automatic task- I usually say driving a car whilst maintains a conversations with someone else, but these are TWO separate tasks and driving a car is generally a controlled processs so I don't know if I am specific enough, do I need to say , " Maintaining a conversation " is a automatic process in particular? Sorry if this is a stupid question hahaha wanna make sure I am specific
Don't refer to two tasks, the examiners will think that you've confused divided attention with automatic processing. I'd just say something like knitting as an example. The key points that would get the marks are stating that the person who knits has been doing it for say 20 years and that it is automatic because it requires little mental effort and conscious awareness. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 20, 2015, 11:51:58 am
Are these areas of the brain examinable?
- Cerebellum
- Ventral tegmental area
- Basal Ganglia

They're not in the study design, yet I see them popping up in company trial papers (recently saw them on TSSM 2015 trial paper)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 20, 2015, 11:53:37 am
Are these areas of the brain examinable?
- Cerebellum
- Ventral tegmental area
- Basal Ganglia

They're not in the study design, yet I see them popping up in company trial papers (recently saw them on TSSM 2015 trial paper)
No, no and no. I've never seen them on recent vcaa exams or publications and it isn't taught in any classes of lectures. Safe to say you won't need to know about them
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 20, 2015, 11:55:06 am
No, no and no. I've never seen them on recent vcaa exams or publications and it isn't taught in any classes of lectures. Safe to say you won't need to know about them

Yeah I hope so, dunno why these companies are putting them into the trial papers tho :/
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 20, 2015, 12:17:00 pm
Ok, I just came across a weird multiple choice question on the TSSM 2015 Trial Exam.
It was:
In terms of Holmes and Rahe's life event scale, which life event is rated as the second most stressful life event?
a) Divorce
b) Jail Term
c) Pregnancy
d) Death of a spouse

What the hell is Holmes and Rahe's life event scale? lol...
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 20, 2015, 12:25:27 pm
Ok, I just came across a weird multiple choice question on the TSSM 2015 Trial Exam.
It was:
In terms of Holmes and Rahe's life event scale, which life event is rated as the second most stressful life event?
a) Divorce
b) Jail Term
c) Pregnancy
d) Death of a spouse

What the hell is Holmes and Rahe's life event scale? lol...
2015 exams are stupid haha! It's just some scale that shows heaps of life events and rates them on how much they impact an individual. Other than that I haven't bothered learning anything about it. Although I didn't 100% guarantee the previous things you asked won't be on the exam (even though they basically definitely won't be), I can reassure you that this one will definitely not be on the exam. The only way it could be is if they provided some background info in the question!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 20, 2015, 12:31:29 pm
Can someone please explain how the DSM manual works? I get how there are multiple axis but how are they used? Is it sequential...?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on October 20, 2015, 05:38:59 pm
Don't refer to two tasks, the examiners will think that you've confused divided attention with automatic processing. I'd just say something like knitting as an example. The key points that would get the marks are stating that the person who knits has been doing it for say 20 years and that it is automatic because it requires little mental effort and conscious awareness. :)

thanks!!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on October 21, 2015, 10:26:18 pm
Does anyone know if there are any solutions to the sample vcaa exam?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on October 21, 2015, 11:09:20 pm
Does anyone know if there are any solutions to the sample vcaa exam?

From what I know, there are no sample responses provided.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on October 22, 2015, 04:11:59 pm
Can a conclusion be drawn and the hypothesis supported if the results were statistically significant, although a convenience sampling was used which was not representative of the population?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: coolbeans on October 22, 2015, 06:20:56 pm
How can I remember what type of brain waves are in each sleep stage?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 22, 2015, 07:49:20 pm
How can I remember what type of brain waves are in each sleep stage?

BAT'D

Awake- beta.
NREM 1- alpha.
NREM 2- theta.
NREM 3-theta and delta.
NREM 4-delta (has to be 50% to be stage 4)
 
And then REM is beta like waves. Hope that helps.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on October 23, 2015, 03:52:12 pm
Can a conclusion be drawn and the hypothesis supported if the results were statistically significant, although a convenience sampling was used which was not representative of the population?

A conclusion consists of either supporting or rejecting a hypothesis- so basically you can always draw a conclusion. If the results are significant, you can say that there's evidence that the hypothesis is supported, BUT, you cannot generalise the results to the population as you've used a convenience sample. My teacher says that when you use a convenience sample, say that the results can't be generalised but also say; if the researcher could generalise, then...
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: coolbeans on October 23, 2015, 06:10:23 pm
Could someone please give me a simple explanation on how and why the HPA axis is activated? Thank you xx :-*
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: coolbeans on October 23, 2015, 06:56:54 pm
I also need some strengths and limitations of Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping! xxxx
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 23, 2015, 07:32:17 pm
Could someone please give me a simple explanation on how and why the HPA axis is activated? Thank you xx :-*

The HPA axis is activated when there is a prolonged stress response (e.g stress experienced in the lead up to exams).
The presentation of a stressor stimulates the hypothalamus to release a hormone that in turn stimulates the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland releases a hormone called ACTH which travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex then releases the stress hormone cortisol which is involved in energising the body and causing heightened arousal. Prolonged release of cortisol causes an immunodeficiency thus causes a person to become ill. That's kind of why people get sick physically when they're stressed.  Hope that helps.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 23, 2015, 07:46:15 pm
I also need some strengths and limitations of Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping! xxxx

Strengths:


-Unlike the fight/flight and HPA axis, this model uses a cognitive approach to explain stress especially one that we can have control over.
-Explains why individuals have differing responses to stress; There is variability.
-By including a reappraisal process, this model accounts for the fact that our perception of stress may change.
-Proposes different methods of coping, managing psychological responses to stressors.
-Used human subjects.

Limitations:

-Difficult to test through experimental research because of subjectivity and variability.
-The primary and secondary appraisals often occur simultaneously and are therefore difficult to isolate in research.
-Does not account for the fact that a stress response can occur without having an appraisal.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 23, 2015, 07:53:59 pm
Can someone please help with some questions from the 2014 paper?

Mikaela, a healthy adult female, is learning Italian for the first time.
Question 5
As she forms new memories of the Italian language, Mikaela is most likely to experience an increase in
A. the size of her amygdala.
B. gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels.
C. the number of neurons in her hippocampus.
D. the number of neural connections in her temporal lobe.

I put C but the answer is D. Can someone explain why?

Also,

Question 18.
One of the complex tasks required Madeleine to complete a jigsaw puzzle.
During this task, the lobe of the brain that would show the greatest neuronal activation would be the
A. left frontal lobe.
B. left occipital lobe.
C. right parietal lobe.
D. right temporal lobe.

Answer is C. Can someone explain this as well. I said A.

Lastly, has someone completed the research methods section of this exam that got full marks or close to full marks?

THANKS so much!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 23, 2015, 08:25:21 pm
Can someone please help with some questions from the 2014 paper?

Mikaela, a healthy adult female, is learning Italian for the first time.
Question 5
As she forms new memories of the Italian language, Mikaela is most likely to experience an increase in
A. the size of her amygdala.
B. gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels.
C. the number of neurons in her hippocampus.
D. the number of neural connections in her temporal lobe.

I put C but the answer is D. Can someone explain why?

Also,

Question 18.
One of the complex tasks required Madeleine to complete a jigsaw puzzle.
During this task, the lobe of the brain that would show the greatest neuronal activation would be the
A. left frontal lobe.
B. left occipital lobe.
C. right parietal lobe.
D. right temporal lobe.

Answer is C. Can someone explain this as well. I said A.

Lastly, has someone completed the research methods section of this exam that got full marks or close to full marks?

THANKS so much!!
Q5. Good to see you immediately ruled out A and B. This question more or less is taking a plasticity perspective. Because she is an adult it is likely that pretty much all neural proliferation has occured. The main change at the synapse in learning is sprouting of dendritic connections, not proliferation (since this is characteristic of developmental plast).
Q18. I think they've thrown you with the word 'complex', which is good that you've linked this to option A. However, as you should know, the parietal lobe is critical to spatial reasoning (ie fitting a jigsaw piece into a puzzle by spatial recognition that its shape is complementary. It's easy to remember the function of this lobe because patients with damage to it have spatial neglect (obviously it must be linked to spatial awareness). As for the hemispheric choice, well the right is primarily dominant for spatial reasoning, and the left hemi controls more logical tasks like maths (doing a jigsaw doesn't require much ground-breaking thought, more just recognition of shapes and position.
Can't help on the research question, I only got 3 marks for the final 10 mark question...otherwise I could help on the hypothesis and stat question but I think you sound like you'd be okay with that! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 23, 2015, 08:46:53 pm
Q5. Good to see you immediately ruled out A and B. This question more or less is taking a plasticity perspective. Because she is an adult it is likely that pretty much all neural proliferation has occured. The main change at the synapse in learning is sprouting of dendritic connections, not proliferation (since this is characteristic of developmental plast).
Q18. I think they've thrown you with the word 'complex', which is good that you've linked this to option A. However, as you should know, the parietal lobe is critical to spatial reasoning (ie fitting a jigsaw piece into a puzzle by spatial recognition that its shape is complementary. It's easy to remember the function of this lobe because patients with damage to it have spatial neglect (obviously it must be linked to spatial awareness). As for the hemispheric choice, well the right is primarily dominant for spatial reasoning, and the left hemi controls more logical tasks like maths (doing a jigsaw doesn't require much ground-breaking thought, more just recognition of shapes and position.
Can't help on the research question, I only got 3 marks for the final 10 mark question...otherwise I could help on the hypothesis and stat question but I think you sound like you'd be okay with that! :)

Makes super sense thanks heaaaps your explanations are great! :D
And about that research question, it was the 10 marker that I struggled with as well. The last part about the p-value interpretation of results just wasn't explained well for me in the examiner report... Apparently no one got a full mark for that section, but then how to people get 50 SS...
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on October 23, 2015, 08:50:16 pm
I know this question has been asked a lot, but can someone please double confirm with me that you will not lose marks if you correctly operationalize a hypothesis when it asks for a research hypothesis?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 23, 2015, 09:01:41 pm
Makes super sense thanks heaaaps your explanations are great! :D
And about that research question, it was the 10 marker that I struggled with as well. The last part about the p-value interpretation of results just wasn't explained well for me in the examiner report... Apparently no one got a full mark for that section, but then how to people get 50 SS...
It show's the percentage of people that got full marks (not the number of people, there's more than 100 people that did psych last year  ;) ). So there would of been a few that would of gotten full marks, but not enough to represent a rounded percentage of the state.

I know this question has been asked a lot, but can someone please double confirm with me that you will not lose marks if you correctly operationalize a hypothesis when it asks for a research hypothesis?
If you operationalize, you must do it correctly or you will lose marks, if you don't than that's fine, vcaa stated they only will only require a research hypothesis.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 23, 2015, 10:03:00 pm
For section C, would it be okay to structure your writing in terms of the dot points they give you? So for each dot point, you use it as a subheading?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Unblemished on October 24, 2015, 03:23:32 pm
For section C, would it be okay to structure your writing in terms of the dot points they give you? So for each dot point, you use it as a subheading?

Certainly, as long as you elaborate a lot and make it informative. Personally however, I just write it in paragraphs so I can link ideas easily.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 24, 2015, 08:13:13 pm
Can someone please help me with the strengths and limitations for the theories of forgetting? At least for Ebbinghaus forgetting curve? Thanks :) 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: elysian on October 24, 2015, 08:38:20 pm
How would you set up section c for the exam? Do you need to write an introduction or just go straight into listing the IVs and DVs etc.?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on October 24, 2015, 08:41:23 pm
How would you set up section c for the exam? Do you need to write an introduction or just go straight into listing the IVs and DVs etc.?

They'll usually give you dot points of what to include. I reckon just use each as a heading and talk about them, they wont mark you on introductions and that, rather, what they actually prompted you to answer. My psych teacher is an examiner, she says don't bother with being englishy, just get straight to the point.
That being said, if they asked for an intro, include it, though I doubt they will.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on October 24, 2015, 10:16:16 pm
Should you be including anything beyond the dotpoints provided in the section C 10 mark question?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on October 25, 2015, 01:34:17 pm
How does the discriminative stimulus indicate the consequence?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on October 25, 2015, 08:14:10 pm
How does the discriminative stimulus indicate the consequence?

I don't think so, from class the idea was the D.S sets the conditions right for behavior and the consequence is a response to the behavior.
If this is an actual exam question, then I actually have no clue :P Maybe say something along the lines of " The D.S makes the conditions right for the Behaviour and the consequences follows as a repsonse to the behaviour". idk :P
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Unblemished on October 25, 2015, 08:18:34 pm
I don't think so, from class the idea was the D.S sets the conditions right for behavior and the consequence is a response to the behavior.
If this is an actual exam question, then I actually have no clue :P Maybe say something along the lines of " The D.S makes the conditions right for the Behaviour and the consequences follows as a repsonse to the behaviour". idk :P


I think you're right. To me, the antecedent / DS is the condition required for the behaviour to occur. This in turn is reinforced by the consequences (eg getting lollies )
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Unblemished on October 25, 2015, 08:20:19 pm
Should you be including anything beyond the dotpoints provided in the section C 10 mark question?

Depends really. What will you be talking about? I would always write about EVs and ways to minimise them if possible etc. If the question is a discussion of the results and conclusion, then obviously don't write the intro or method. If you link your information to the dot points, you are more likely to get marks.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 25, 2015, 08:26:19 pm
Can someone please help me with the strengths and limitations for the theories of forgetting? At least for Ebbinghaus forgetting curve? Thanks :)

Anyone? I can't find answers for it anywhere and it's part of the SD.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 25, 2015, 09:38:32 pm
Anyone? I can't find answers for it anywhere and it's part of the SD.
For ebbinghaus, it's not really a theory of forgetting as such, it's just his results which kind of link in with decay theory (nonsense syllables faded if they weren't rehearsed).
Motivated forgetting: strength-this one is common sense, people who experience traumatic shiz recall it less than positive events
                                 limitation-people do not always forget traumatic shiz, as much as they might want to they just can't

retrieval failure: strength-tip of the tongue phenomenon, suggests retrieval is not all or nothing
                          limitation-we can't be certain we actually encoded information, like you might try to recall something and use cues to try recall it, but perhaps you never even encoded what you were looking for, we can't show this though.

decay theory: strength-it is about the physical action of neurons, therefore more measurable scientifically than the other theories
                       limitation-doesn't explain why an old person may not be able to recall a memory which occured recently-ish but can for some reason recall a specific childhood memory better

interference theory: strength-can be shown through experiments
                                limitation-doesn't account for shit the other theories do

semantic network theory: strength-research has shown people usually take longer on questions such as like 'does a crab has claws?' in comparison to taking longer for 'is a crab a verterbrate?' (because verterbrate is likely to be a distantly linked concept to crab, conversely claws are very closely linked)
                                         limitation-activation direction depends on the strength of the link, not necessarily the heirarchy

Dunno, pretty basic rundown, this stuff is rarely on exams (which is quite surprising considering it's labelled so explicitly on the study design).
edit: disregard semantic network theory, forgot you said forgetting theories  :P )
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on October 25, 2015, 09:39:57 pm
Anyone? I can't find answers for it anywhere and it's part of the SD.

Hi anta0my,

Off the top of my head:
- a weakness of motivated forgetting theory is that it would be unethical to experimentally test this, so evidence for this theory relies on case studies which are not the most reliable sources of information
- a weakness of decay theory is the fact that some unused memories are seemingly carried for life, which is contradictory to this theory
- a weakness of Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve is that he derived the curve from nonsense syllables, while forgetting over time for other, more realistic things might not follow this exact trend.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 25, 2015, 10:04:06 pm
For ebbinghaus, it's not really a theory of forgetting as such, it's just his results which kind of link in with decay theory (nonsense syllables faded if they weren't rehearsed).
Motivated forgetting: strength-this one is common sense, people who experience traumatic shiz recall it less than positive events
                                 limitation-people do not always forget traumatic shiz, as much as they might want to they just can't

retrieval failure: strength-tip of the tongue phenomenon, suggests retrieval is not all or nothing
                          limitation-we can't be certain we actually encoded information, like you might try to recall something and use cues to try recall it, but perhaps you never even encoded what you were looking for, we can't show this though.

decay theory: strength-it is about the physical action of neurons, therefore more measurable scientifically than the other theories
                       limitation-doesn't explain why an old person may not be able to recall a memory which occured recently-ish but can for some reason recall a specific childhood memory better

interference theory: strength-can be shown through experiments
                                limitation-doesn't account for shit the other theories do

semantic network theory: strength-research has shown people usually take longer on questions such as like 'does a crab has claws?' in comparison to taking longer for 'is a crab a verterbrate?' (because verterbrate is likely to be a distantly linked concept to crab, conversely claws are very closely linked)
                                         limitation-activation direction depends on the strength of the link, not necessarily the heirarchy

Dunno, pretty basic rundown, this stuff is rarely on exams (which is quite surprising considering it's labelled so explicitly on the study design).
edit: disregard semantic network theory, forgot you said forgetting theories  :P )

Thank youu Psych MVP! :)

Hi anta0my,

Off the top of my head:
- a weakness of motivated forgetting theory is that it would be unethical to experimentally test this, so evidence for this theory relies on case studies which are not the most reliable sources of information
- a weakness of decay theory is the fact that some unused memories are seemingly carried for life, which is contradictory to this theory
- a weakness of Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve is that he derived the curve from nonsense syllables, while forgetting over time for other, more realistic things might not follow this exact trend.

Thanks so much!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: sheeep on October 25, 2015, 11:28:07 pm
2012 Paper 1, multiple choice question 17's answer is D, does anyone know why?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on October 26, 2015, 12:26:56 am
Hi could someone explain why the answer to this question (VCAA 2014) is A?

Question 36
This year Dave married, started a new business and his first child was born. Dave’s allostatic load would have
A. changed, depending on how he appraised these situations.
B. stayed the same.
C. decreased.
D. increased.

I thought it was D since both eustress and distress involve increased physiological arousal... so shouldn't they both increase the level of stress hormones (and hence allostatic load?)

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on October 26, 2015, 12:39:05 am
Hi could someone explain why the answer to this question (VCAA 2014) is A?

Question 36
This year Dave married, started a new business and his first child was born. Dave’s allostatic load would have
A. changed, depending on how he appraised these situations.
B. stayed the same.
C. decreased.
D. increased.

I thought it was D since both eustress and distress involve increased physiological arousal... so shouldn't they both increase the level of stress hormones (and hence allostatic load?)

Thanks :)

I did Year 12 Psych two years ago, but I'll give it a shot:
I'd say it's A since we don't know whether Dave will experience more or less stress due to these life changes. That all depends on how he 'appraises', or interprets and evaluates, these changes. Although it would be easy to jump to the conclusion that Dave experiences more stress, whether it be distress or eustress, perhaps Dave views getting married as an extra source of support. Similarly, perhaps starting his own business gives Dave more freedom. So, Dave might appraise these two situations as giving him MORE resources to cope with life, and therefore he is less likely to experience stress. On the other hand, Dave could feel as though he lacks the abilities to effectively run a business on his own, which could lead him to experience more stress and thereby increase his allostatic load. We don't know; it depends on the individual's appraisal.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 26, 2015, 10:19:57 am
2012 Paper 1, multiple choice question 17's answer is D, does anyone know why?

I worked this one out by elimination;
-It can't be A because the right hemisphere is NOT verbal.
-it can't be B because the left hemisphere is actually involved in controlling movement of the right side of the body, this is contrary to what this alternative says.
-it can't be C because is it in fact the right hemisphere that is specialised in object recognition and spatial reasoning.
-So therefore the answer is D, and we also know that it is the left hemisphere that is involved in logical thinking and problem solving so we can deduce that it has an executive function.

My approach to this question may be different but I hope it helped.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on October 26, 2015, 10:43:45 am
I worked this one out by elimination;
-It can't be A because the right hemisphere is NOT verbal.
-it can't be B because the left hemisphere is actually involved in controlling movement of the right side of the body, this is contrary to what this alternative says.
-it can't be C because is it in fact the right hemisphere that is specialised in object recognition and spatial reasoning.
-So therefore the answer is D, and we also know that it is the left hemisphere that is involved in logical thinking and problem solving so we can deduce that it has an executive function.

My approach to this question may be different but I hope it helped.

Yep, I agree with anat0my. When first looking at the question, I wouldn't automatically choose D but by the process of elimination, the other 3 options are just factually incorrect.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on October 26, 2015, 02:37:58 pm
Can developmental plasticity also involve rerouting and sprouting or does this only what occurs in adaptive plasticity? Similarly does circuit formation and pruning also occur adaptive plasticity (throughout the lifespan)?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on October 26, 2015, 05:24:44 pm
Sorry for so many questions, but if the p-value is set at p<0.05 does that mean a p-value of 0.05 is considered statistically insignificant?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 26, 2015, 05:35:45 pm
Can developmental plasticity also involve rerouting and sprouting or does this only what occurs in adaptive plasticity? Similarly does circuit formation and pruning also occur adaptive plasticity (throughout the lifespan)?

I think rerouting is characteristically adaptive plasticity. I don't think pruning occurs in adaptive. Just my 2cents.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on October 26, 2015, 05:36:24 pm
Sorry for so many questions, but if the p-value is set at p<0.05 does that mean a p-value of 0.05 is considered statistically insignificant?

I could definitely be wrong here, but I don't think p values are ever expressed as being equal to a value, but rather only ever as being less than or greater than a particular value, considering that they are derived from a continuous probability distribution.
If someone knows better, please correct me.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 26, 2015, 05:37:44 pm
Sorry for so many questions, but if the p-value is set at p<0.05 does that mean a p-value of 0.05 is considered statistically insignificant?

I think it still is statistically significant because it's set at 0.05 OR less than that. Btw don't worry keep the questions coming :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Rob16 on October 27, 2015, 02:38:57 pm
Do you include the population in an operationalised IV? (not in the hypothesis, just the operationalised IV by itself) E.g. whether VCE students use acrostics or acronyms or whether participants use acrostics of acronyms?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on October 27, 2015, 02:43:21 pm
Do you include the population in an operationalised IV? (not in the hypothesis, just the operationalised IV by itself) E.g. whether VCE students use acrostics or acronyms or whether participants use acrostics of acronyms?

I would say that you don't have to. My understanding is that the operationalised hypothesis needs to include the target population, whereas the operationalised IV must simply state the IV in terms of how it will be measured. That being said, I doubt you'd be marked incorrect for writing 'VCE students' as opposed to 'participants' in your operationalised IV.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: warya on October 27, 2015, 03:08:28 pm
Could someone please explain how retrieval theory and semantic network theory and elaborative rehersal are related?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on October 27, 2015, 03:22:33 pm
Could someone please explain how retrieval theory and semantic network theory and elaborative rehersal are related?

I can try, although this stuff is fuzzy for me.
Basically, elaborative rehearsal involves adding meaning to the information that you are trying to remember. Now, semantic network theory states that memories in long-term memory are stored, connected to one another and retrieved based on meaning. So, combining elaborative rehearsal with semantic network theory, if you use elaborative rehearsal to remember something you will link that thing to existing semantic networks within your long-term memory. This will make the new information easier to retrieve, as you will now have a bunch of cues via the semantic networks.


Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on October 27, 2015, 05:02:40 pm
Could someone please explain how retrieval theory and semantic network theory and elaborative rehersal are related?

Ok so, when info is eleboratively rehearsed, info is given meaning or associations with previous information in memory, it semantically encodes the information into our LTM and allows for it to fit into semantic networks through making these associations. Retrieval theory states our ability to retrive info is imapired from not having enough cues or not using cues correctly in order to recover and locate info in LTM,semantic networks provide links that associate different nodes or units of info which can serve as cues that assist in recollection of that info. Hence, info that is elabaortively reharsed or info organised in a semantic network is less resistant to forgetting under the retrieval theory of forgetting due to the links and associations that connect different nodes that can function as cues.

so essentially the above hahaha just relaised someone alreayd answered, just remember to highlight the links between all three concepts,
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: I am a unicorn on October 28, 2015, 12:44:22 pm
Why are continuous schedules of reinforcement most easily extinguished?
Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on October 28, 2015, 04:15:22 pm
Could someone please give me a quick run-down of developmental plasticity?

Specifically relating to migration, circuit formation, synaptogenesis, proliferation, synaptic pruning and myelination!?!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: sparkyblossom on October 28, 2015, 04:55:25 pm
Could someone please give me a quick run-down of developmental plasticity?

Specifically relating to migration, circuit formation, synaptogenesis, proliferation, synaptic pruning and myelination!?!

Developmental plasticity basically includes these 5 components:
Migration - the neurons move to their destined location, thus their role is also determined
Proliferation - the cells that will become neurons multiply and divide
Circuit formation - neural pathways are formed between neurons
Synaptic pruning - any excess/useless neurons and synapses are gotten rid of
Myelination - the neurons are myelinated
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anat0my on October 28, 2015, 11:18:06 pm
GOODLUCK tomorrow everyone!  ;D

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: sparkyblossom on October 29, 2015, 12:17:18 pm
How'd you all find the exam? :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Sarah P on October 29, 2015, 12:30:39 pm
How'd you all find the exam? :)

I didn't find it that bad compared to others in my year, but there were way too many questions on stress! :'(
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: brenden on October 29, 2015, 12:47:14 pm
Psychology exam discussion here! atarnotes.com/forum/index.php?topic=163185.msg850742#msg850742
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Apink! on November 17, 2015, 11:52:50 am
Hello,

would someone mind helping me out (I have my psych exam tomorrow :P)

What is the difference between personality, temperament, character and mood?
I'm confused
pls help :)

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on November 24, 2015, 06:34:19 pm
hey guys, just a question that's sorta psych related, but not exactly. So basically my question is: Should i use time to create my own extensive list of notes or should i just use others' notes that have already been created? i could make my own, and i do see the benefits of doing so, but it seems time-consuming (especially if i did this for all my subjects) ! thanks guuysss :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on November 24, 2015, 11:07:40 pm
hey guys, just a question that's sorta psych related, but not exactly. So basically my question is: Should i use time to create my own extensive list of notes or should i just use others' notes that have already been created? i could make my own, and i do see the benefits of doing so, but it seems time-consuming (especially if i did this for all my subjects) ! thanks guuysss :)

I did psych this year.... IMO DONT MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES!!!!
If anything, purely write out some basic superficial notes in class during the class lectures, this allowed to process the information a lot better when I was writing it down. The main reason I say not to make your own notes is because
1) You don't want to deviate from the specific wording of the textbook and of other company notes - I did this a lot an ended up screwing up my notes because I misinterpreted what was key and wasn't. I AM NOT SAYING THAT YOU SHOULD ROTE LEARN THE TEXTBOOK OR COMPANY NOTES, but I suggest you get familiar with the manner in which they talk about the topic and what is emphasised opposed to spending time on actually translating the content into your own words and recording them as notes.
2) Time, I never found it to be a useful way to use my time, I preferred familiarizing myself with the TEXTBOOK ( OXFORD is written by the Ex chief examiner) and being able to use similar language in my sacs.

If anything, I highly suggest you annotate your textbook with new information you learn in class or key examples you may want to use, also I did take notes in class but this was purely so I could copy down HOW the teacher talked or spoke about the concept themselves and I would then analyse the way they spoke about the topic so I could use similar language in my answers. After all, your sacs are marked by the people teaching you, you may as well use what they teach you in your sac responses.

Regardless it is all up to the individual, the strategy can get very messy come exam time, I relied on the textbook and my short term memory for SACS but that didn't work out well for the exam.....
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on November 25, 2015, 12:24:38 pm
I did psych this year.... IMO DONT MAKE YOUR OWN NOTES!!!!
If anything, purely write out some basic superficial notes in class during the class lectures, this allowed to process the information a lot better when I was writing it down. The main reason I say not to make your own notes is because
1) You don't want to deviate from the specific wording of the textbook and of other company notes - I did this a lot an ended up screwing up my notes because I misinterpreted what was key and wasn't. I AM NOT SAYING THAT YOU SHOULD ROTE LEARN THE TEXTBOOK OR COMPANY NOTES, but I suggest you get familiar with the manner in which they talk about the topic and what is emphasised opposed to spending time on actually translating the content into your own words and recording them as notes.
2) Time, I never found it to be a useful way to use my time, I preferred familiarizing myself with the TEXTBOOK ( OXFORD is written by the Ex chief examiner) and being able to use similar language in my sacs.

If anything, I highly suggest you annotate your textbook with new information you learn in class or key examples you may want to use, also I did take notes in class but this was purely so I could copy down HOW the teacher talked or spoke about the concept themselves and I would then analyse the way they spoke about the topic so I could use similar language in my answers. After all, your sacs are marked by the people teaching you, you may as well use what they teach you in your sac responses.

Regardless it is all up to the individual, the strategy can get very messy come exam time, I relied on the textbook and my short term memory for SACS but that didn't work out well for the exam.....

ahh thank you :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Burt Macklin on November 25, 2015, 03:25:05 pm
hey guys, just a question that's sorta psych related, but not exactly. So basically my question is: Should i use time to create my own extensive list of notes or should i just use others' notes that have already been created? i could make my own, and i do see the benefits of doing so, but it seems time-consuming (especially if i did this for all my subjects) ! thanks guuysss :)
IMO I think you should be creating your own notes -- but that doesn't mean you shouldn't refer to other people's notes and mould it. Personally, it helped me a lot by organising the content in a way that makes sense to ME, making it easier to digest and understand.

But writing  your own notes also means you should be putting every effort in conveying the content with psychological language (probably the most important thing to do in Psych). So if you're writing your own notes AND you have this awareness, you should be pretty set with a solid, conceptual understanding that will help you with the application that Psych is heading towards (as opposed to just reading other people's notes in a rote manner, or not really getting a solid understanding). (SIDENOTE: I'd be careful just using ONE textbook for definitions and notes - try to model your notes off a combination of teacher handouts, other textbooks if you can (Grivas, Edwards etc.), exam reports, studyON, guides etc. This is because some textbooks may be dodgy in some areas -- e.g. the Oxford textbook doesn't cover Mental Health very well - so you'd get better psychological language from other sources such as the Grivas textbook)

Also, it shouldn't be time-consuming at all if you systematically write notes for each chapter / dot point(s) in the study design say every week or so. That way you have a full set of notes ready to go once exams loom close and won't be rushing like others to create notes.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Robert243 on December 23, 2015, 05:38:43 pm
Hey guys does anyone know where to find the answers/solution for the topic test in the oxford textbooks.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: purplegiraffe on January 03, 2016, 08:45:06 pm
Hey is there a definition for 'Alcohol Induced State'?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: foodieisanunderstatement on January 04, 2016, 12:10:26 pm
I'm a bit confused about the difference between awareness, consciousness and attention.. or how they're related? What does it mean when they say that attention is actively processing something? and can you be pay attention to something without being conscious of it?

Lastly, what exactly is the definition of content limitations?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: The Usual Student on January 04, 2016, 04:26:40 pm
I'm a bit confused about the difference between awareness, consciousness and attention.. or how they're related? What does it mean when they say that attention is actively processing something? and can you be pay attention to something without being conscious of it?

Lastly, what exactly is the definition of content limitations?

awareness and consciousness are pretty interchangeable tbh
attention is like a spot light where you actually focus on something and by "actively processing" they essentially mean putting a bit more emphasis or mental concentration into what you are aware of, for example, you are paying attention to the words i am writing and hence you are actively processing it but the ATARNOTES logo above is in your awareness but not actively processed.

C
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Burt Macklin on January 07, 2016, 10:09:16 pm
Hey is there a definition for 'Alcohol Induced State'?
An altered state of consciousness due to the consumption of alcohol?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: foodieisanunderstatement on January 08, 2016, 08:42:56 pm
awareness and consciousness are pretty interchangeable tbh
attention is like a spot light where you actually focus on something and by "actively processing" they essentially mean putting a bit more emphasis or mental concentration into what you are aware of, for example, you are paying attention to the words i am writing and hence you are actively processing it but the ATARNOTES logo above is in your awareness but not actively processed.

C

Thanks! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on January 19, 2016, 07:11:56 pm
Hi guys, im doing my Psychology summary for researh methods and in the study design it mentions 'Ways of minimising confounding and extraneous variables including type of experiment'
Im just confused on what i write under the subheading type of experiment
Any feedback is appreciated thank you!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: foodieisanunderstatement on January 19, 2016, 09:58:40 pm
Hi guys, im doing my Psychology summary for researh methods and in the study design it mentions 'Ways of minimising confounding and extraneous variables including type of experiment'
Im just confused on what i write under the subheading type of experiment
Any feedback is appreciated thank you!

I think it means whether the experiment is Repeated Measures (eliminates effects of participant variables such as personality traits), Matched Participants (eliminates effects of the confounding variable the participants are "matched" on) or Independent Groups (eliminates bias as long as the sample is large enough). So those three would be your sub-sub headings (or whatever you call headings under subheadings  :-X) and you would add the advantages and disadvantages of each under that. 

Hope that helps!! :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on January 19, 2016, 11:24:18 pm
I think it means whether the experiment is Repeated Measures (eliminates effects of participant variables such as personality traits), Matched Participants (eliminates effects of the confounding variable the participants are "matched" on) or Independent Groups (eliminates bias as long as the sample is large enough). So those three would be your sub-sub headings (or whatever you call headings under subheadings  :-X) and you would add the advantages and disadvantages of each under that. 

Hope that helps!! :D

Oh i get it now thank you so much :)  :) :) :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on January 20, 2016, 12:14:27 pm
Hi guys, im doing my Psychology summary for researh methods and in the study design it mentions 'Ways of minimising confounding and extraneous variables including type of experiment'
Im just confused on what i write under the subheading type of experiment
Any feedback is appreciated thank you!

Quote from: foodieisanunderstatement
I think it means whether the experiment is Repeated Measures (eliminates effects of participant variables such as personality traits), Matched Participants (eliminates effects of the confounding variable the participants are "matched" on) or Independent Groups (eliminates bias as long as the sample is large enough). So those three would be your sub-sub headings (or whatever you call headings under subheadings  :-X) and you would add the advantages and disadvantages of each under that. 

Hope that helps!! :D

Good discussion! I'm not sure I agree with this, though.

On the study design (I'm looking at page 22 in particular), VCAA outlines experimental research, including both:

- "type of experiment"; and
- "types of experimental research designs including independent-groups, matched-participants, repeated-measures".

From what I glean, then, 'type of experiment' and 'type of experimental research design' are different things you need to know.

Foodieisanunderstatement provided some good advantages of each experimental research design. My understanding is that 'type of experiment' refers to things such as case studies, observation, interviews, surveys and psychological tests.

To quote from this page:

Case studies
Case studies involve observation of an individual or individuals over a period of time. The findings cannot be generalised as each case is specific.

Observation
Observation involves natural observation (watching the subject behave in their natural environment), which is realistic but uncontrolled, and controlled observation (watching the subject behave in an ‘artificial’ environment), which can be manipulated but is less realistic.

Interview
Interviews include structured interviews, where there are pre-determined questions and fixed responses, and clinical interviews, where there is more flexibility.

Surveys
Surveys are easy to compare, and allow for data to be quantified, but may produce limited or biased responses.

Psychological tests
Psychological tests (an intelligence quotient test, for example) are easy to replicate and compare, but are subjective in validity.

Regardless, I don't think it's a particularly significant part of the course.

All the best. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: japanese on January 24, 2016, 10:42:43 pm
What biases are present in convenient sampling?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on January 25, 2016, 12:39:47 am
What biases are present in convenient sampling?

Hi japanese,

As you may know, convenience sampling is based on, well, convenience. Basically, that just means selecting people from the population to be part of the research based on what is going to be quickest, easier, or most financially effective. Or a combination of the three.

Sounds great, right? Yeah, but as you note, convenience sampling is likely to come with a number of biases. The types of biases depends a little on the research sample at hand, but here are some possibilities.

- Skewed toward age. Say Mrs. Brown, for example, is conducing a study on the impact of sleep deprivation on school results in secondary school students. Mrs. Brown is a Year 12 teacher, so she just uses her Year 12 class as the sample - it would be much quicker and easier that way. But that's not reflective of the entire population, because it would only include 17-18 year olds, rather than 12-18 year olds.

- Skewed toward capability. Say there's a study on the impact of drug use on literacy levels. The study acquires its participants through on a 'first come, first serve' basis after advertising in the local paper. Because you need to be able to read to understand the written ad, the study is already skewed toward those who can read in the first place.

- Skewed toward location. A study, say, on the impact of country of residence (Australia or Japan) on mental health. But the study is being conducted in a remote town in Australia, so only Australians from that remote town are selected to 'represent' the entire nation.

These aren't great examples (this response is replacing sleep haha), and I'm happy to be challenged, here. But the point is that, depending on the situation, there are a lot of possible biases. Gender, height, wealth, personality, experience, and so on. Did you have a particular scenario in mind, or was it more of a general question? :)

All the best!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Robert243 on February 09, 2016, 02:55:39 pm
Hey guys, when describing something such as level of awareness or cognition or time orientation in nwc what word do you use?i know in asc you would say something such as distorted ?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yearningforsimplicity on February 09, 2016, 04:44:52 pm
Hey guys, when describing something such as level of awareness or cognition or time orientation in nwc what word do you use?i know in asc you would say something such as distorted ?

For level of awareness in NWC, you can use terms such as: clear, alert, awake
For cognition in NWC, you can say: clear, logical, rational, systematic, organised thoughts
For time orientation in NWC, you could use: flowing, clear, distinct sense of time :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: friedchromosome on February 18, 2016, 06:56:54 pm
Couple questions, are the text book questions worth spending time on? most of the learning activities just seem either straight forward or even irrelevant?
Also what are the most useful resources e.g. checkpoints etc??
thanks in advance
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scout on February 20, 2016, 11:35:36 pm
Hi guys

Can you ever really tell whether a variable is confounding or not in an experiment in the exam (for example)?

Also, aren't extraneous variables and potentially confounding variables the same thing (since they're potential, they may or may not affect the DV, just like for extraneous variables)?

Thanks  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cameotodd on March 01, 2016, 10:07:17 pm
TSSM sacs are pretty horrible lol, would not recommend them at all and I usually found that they consistently had the wrong answers in solutions and some of their '2015 exams and sacs' contained content from previous study designs.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on March 02, 2016, 09:56:23 am
TSSM sacs are pretty horrible lol, would not recommend them at all and I usually found that they consistently had the wrong answers in solutions and some of their '2015 exams and sacs' contained content from previous study designs.

thanks, my teacher move on from them THANK GOD LOL :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on March 08, 2016, 07:14:28 pm
are the following correct:

short term memory has a capacity of approx. 7 +- 2. It's duration is approx 12-20 seconds (some books say 18-20 , not too sure bout this?)

Echoic memory has a longer duration as most auditory information (words like electroencephalograph) are generally quite long, so they tale some time to process , and hence have a longer duration. OR Echoic Memory interprets sound waves which continue to vibrate in your ear, specifically in the Cochlea of the ear, which causes action potential and sensations, and hence it's duration increases

confused as to if that's right  :o
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 16FreemanR on March 29, 2016, 07:24:41 pm
are the following correct:

short term memory has a capacity of approx. 7 +- 2. It's duration is approx 12-20 seconds (some books say 18-20 , not too sure bout this?)

Echoic memory has a longer duration as most auditory information (words like electroencephalograph) are generally quite long, so they tale some time to process , and hence have a longer duration. OR Echoic Memory interprets sound waves which continue to vibrate in your ear, specifically in the Cochlea of the ear, which causes action potential and sensations, and hence it's duration increases

confused as to if that's right  :o

Yep your right about the short term memory capacity, as for the duration you can say anything between 18-30 seconds without rehearsal, they are fairly lenient on the exam as different books say different things
For the echoic memory I have never heard those descriptions as for why it has a longer duration but I would say that it has a longer duration because it is important for understanding speech sounds and linking them together so you hear the whole word/sentence rather than each individual sound (it the duration was shorter we would only hear individual sounds which would now make much sense, the longer duration allows us to group the sounds together and make them meaningful). Compared to iconic memory which has a short duration so you can see smoothly as the next image overlaps the old image.
A classic example of this is when someone asks you a question and you immediately say what, but once you say what you realise the answer to their question, their question has been held in echoic memory and you have been able to re access it because of its longer duration
Hope this helps!  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 16FreemanR on March 29, 2016, 07:37:01 pm
Hi guys

Can you ever really tell whether a variable is confounding or not in an experiment in the exam (for example)?

Also, aren't extraneous variables and potentially confounding variables the same thing (since they're potential, they may or may not affect the DV, just like for extraneous variables)?

Thanks  :)
Yes you should be able to, A confounding variable is identified after the experiment is completed and is thought to have affected the dependent variable. These variables are any other factors that may have influenced the results.
It could be any thing, age, gender, height, motivation, intelligence, hand eye coordination, so long has it can influence how the participant performs during the experiment in relation to the DV.
For example you wouldn't say that height would affect a persons IQ, how ever their socioeconomic background might.
Hope that clears things up! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on April 11, 2016, 10:41:52 pm
are we required to know criticisms and strengths of each theory of memory? my textbook is quite ambiguous about this section -.-
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 16FreemanR on April 13, 2016, 07:03:03 pm
are we required to know criticisms and strengths of each theory of memory? my textbook is quite ambiguous about this section -.-

no not specifically, as it is not mentioned in the study design, but you do need to know the strengths and limitations for the theories of forgetting.
However it is helpful to know why one is better than the other..
Hope this helps!  :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: chenay0123 on April 25, 2016, 08:08:53 pm
Q: During a game of squash Andrew is hit in his left eye with a squash ball. His doctor says his sight will not be affected but he will have to keep the eye bandaged for a few weeks. With his left eye covered, information from Andrew's right eye will be processed in the:

A: temporal lobe of both the left and right hemispheres.

Isn't visual info processed in the occipital lobe? And right eye --> left hemisphere? :\
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on April 25, 2016, 08:31:11 pm
Q: During a game of squash Andrew is hit in his left eye with a squash ball. His doctor says his sight will not be affected but he will have to keep the eye bandaged for a few weeks. With his left eye covered, information from Andrew's right eye will be processed in the:

A: temporal lobe of both the left and right hemispheres.

Isn't visual info processed in the occipital lobe? And right eye --> left hemisphere? :\

I reckon that'd be the left and right hemispheres of the occipital lobe. I agree that it's not the temporal lobe. Both the left and the right eyes are split into a left visual field and a right visual field, meaning that the information is processed in both hemispheres.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: kimmytaaa on April 29, 2016, 02:40:19 pm
hi
does anyone have Victoria university psychology unit 3 and 4 lecture notes on pdf? or know if anyone has them
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: qwertyu1234567 on April 30, 2016, 11:49:56 pm
Hi guys,

Would a class's average score for an experiment be considered a descriptive or inferential statistic?

Thanks in advance :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Striddawg on May 01, 2016, 10:12:09 am
Hi guys,

Would a class's average score for an experiment be considered a descriptive or inferential statistic?

Thanks in advance :)
Hi hello, descriptive statistics include percentages, graphs and measures of central tendency. A mean (the average of the class' scores) is a measure of central tendency and therefore it would be considered as a descriptive statistic :)
Spoiler
*Conversely, a p-value would be an example of an inferential statistic and the only one that I think we need to know for vce
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: japanese on May 02, 2016, 11:21:50 am
Hi everyone,

Where could I find the abstracts for B.B. Murdock, Postman and Philips(1965), Medin and Ross(1992) and Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)?

Thanks  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Burt Macklin on May 02, 2016, 06:55:11 pm
Hi everyone,

Where could I find the abstracts for B.B. Murdock, Postman and Philips(1965), Medin and Ross(1992) and Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)?

Thanks  :)
I would head over to Google Scholar to find journal articles and their abstracts  - it's very helpful. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on May 06, 2016, 09:07:49 am
on the exam, are we ever expected to draw graphs and such to display results? getting conflicting info, thank you!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on May 06, 2016, 09:46:43 am
on the exam, are we ever expected to draw graphs and such to display results? getting conflicting info, thank you!

From memory, I don't think I've ever come across drawing graphs as such. Could you be a little more specific? :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on May 06, 2016, 12:17:48 pm
From memory, I don't think I've ever come across drawing graphs as such. Could you be a little more specific? :)
i meant like having to draw a graph from data we are given! just had a quick look at the exams and i also asked my teacher, we are not expected to draw a graph on a pair of axes (if that makes sense) thanks for your reply!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: japanese on May 08, 2016, 11:15:05 pm
Hi everyone!

What psychology areas would be suitable for Identity and Belonging?
Such as social psychology and within that conformity.

Thanks!~
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Striddawg on May 09, 2016, 01:30:15 pm
I'm sorry if this is a silly question, but does consolidation take place in the hippocampus? Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on May 10, 2016, 02:09:04 pm
Hi everyone!

What psychology areas would be suitable for Identity and Belonging?
Such as social psychology and within that conformity.

Thanks!~

Definitely Zimbardo's prison experiment.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on May 10, 2016, 02:09:45 pm
I'm sorry if this is a silly question, but does consolidation take place in the hippocampus? Thanks

Yes, it's believed to be important for the formation of memories and the transfer of memories to more stable cortical storage systems.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Striddawg on May 10, 2016, 02:39:37 pm
Yes, it's believed to be important for the formation of memories and the transfer of memories to more stable cortical storage systems.
You're really super great and I can't thank you enough for putting it into basic terms  :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on May 10, 2016, 03:22:36 pm
You're really super great and I can't thank you enough for putting it into basic terms  :D

You're welcome  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Apink! on May 12, 2016, 12:52:38 pm
Hello,
Could I get some assistance on operationalising the IV and the DV?
In class, we did an experiment where IV was the method of recall (free recall and recognition) and the DV was the number of correct items identified. How can I operationalise them? I'm so confused ):

Help will be much appreciated!
Thank you :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on May 12, 2016, 01:04:02 pm
Hello,
Could I get some assistance on operationalising the IV and the DV?
In class, we did an experiment where IV was the method of recall (free recall and recognition) and the DV was the number of correct items identified. How can I operationalise them? I'm so confused ):

Help will be much appreciated!
Thank you :)

Hey there,

So operationalising just involves specifying how you've tested the IV and DV, basically. You've actually done pretty well in this post already!

You might operationalise the IV by saying something like "method of recall (either free recall or recognition)". You might operationalise the DV by saying something like "success of memory retrieval (measured by number of correct responses on a self-report test)".

Or something like that. Does that make sense?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: minerva on May 16, 2016, 07:00:17 pm
Hi, could someone please explain the difference between extraneous variables and limitations of a study design, and give examples for each? Thanks.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on May 16, 2016, 07:04:00 pm
Hi, could someone please explain the difference between extraneous variables and limitations of a study design, and give examples for each? Thanks.
Extraneous variables: Basically anything in an experiment that's not an independent variable or a dependent variable. This can be further split into confounding variables and controlled variables. Confounding variables are extraneous variables which have had an impact on the results, controlled variables are variables which have been systematically controlled so that they do not influence results. Can't think of any examples rn (there's plenty) but im too fried

Limitations of a study design is the extent to which your study applies to other scenarios. I.e if your sample is convenience sampling then it wont be an accurate representation of the whole population, or your sample is all students then you can't make the assumption that it would apply to any other age group - thus, your experiment's findings are limited.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: EmmaQuinn on May 16, 2016, 08:56:27 pm
When writing an ERA, what should be included in the discussion and conclusion part??
Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: KittyKat16 on May 16, 2016, 10:13:22 pm

When writing an ERA, what should be included in the discussion and conclusion part??
Thanks :)
From the two ERA sacs I've done; you should include :
-Whether the hypothesis was supported or not
-analysis of results that point to why hypothesis was supported or not
-any extraneous/confounding variables; how they could've affected results and how you can control them
-ethical guidelines that were breached and/or adhered to
-whether results can be generalised to the population; which depends on sample size, EVs, sample demographic and p-value/statistical significance.
-a conclusion that states whether the hypothesis was supported and why/why not briefly.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: minerva on May 17, 2016, 05:31:31 pm
When using a repeated measures experimental design, would order effects be considered an extraneous variable or a limitation of the design?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: TheLlama on May 17, 2016, 05:51:55 pm
When using a repeated measures experimental design, would order effects be considered an extraneous variable or a limitation of the design?

They're a limitation of the design that can be overcome by counterbalancing.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: smiley123 on May 19, 2016, 09:16:23 pm
Hi everyone! I'm currently writing an ERA and just wanted to ask, is it possible that a hypothesis is supported but cannot be generalised? My hypothesis is that the recall of Year 12 select entry students would be highest for words with a serial position at the beginning and end of the list in comparison to the middle. The serial position effect is evident, but convenience sampling is used, so I'm not sure what I should conclude.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on May 19, 2016, 09:23:37 pm
Hi everyone! I'm currently writing an ERA and just wanted to ask, is it possible that a hypothesis is supported but cannot be generalised? My hypothesis is that the recall of Year 12 select entry students would be highest for words with a serial position at the beginning and end of the list in comparison to the middle. The serial position effect is evident, but convenience sampling is used, so I'm not sure what I should conclude.
pretty sure that can happen- your hypothesis can be supported but let's say, idk, you had a missrepresentative sample or had uneven distributions of gender,age,status etc. , they in that instance , a generalisation could not be made, however, if the results were statistically significant, im pretty sure a conclusion can still be made( hence the main difference between a conclusion and generalization being supported is that the conclusion only needs statistical significance, and a generalisation needs a few more things)

sorry if this was wrong/misleading- it is only what i know, so may be some inaccuracies :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on May 19, 2016, 09:26:01 pm
Hi everyone! I'm currently writing an ERA and just wanted to ask, is it possible that a hypothesis is supported but cannot be generalised? My hypothesis is that the recall of Year 12 select entry students would be highest for words with a serial position at the beginning and end of the list in comparison to the middle. The serial position effect is evident, but convenience sampling is used, so I'm not sure what I should conclude.

You can definitely have a hypothesis that is supported w/o being able to generalise the results. Happens a lot. It's not just the use of a convenience sample that would limit the generalisability of your findings, either; there's also the fact that Year 12 select entry PSYCHOLOGY students could possibly differ from the general population on a number of relevant characteristics - especially considering the fact that, as Psychology students, you're all aware of the serial position effect and this might have caused you to, consciously or unconsciously, try harder to remember words in the middle of the list. People in the general population who lack this knowledge might demonstrate the serial position effect more accurately.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: smiley123 on May 19, 2016, 09:32:46 pm
Okayy, thank you so much for clearing it up for me!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: friedchromosome on May 22, 2016, 07:39:37 pm
Has anyone done activity 9.3 on page 346 of the Gravis textbook, pleaseee pm me. Really struggling. Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on May 22, 2016, 08:48:09 pm
Has anyone done activity 9.3 on page 346 of the Gravis textbook, pleaseee pm me. Really struggling. Thanks

Would you be able to share what the activity is for those without the textbook? :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on May 23, 2016, 10:16:53 pm
daydreaming is considered an altered state of consciousness, right? doing a question and it says 'Daydreaming is not an altered state of consciousness as not all awareness is lost of the individual and their world'
quick response would be appreciated ty!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Striddawg on May 24, 2016, 02:27:48 pm
daydreaming is considered an altered state of consciousness, right? doing a question and it says 'Daydreaming is not an altered state of consciousness as not all awareness is lost of the individual and their world'
quick response would be appreciated ty!
To quote the Study Design document for Psychology (2013), the first key knowledge dot point of Unit 3, AOS1, outcome 1 says "concepts of normal waking consciousness and altered states of consciousness including daydreaming ... in terms of levels of awareness, content limitations, [etc.]..."
So yes, daydreaming is considered an altered state of consciousness  ;D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on May 24, 2016, 06:27:55 pm
ah thought so, silly question was wrong -.- ty
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on May 24, 2016, 06:37:11 pm
ah thought so, silly question was wrong -.- ty

Where was the question, out of interest?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on May 24, 2016, 06:50:56 pm
from a stav 2014 practice exam. It was a multiple choice question:
'daydreaming is ____ considered to be an ASC because, while daydreaming, people___
basically had to fill in the gaps and the correct multiple choice answer (which was actually incorrect) said 'daydreaming IS NOT considered to be an ASC because while daydreaming, people do not lose all awareness of themselves and their world around them'
not exactly written the way i said so, but yeah that's generally it :) pretty annoying having a prac exam littered with inaccuracies !
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Apink! on May 26, 2016, 07:06:23 am
Hello,
Could someone be able to explain the difference between rerouting and sprouting? (They seem the same to me, which is probably not true). I don't really understand the concept. Help will be greatly appreciated!
Much thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Apink! on June 06, 2016, 03:43:36 pm
Hello everyone,
Can I clarify something?
Is Shaping and Tokens a form of positive reinforcement (I think so) My book just vaguely says, "reinforcement" so does that mean it can be positive and negative?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Nataliaelias on June 06, 2016, 09:23:00 pm
Is it hard to get a 40+ in psychology. What are some tips and tricks?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on June 06, 2016, 10:07:46 pm
Hello everyone,
Can I clarify something?
Is Shaping and Tokens a form of positive reinforcement (I think so) My book just vaguely says, "reinforcement" so does that mean it can be positive and negative?

I imagine it's basically always positive reinforcement being used in shaping and token economies. I think using negative reinforcement in a shaping procedure would prove quite complicated. I do suppose, however, that tokens could work as negative reinforcers.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on June 06, 2016, 10:20:53 pm
I imagine it's basically always positive reinforcement being used in shaping and token economies. I think using negative reinforcement in a shaping procedure would prove quite complicated. I do suppose, however, that tokens could work as negative reinforcers.
damn you across all boards is there nothing you don't know
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on June 06, 2016, 10:44:40 pm
damn you across all boards is there nothing you don't know

I don't really venture out of the science forums  ::)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maylovesgelati on June 10, 2016, 02:55:44 pm
Hey I just recently did a SAC on memory. We had a question on the serial position effect and were asked to choose "which part (start, end and/or middle) of the list would the students me most likely to remember?" I, seeing that it referred to only the "part" and not "parts" and knowing that the recency effect was more superior than the primacy effect, wrote that the students would most likely remember the words at the end of the list. The following question then asked to explain why and I wrote about the recency effect. However, the teacher took marks off these questions because he said that the students would have remembered both the words at the start and end of the list, thus the cause would have been the primacy and recency effect. So, should I have received the marks? Is the recency effect more superior than the primacy effect when remembering a list of words?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on June 10, 2016, 05:45:12 pm
Hey I just recently did a SAC on memory. We had a question on the serial position effect and were asked to choose "which part (start, end and/or middle) of the list would the students me most likely to remember?" I, seeing that it referred to only the "part" and not "parts" and knowing that the recency effect was more superior than the primacy effect, wrote that the students would most likely remember the words at the end of the list. The following question then asked to explain why and I wrote about the recency effect. However, the teacher took marks off these questions because he said that the students would have remembered both the words at the start and end of the list, thus the cause would have been the primacy and recency effect. So, should I have received the marks? Is the recency effect more superior than the primacy effect when remembering a list of words?

It would actually depend how long after reading the list the students were asked to recall the words. If they were asked to recall the words immediately, then yes the recency effect is more pronounced than the primacy effect. However, if the recall was delayed (e.g. 5 minutes after reading the list), then the primacy effect becomes superior.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maylovesgelati on June 10, 2016, 07:57:07 pm
Yes, it was immediately after.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jyce on June 10, 2016, 08:02:10 pm
Yes, it was immediately after.

Then yes, the students would, on average, recall the words at the end of the list best, followed by the words at the start of the list, followed by the words in between.

But I think this disagreement between yourself and your teacher is a game of semantics, not of understanding the serial position curve.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maylovesgelati on June 11, 2016, 08:56:44 am
His reasoning for deducting the marks was that one of the studies in our textbook (Glanzer & Cunitz, 1966) involved participants recalling a list of 15 words (which was the same as the case study in the SAC) showed both the primacy and recency effect occurring at equal amounts. So, in this particular study, recall was better for items at both the beginning and the end of the list. However, when first introducing the serial position effect, the textbook says "The serial position effect is a finding that free recall is better for items at the end and beginning of the list than for items in the middle of the list. More specifically, the recall of items tends to be best for items at the end, and then the beginning, and worst for items around the middle... Experiments testing the serial position effect with different kinds of information, such as numbers or even sketches of objects, have consistently found a similar U-shaped curve with a strong recency effect". I showed him this and he justified it by saying this was only done on different information such as sketches and numbers and wouldn't be the case with a list of words.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on June 13, 2016, 10:49:08 pm
Yeah I think you're in the right - for the serial position effect, it goes recency, primacy and then the middle words (assuming testing occurred immediately).

I primarily used the Grivas textbook last year, however I also used the Oxford text, and after going back over them just now, I can confirm that the recency effect is more evident than the primacy :)

The question itself is quite poor and misleading - and I suppose you could have said in brackets that the primacy effect would also be evident, but not to the same extent as the recency; but I still think you deserve some marks for your answer, if he won't give you full marks.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on June 13, 2016, 11:14:01 pm
Yeah recency effect declares that words at the end of the list is to have higher percentage recall because items in short term memory are more effectively retrieved that stuff in LTM. It's logic really, but you could psychologisise it if you want.
I'd give it another go explaining it to your teacher. You can just google "serial position effect curve" and it should come up. Also, look back to the wording of the question/context. Are you absolutely sure that the teacher didn't indicate the glanzer and cunitz (1966) research specifically?
I wouldn't pursue it to much coz u dont wanna get on the bad side of ur teacher in psych. Too many questions where they can be picky. It's only 2 marks so I'd swallow it
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on June 22, 2016, 08:45:20 pm
Outline the difference between a person perceiving a situation as a harm as
opposed to a challenge
relates to Lazarus' transactional model - any help would be appreciated! thanks guys :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on June 22, 2016, 08:56:30 pm
Outline the difference between a person perceiving a situation as a harm as
opposed to a challenge
relates to Lazarus' transactional model - any help would be appreciated! thanks guys :)
So the primary appraisal of the model is to assess and evaluate the scenario. The secondary appraisal is to assess ways to tackle/the resources that can be used to make the scenario less stressful.

The strength of the model is that it promotes growth through adversaries. So the primary appraisal allows people to assess the situation properly, with followup primary appraisals needed until the person properly grasps the magnitude of the situation. The secondary appraisal looks at this challenge/ stressor and is like "what can i do to remove this fam". There are specific subsections but i think they go something along the biopsychosocial framework -- can someone fill in the gaps here?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on June 22, 2016, 09:00:16 pm
-snip-
thanks for your input- but finding the words to formulate an answer is proving annoying- did you cover AoS 2 for unit 4 already ? my class skipped aos 1 , half way through aos 2, and then going back to aos 1- reckon this is common? :p
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on June 22, 2016, 09:05:51 pm
thanks for your input- but finding the words to formulate an answer is proving annoying- did you cover AoS 2 for unit 4 already ? my class skipped aos 1 , half way through aos 2, and then going back to aos 1- reckon this is common? :p
yeah i think so my class is doing same thing coz they dont wanna end the term on something that's irrelevant to the exam.
yeah the words are annoying :(
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on June 22, 2016, 09:17:09 pm
yeah i think so my class is doing same thing coz they dont wanna end the term on something that's irrelevant to the exam.
yeah the words are annoying :(
hmm fair enough, i swear pysch is such a clusterfuck sometimes when it comes to its specificity with words that shouldn't have too much differences in their semantics haha (if this made sense, i swear psych annoys me sometimes)
RIP when section c average is like 3/10 on some questions hahahaha, and like 1% get 10
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on June 22, 2016, 09:21:22 pm
hmm fair enough, i swear pysch is such a clusterfuck sometimes when it comes to its specificity with words that shouldn't have too much differences in their semantics haha (if this made sense, i swear psych annoys me sometimes)
RIP when section c average is like 3/10 on some questions hahahaha, and like 1% get 10
lmao yea, tbh not focusing on psych at all this year just doing the subject outta enjoyment. Probs at end of year Ima crack down on those marking scheme and really absorb the wordings of answers, coz the content is pretty easy tbh its just the wording that trips ppl up
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: kimmytaaa on June 24, 2016, 02:23:07 pm
has anyone started their unit 4 sac yet for psychology? its the sac where you have to do a folio work?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: breazly on July 08, 2016, 11:52:02 am
has anyone started their unit 4 sac yet for psychology? its the sac where you have to do a folio work?

Yes my school has. We were told that we get to bring the worksheets into the sac.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: minerva on July 08, 2016, 09:54:08 pm
Hey, guys. Need help with a couple of questions:
1. What are some symptoms of partial sleep deprivation?
2. If an experiment advertises their study in the local newspaper, have they used convenience sampling?
3. When can a conclusion be drawn from a study?
Thanks in advance :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on July 08, 2016, 10:30:55 pm
Hey, guys. Need help with a couple of questions:
1. What are some symptoms of partial sleep deprivation?
2. If an experiment advertises their study in the local newspaper, have they used convenience sampling?
3. When can a conclusion be drawn from a study?
Thanks in advance :)
Partial sleep dep: Problems with concentration, hand tremors, problems with higher order thinking and problems with simple tasks. (I think hand tremors is total sleep deprivation tbh)
2. yes it is convenience sampling
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on July 10, 2016, 04:03:21 pm
Hey, guys. Need help with a couple of questions:
1. What are some symptoms of partial sleep deprivation?
2. If an experiment advertises their study in the local newspaper, have they used convenience sampling?
3. When can a conclusion be drawn from a study?
Thanks in advance :)

3. If the p value is statistically significant and the sample is representative of the population from which it was drawn from
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maylovesgelati on July 11, 2016, 07:22:03 pm
Yeah recency effect declares that words at the end of the list is to have higher percentage recall because items in short term memory are more effectively retrieved that stuff in LTM. It's logic really, but you could psychologisise it if you want.
I'd give it another go explaining it to your teacher. You can just google "serial position effect curve" and it should come up. Also, look back to the wording of the question/context. Are you absolutely sure that the teacher didn't indicate the glanzer and cunitz (1966) research specifically?
I wouldn't pursue it to much coz u dont wanna get on the bad side of ur teacher in psych. Too many questions where they can be picky. It's only 2 marks so I'd swallow it

Sorry for taking like a whole month to respond. I'm pretty new to ATAR notes and apparently I didn't know how to view the replies properly so I assumed no-one had responded :') I talked to him about it a few times but in the end I just decided to let it go and move on. But, the reason I spent so much time on it was also so that I would be able to answer it properly on an exam. Thanks for clearing it up :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: studybuddy7777 on July 15, 2016, 12:01:23 pm
Offtopic i know and not even in VIC but.. (open at your own risk  ;))

 
Spoiler
i want to study psychology when i graduate this year at uni. You may or may not be aware that nsw does not have anything like vce psych units 3&4, but i was wondering if it would come in handy to look at notes/exams here and is this how psych is at uni? Anyone do psychology at uni? Im not sure who can help me but if you can thats great.
 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on July 15, 2016, 03:14:36 pm
Offtopic i know and not even in VIC but.. (open at your own risk  ;))

 
Spoiler
i want to study psychology when i graduate this year at uni. You may or may not be aware that nsw does not have anything like vce psych units 3&4, but i was wondering if it would come in handy to look at notes/exams here and is this how psych is at uni? Anyone do psychology at uni? Im not sure who can help me but if you can thats great.
 

Hey there. :)

It surely can't hurt to have a glance over the notes! I can only speak for Psych at Monash, but first year Psych (uni) is quite similar to 3/4 Psych (VCE). It gets deeper after that, but I only did the first year sequence.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: studybuddy7777 on July 15, 2016, 03:18:16 pm
Hey there. :)

It surely can't hurt to have a glance over the notes! I can only speak for Psych at Monash, but first year Psych (uni) is quite similar to 3/4 Psych (VCE). It gets deeper after that, but I only did the first year sequence.

Thanks so much for that! Would it also be beneficial for me to look over 3/4 psych exams and see what i can do after looking at the notes or would that be expecting too much of me? :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on July 15, 2016, 03:49:52 pm
Thanks so much for that! Would it also be beneficial for me to look over 3/4 psych exams and see what i can do after looking at the notes or would that be expecting too much of me? :D

I don't think that's necessary. The notes should sufficiently give you an idea of what's covered. I'd focus on HSC, if I were you. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: studybuddy7777 on July 15, 2016, 03:54:02 pm
Ok im not really familiar with VIC standards.. Is HSC unit 4? Or is it Psych HSC? Because in nsw we have prelim and hsc not unit 3/4

Thanks again 👍🏼👍🏼
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: JG97 on July 16, 2016, 07:27:56 pm
What does an annotated folio involve, exactly, apart from annotating stuff? I've got one on Monday, and I have no clue what I should expect.
Cheers.
-Jonathan
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: insanipi on July 16, 2016, 07:33:23 pm
What does an annotated folio involve, exactly, apart from annotating stuff? I've got one on Monday, and I have no clue what I should expect.
Cheers.
-Jonathan

Hi JG97!
An annotated folio usually involves answering questions about the experiment and/or the sampling method/procedures and ethics associated. :)
(Based off what I did last year.)
(Someone doing 3/4 currently should correct me if I'm wrong. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: JG97 on July 16, 2016, 07:37:38 pm
Hi JG97!
An annotated folio usually involves answering questions about the experiment and/or the sampling method/procedures and ethics associated. :)
(Based off what I did last year.)
(Someone doing 3/4 currently should correct me if I'm wrong. :)

Cheers. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on July 18, 2016, 09:48:38 pm
what is the function of adrenaline as a hormone (if we have to know this)? what about function of cortisol (disregard if not necessary)
do we have to know about how the adrenal glands secrete adrenaline, the adrenal cortex secretes cortisol etc. basically what secretes what (if that makes sense xD) ?
do we have to know about allostatic overload, allostatic load, allostatic dysfunction etc.?
how much do we have to know about biofeedback, meditation/relaxation, physical exercise,social support etc.
do i have to remember about which type of excercise is more beneficial for reducing stress/ how exactly exercise reduces stress via what happens biologically with hormones etc.
thankss guys <3
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scarletmoon on July 20, 2016, 11:32:08 am
what is the function of adrenaline as a hormone (if we have to know this)? what about function of cortisol (disregard if not necessary)
do we have to know about how the adrenal glands secrete adrenaline, the adrenal cortex secretes cortisol etc. basically what secretes what (if that makes sense xD) ?
do we have to know about allostatic overload, allostatic load, allostatic dysfunction etc.?
how much do we have to know about biofeedback, meditation/relaxation, physical exercise,social support etc.
do i have to remember about which type of excercise is more beneficial for reducing stress/ how exactly exercise reduces stress via what happens biologically with hormones etc.
thankss guys <3
1. Yes
2. Yes there were questions on this on last year's exam
3. Yes. There were short answer questions on this last year as well. A lot of people in my cohort struggled to answer this last year, so it will probably come up this year.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: purplegiraffe on August 01, 2016, 02:26:56 pm
Hi all,
Has anyone learnt about the law of effect?
If so, what is it? We had it in our SAC and we all had no idea....
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on August 01, 2016, 03:22:40 pm
Hi there.

The law of effect basically just says that you're more likely to repeat a behaviour if that behaviour has positive consequences, and less likely to repeat a behaviour if that behaviour has negative consequences. :)

EDIT: It's essentially the foundation of operant conditioning.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: scout on August 07, 2016, 04:11:56 pm
Helloo

From what I've read in the textbook, I'm getting the impression that the neural mechanism of learning and memory are essentially the same (e.g 'structural/functional' changes at the synapse, LTP, neurotransmitters) which would make sense since learning can't occur without memory.

So I'm not sure why the textbook describes the two processes as 'alike' as if differences still exist. What might these differences be?

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: kimmytaaa on August 09, 2016, 11:14:33 am
Hi
I have a question related to observational learning, What makes children pay such close attention to the behaviour of their parents?
thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: eliseeeeee on August 10, 2016, 06:53:55 pm
Hi all! New to ATARNotes so apologies if I'm not going about this the right way, but I just need some assistance in answering a practice SAC question.

"How does brain plasticity impact a person's ability to learn?"
Thank you :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on August 10, 2016, 07:27:56 pm
Helloo

From what I've read in the textbook, I'm getting the impression that the neural mechanism of learning and memory are essentially the same (e.g 'structural/functional' changes at the synapse, LTP, neurotransmitters) which would make sense since learning can't occur without memory.

So I'm not sure why the textbook describes the two processes as 'alike' as if differences still exist. What might these differences be?

Thanks

Hey there! I don't recall there being any real differences between the two - other than the fact that plasticity (adaptive and developmental) are more so (if not explicitly) involved in learning.
Hi
I have a question related to observational learning, What makes children pay such close attention to the behaviour of their parents?
thanks :)


I would say that it's a combination of:
a) Children (especially at a young age) look up to their parents. And
b) Children are constantly in the presence of their parents, so they are more often exposed, and therefore attentive to the behaviour of their parents.
Hi all! New to ATARNotes so apologies if I'm not going about this the right way, but I just need some assistance in answering a practice SAC question.

"How does brain plasticity impact a person's ability to learn?"
Thank you :)

With regards to this question, I would primarily base my answer around how plasticity makes the brain more 'open' and 'willing to learn' (thereby aiding the learning process). And then briefly mention how developmental plasticity and adaptive plasticity influence learning. E.g. - one makes the brain far more responsive at a young age, thereby assisting learning. And the other makes the brain able to rewire itself, in response to the external environment, and to make way for new learning.

:)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: eliseeeeee on August 10, 2016, 07:43:04 pm
Thank you so much, glasses!! Lifesaver  ;D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on August 25, 2016, 06:05:44 pm
is thorndike's laws of trial and error learning examinable? how much do i need  to know about trial and error learning? thanks :)
edit: whats the best brand of prac exams for psych-thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on August 26, 2016, 10:09:54 pm
is thorndike's laws of trial and error learning examinable? how much do i need  to know about trial and error learning? thanks :)

Yeah trial and error learning is examinable. The different theories which you need to know for learning are Classical Conditional, Operant Conditioning, Observational Learning and Trial and Error Learning (if that helps clarify things) :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: eliseeeeee on August 30, 2016, 07:26:28 pm
"How does allostasis integreate biological, psychological and social factors to explain an individual's response to stress?"

I believe this was a past exam question. How would you all go about answering it? Thanks!!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on August 30, 2016, 07:31:54 pm
"How does allostasis integrate biological, psychological and social factors to explain an individual's response to stress?"

I believe this was a past exam question. How would you all go about answering it? Thanks!!!
could talk about what allostasis roughly is - stability by change (use a better definition tho)- and then how biological factors, i.e dispositions to feel a certain way may make it difficult to do x,y,z (dont really have time for a longgg reply) and talk then about psychological and social factors. give an example for each factor and i reckon that should do it. i think this is a 4marker ? so yeah

*if im wrong please correct, but i believe you just have to talk about how allostasis is affected by biopsychosocial factors , and how these factors specifically heighten/lower etc. a stress response?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maylovesgelati on September 04, 2016, 08:45:46 pm
Which Bobo Doll Experiment do we need to be familiar with?
The first experiment where there were three groups, one control who didn't see anything, one who didn't see any acts of aggression, and one who saw an aggressive model or the 1965 experiment where Condition 1 involved watching an aggressive model who was rewarded, Condition involved observing an aggressive model who was punished and Condition 3 which involved no consequences for the aggressor’s behaviour?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Apink! on September 20, 2016, 05:21:00 pm
Hello,

I would really appreciate it if someone could answer my question!

From 2014 NEAP:
A failure to encode information can explain a limitation of which of the following forgetting theories?

A. Retrieval failure
B. Motivated forgetting
C. Decay theory
D. State- dependent cues

My brain's not working right now, please help!! :'( :'(
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on September 20, 2016, 05:26:20 pm
Hello,

I would really appreciate it if someone could answer my question!

From 2014 NEAP:
A failure to encode information can explain a limitation of which of the following forgetting theories?

A. Retrieval failure
B. Motivated forgetting
C. Decay theory
D. State- dependent cues

My brain's not working right now, please help!! :'( :'(
hmm need to revise this too
but i dont think its D or C. is it A- retrieval failure? not too sure too :(
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Apink! on September 20, 2016, 05:45:17 pm
hmm need to revise this too
but i dont think its D or C. is it A- retrieval failure? not too sure too :(

Hehe it's okay HasibA. Hopefully someone will come and help both of us out!

EDIT:

Another question: Can someone please tell me the difference between information and appraisal support?  They sound so similar!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on September 22, 2016, 04:42:23 am
Another question: Can someone please tell me the difference between information and appraisal support?  They sound so similar!

Information support is information which is transmitted from an individual who is able to help or provide information about the specific cause of stress. For instance, information support can be given by a teacher, to help a student who is feeling stressed about their homework.

Appraisal support is a bit more general, and is basically support provided by someone, who helps you better understand the cause of the stress, your perception (appraisal) of the stressor and the different options available to deal with it.

So for example, a parent may provide appraisal support by helping you determine what the 'dangers' of the stressor might be (so whether, and how much you're at risk), and what your options are for dealing with it (so they may recommend that you talk to your teacher). Then your teacher would provide information support by giving you specific advice to deal with the stressor (the homework question), and by explaining the concept to you.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: crackleking on September 23, 2016, 06:01:59 pm
Do we have to know the HPA axis for the psych exam?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: MB_ on September 23, 2016, 06:49:21 pm
Do we have to know the HPA axis for the psych exam?
I'm not sure that we'd be tested on it but I think its best to know it just in case
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on September 24, 2016, 12:11:44 am
how many multiple choice questions on the psych exam is a good number to lose for a decent score, knowing a lot of people lose a lot of marks on the section c? (hope this question was not too vague lmao) [hope this made sense, mainly bc section C average is like 3/10]!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on September 24, 2016, 08:14:57 am
hmm need to revise this too
but i dont think its D or C. is it A- retrieval failure? not too sure too :(

I think the answers A.. whats the answer say?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Pineapple66 on September 25, 2016, 03:09:32 am

A failure to encode information can explain a limitation of which of the following forgetting theories?

A. Retrieval failure
B. Motivated forgetting
C. Decay theory
D. State- dependent cues


Hey there! :) I think its A. I don't think its C which considers forgetting as a physiological process where memory is laid out as a physical or chemical trace that will fade overtime suggesting the memory is no longer available. State - dependent cues is not a forgetting theory so not D. I think it's A because retrieval failure theory suggests that forgetting occurs because you don't have the right cues- so this theory emphasises that the memory is available but simply not accessible. However 'forgetting' due to failure to encode the information in the first place contradicts Retrieval failure Theory in that it proposes forgetting occurs because the memory is unavailable (rather than inaccessible.). Hope that's right haha..
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Pineapple66 on September 25, 2016, 03:13:25 am
also have a few questions of my own..

Q. When devika was a little girl, she was bitten by a dog and now is terrified of all dogs. The problem often causes embarrassment and disruption in Devika’s adult life. She goes to a psychologist to try and overcome this problem. The psychologist has to decide whether to use graduated exposure, flooding or aversion therapy. Using the language of classical conditioning, explain how flooding could be used in this scenario to assist Devika with overcoming her fear of dogs.

In the answer she overcomes the fear through extinction. As in the dog is the conditioned stimulus which will produce the conditioned response of fear. And so to get over it (via extinction) she would have to be repeatedly exposed to a dog without the unconditioned stimulus (biting) to extinguish her fear response. That makes sense… but I always thought aversion therapy works by associating a relaxation response (from the relaxation techniques the therapist teaches her before exposure – the unconditioned stimulus) with the previously feared stimuli (which would be neutral)..

Q.Also how do you explain Graduated exposure in terms of classical conditioning as well?

Q. What is the difference between voluntary behaviour and active participants in terms of operant conditioning?

Q. What is the difference between research hypotheses and experimental? Which one do you include operationalised variables in?

thanks!! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on September 25, 2016, 07:32:47 pm
also have a few questions of my own..

Q. When devika was a little girl, she was bitten by a dog and now is terrified of all dogs. The problem often causes embarrassment and disruption in Devika’s adult life. She goes to a psychologist to try and overcome this problem. The psychologist has to decide whether to use graduated exposure, flooding or aversion therapy. Using the language of classical conditioning, explain how flooding could be used in this scenario to assist Devika with overcoming her fear of dogs.

In the answer she overcomes the fear through extinction. As in the dog is the conditioned stimulus which will produce the conditioned response of fear. And so to get over it (via extinction) she would have to be repeatedly exposed to a dog without the unconditioned stimulus (biting) to extinguish her fear response. That makes sense… but I always thought aversion therapy works by associating a relaxation response (from the relaxation techniques the therapist teaches her before exposure – the unconditioned stimulus) with the previously feared stimuli (which would be neutral)..

i think you have Aversion Therapy mixed up, as Aversion Therapy involves associating the conditioned stimulus with an 'aversive stimulus'  so like maybe to stop someone from biting their nails you paint their nails with a nail polish chemical that makes it biting nails have a gross taste and therefore the person learns to associate biting nails with it being undesirable -thereby extinguishing it. Does that make sense? Like u cant associate relaxation techniques because thats a behaviour not a stimulus where is more operant conditioning..
Q.Also how do you explain Graduated exposure in terms of classical conditioning as well?
So in an exam i'd probs write: Involves presenting successive approximations of the CS until the CS itself doesn't produce the conditioned response. So you first teach the individual relaxation techniques that they can apply while you gradually expose the client to the increasingly similar stimuli until they're desensitized to the fear and then id add an example.

Q. What is the difference between voluntary behaviour and active participants in terms of operant conditioning?
SO voluntary behaviour means that the person voluntarily does the behaviour whereas active participants mean they're actively placed themselves in the environment where a punishment or reinforcement will be received - whereas in CC the participant doesnt need to do anything for the CS or UCS to be presented.
Q. What is the difference between research hypotheses and experimental? Which one do you include operationalised variables in?
What do you mean? Do you mean research hypothesis and operational hypothesis?
thanks!! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on September 25, 2016, 08:58:59 pm
when questions ask for assumptions of theories, is that always limitations/criticism or can there be instances where you simply write something that is assumed for a theory eg craik and lockhearts levels of processing theory, on a question i wrote an genuine assumption, but was told it had to be a 'text'book' limitation. thanks guys [hope i made sense]!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nt2387 on September 25, 2016, 09:18:17 pm
when questions ask for assumptions of theories, is that always limitations/criticism or can there be instances where you simply write something that is assumed for a theory eg craik and lockhearts levels of processing theory, on a question i wrote an genuine assumption, but was told it had to be a 'text'book' limitation. thanks guys [hope i made sense]!
Assumptions don't usually mean limitations / criticisms.

I wrote the deeper the processing the easier the retrieval for the assumption. I got the mark, but it doesn't sound right since that's pretty much the entire theory.

Hope that helps.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on September 25, 2016, 09:25:40 pm
Assumptions don't usually mean limitations / criticisms.

I wrote the deeper the processing the easier the retrieval for the assumption. I got the mark, but it doesn't sound right since that's pretty much the entire theory.

Hope that helps.
hmm, thought so, didn't get the mark on the assessment i did, so i guess this was something my teacher just was against ? :/

anyways:
can someone describe what inferential, and descriptive stats. are- and why conclusions cannot be drawn from descriptive stats? :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: DailyInsanity on September 26, 2016, 05:08:26 pm
Has anybody else done some of the Engage education free practice exams? Because in the solutions, particularly the multiple choice a lot of the answers seem to be wrong and a lot of the questions seem to be on content outside of the study design or very ambiguous.

Are other people having this experience or is it just me, and would you recommend actually doing these practice exams or are they perhaps misleading?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: TooLazy on September 26, 2016, 05:11:57 pm
Has anybody else done some of the Engage education free practice exams? Because in the solutions, particularly the multiple choice a lot of the answers seem to be wrong and a lot of the questions seem to be on content outside of the study design or very ambiguous.

Are other people having this experience or is it just me, and would you recommend actually doing these practice exams or are they perhaps misleading?

Hmm. I have them already printed off, im planning on starting trials after i finish revision. Could you please reference which questions you think are incorrect. Ill take a look at them right now. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Pineapple66 on September 26, 2016, 07:40:04 pm
That makes sense… but I always thought aversion therapy works by associating a relaxation response (from the relaxation techniques the therapist teaches her before exposure – the unconditioned stimulus) with the previously feared stimuli (which would be neutral)..

i think you have Aversion Therapy mixed up, as Aversion Therapy involves associating the conditioned stimulus with an 'aversive stimulus

Oh whoops i think I accidentally typed  'aversion therapy' instead of 'flooding' haha :P but thank you!! think I got it.

With regards to the phonological loop and visuo-spatial sketchpad in working memory, do they act as STM 'stores'? So if the question was:
Veronica is going for her driver's licence. Her driving instructor gives her a series of instructions during her 30-minute driving test. Describe how each of the four components of her working memory will help her during the test.
 
Would these be correct:
Phonological loop - stores the instructions Veronica's instructor is telling her
Visuo-spatial sketchpad: stores visual information as she drives, such as other cars, traffic lights and signs.

or is what i said considered more sensory memory and i should focus more on the cognitive functions applied to the visual and auditory information (rehearsing and visualising) like their answers which was:

Phonological loop- would assist veronica to rehearse the verbal instructions from the driving instructor
Visuo-spatial sketchpad- would enable her to mentally visualise the pathway to her car when instructed to turn a corner by the driving instructor.

I thought the PL and VSS were simply stores and it was the central executive that integrates and manipulates the information?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: DailyInsanity on September 27, 2016, 12:34:27 am
Hmm. I have them already printed off, im planning on starting trials after i finish revision. Could you please reference which questions you think are incorrect. Ill take a look at them right now. :)

Well so far I've only done the 'A' and 'E' Exams but for example in 'A', Qns 34,40 and 66 in the MP (questions 44 and 61 not sure about), Qn 7 of the short answer refer to 'working memory' in terms of Atkinson and Shiffrin model and then in the answers refer to Sensory memory, STM and LTM. But also in the multiple choice a number of questions refer to GABA, CBT etc... and other things outside the SD and use language that we probably haven't been exposed to.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: TooLazy on September 27, 2016, 01:45:03 pm
Well so far I've only done the 'A' and 'E' Exams but for example in 'A', Qns 34,40 and 66 in the MP (questions 44 and 61 not sure about), Qn 7 of the short answer refer to 'working memory' in terms of Atkinson and Shiffrin model and then in the answers refer to Sensory memory, STM and LTM. But also in the multiple choice a number of questions refer to GABA, CBT etc... and other things outside the SD and use language that we probably haven't been exposed to.

Hmm, I'll take a look later on. I am skeptical in regards to other companies and if they focus on the SD.

I also had a question for you guys:
Why are association areas in the brain so important, and how are they involved in processes?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on September 27, 2016, 02:15:18 pm
Would these be correct:
Phonological loop - stores the instructions Veronica's instructor is telling her
Visuo-spatial sketchpad: stores visual information as she drives, such as other cars, traffic lights and signs.
i like what you said here and i think it is correct as well as its similar to the answer, however for the visuo-spatial sketchpad their answer is more correct that yours. For visuo-spatial sketchpad think like its a mental sketchbook, its used to like mentally calculate 15+7 like that, so for driving the visuo-spatial sketchpad is helping her visualise like the traffic she will see when she turns the road. Do you get that? Its all mentally visualising something for the future whereas sensory memory in particular the Iconic memory is more of what you described! 

or is what i said considered more sensory memory and i should focus more on the cognitive functions applied to the visual and auditory information (rehearsing and visualising) like their answers which was:

Phonological loop- would assist veronica to rehearse the verbal instructions from the driving instructor
Visuo-spatial sketchpad- would enable her to mentally visualise the pathway to her car when instructed to turn a corner by the driving instructor.

I thought the PL and VSS were simply stores and it was the central executive that integrates and manipulates the information?
Yes they are, think of them like stores for the future its stores everything you're about to say or do and then the central executive intergrates what you'll and do and then you can act it out
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: minerva on September 28, 2016, 10:46:48 pm
Hi, could someone please explain the difference between stratified sampling and random-stratified sampling? Using stratified sampling, how would participants be selected if it is not random? Also, I went to a psych lecture and we were told that the results can't be generalised if a stratified sample was used but can be if a random-stratified sample was used - why is this the case?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Burt Macklin on September 30, 2016, 10:18:16 pm
Hi, could someone please explain the difference between stratified sampling and random-stratified sampling? Using stratified sampling, how would participants be selected if it is not random? Also, I went to a psych lecture and we were told that the results can't be generalised if a stratified sample was used but can be if a random-stratified sample was used - why is this the case?

That's a good question!

Stratified sampling involves dividing your population into strata and then selecting your a sample from each stratum in the same proportions that they occur in the population. Here, you're not making any effort to randomly select (i.e. you might select the first 50 participants in a list for a particular stratum)

Random-stratified sampling is basically the same thing - however, instead you are randomly selecting them with the aid of number generators etc.

Stratified sampling would usually involve randomly selection anyways. If you were conducting a study and planning to have a stratified sample, it would be remiss of you to not randomly select because participant characteristics could impact on results in a systematic way.

That's the reason why the results can't be generalised if you have a stratified sample that was not randomly selected. A group could contain a higher proportion of variables that 1) is not representative of the population and 2) could bias the results.

For example, let's say you're conducting a study on how hours of sleep affects exam performance in a Psych class (population). You've stratified your sample into male and female, but since you have not randomly sampled, the males you chose may have studied more than all the males in the class. This could potentially leave you with results that are not really representative of the population and, therefore, they can't be generalised.

Hope that helps!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: TooLazy on October 02, 2016, 06:01:59 pm
Use the following information to answer Question 51-54.
Kim, Lonnie and Vivian are good friends who play together in a Soccer team on Saturday mornings. Their mothers take them each week and while the girls are playing their mothers have a coffee and a chat. They usually complain about having to tidy up after the girls. They decide that they will each use a different strategy to encourage their girls to keep their rooms tidy and report back on which is the most effective after 4 weeks.

Question 51
Kim’s mother decides to use a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement where she
A. gives Kim extra pocket money if her room is tidy when she checks it each week on Sunday.
B. checks the room daily but won’t always give Kim extra pocket money, even if she finds the room
tidy.
C. checks the room daily and rewards Kim at irregular intervals, as long as the room is tidy.
D. checks the room daily and always gives Kim pocket money as long as the room is tidy.

Question 52
Kim’s mother notices a continuing trend with the schedule of reinforcement she has chosen to use.
A. Kim’s room is always clean.
B. Kim’s room is never clean.
C. Kim’s room is cleaned on Saturday night and is dirty again by Tuesday morning.
D. Kim’s room is cleaned on Sunday night and is dirty again by Tuesday morning.

Question 53
Which schedule of reinforcement would be more effective in encouraging Kim to keep her room tidy throughout the week?
A. Continuousreinforcement B. Variable-ratio
C. Fixed-interval
D. Variable-interval.

If someone could take the time to answer these and explain why, it would be very much appreciated :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: purplegiraffe on October 05, 2016, 09:38:15 am
How much are we expected to write in a section C?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: TooLazy on October 05, 2016, 08:37:23 pm
How much are we expected to write in a section C?


The examiners arent looking for how much you write, but rather the quality. There are certain aspects they examine and award marks to. I suggest you look at some of the previous examiner reports to develop a rough idea on what is expected.

Also I don't want to sound pushy, but if there is anyone who has seen my previous question and know the answer, could you please explain it to me. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 05, 2016, 08:43:55 pm
^AFAIk i've seen someone get a 8/10 for the extended response section for the 2013 VCAA exam by writing 1 page [that's it] , however , i generally find i have to use all the lines given, maybe 4-5 lines leftover? :) again , quality>quantity
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jayleno on October 09, 2016, 11:13:31 pm
During a game of squash Andrew is hit in his left eye with a squash ball. His doctor says his sight will not be affected but he will have to keep the eye bandaged for a few weeks. With his left eye covered, information from Andrew's right eye will be processed in the

A)occipital lobe of the left hemisphere.
B)occipital lobe of both the right and left hemispheres.
C)temporal lobe of both the left and right hemispheres.
D)temporal lobe of the right hemisphere.

Hey guys what's the answer to this , the answers say it is B in my Cambridge book but is it right?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: DailyInsanity on October 09, 2016, 11:21:40 pm
During a game of squash Andrew is hit in his left eye with a squash ball. His doctor says his sight will not be affected but he will have to keep the eye bandaged for a few weeks. With his left eye covered, information from Andrew's right eye will be processed in the

A)occipital lobe of the left hemisphere.
B)occipital lobe of both the right and left hemispheres.
C)temporal lobe of both the left and right hemispheres.
D)temporal lobe of the right hemisphere.

Hey guys what's the answer to this , the answers say it is B in my Cambridge book but is it right?

Yep that is right. Remember that is not simply visual information that goes in right eye processed by left hemisphere but that the light that hits the right side of his retina will be sent to left hemisphere and light that his the left side of his retina will be sent to his right hemisphere. So light that goes in one eye will still be processed by occipital lobes of both cerebral hemispheres. Hope that helps!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: molecular. on October 09, 2016, 11:48:40 pm
Use the following information to answer Question 51-54.
Kim, Lonnie and Vivian are good friends who play together in a Soccer team on Saturday mornings. Their mothers take them each week and while the girls are playing their mothers have a coffee and a chat. They usually complain about having to tidy up after the girls. They decide that they will each use a different strategy to encourage their girls to keep their rooms tidy and report back on which is the most effective after 4 weeks.

Question 51
Kim’s mother decides to use a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement where she
A. gives Kim extra pocket money if her room is tidy when she checks it each week on Sunday.
B. checks the room daily but won’t always give Kim extra pocket money, even if she finds the room
tidy.
C. checks the room daily and rewards Kim at irregular intervals, as long as the room is tidy.
D. checks the room daily and always gives Kim pocket money as long as the room is tidy.

I think it is D. This is because fixed ratio is the {'set' = fixed} {'number'= ratio} of reinforcers for a correct response- so after a set number, given that it is a correct response, a reinforcer is given. Option A is incorrect as it is an interval because its Sunday and not after one response. Option B is incorrect because is wrong because a reinforcer isnt given every single time, which occurs in fixed ratio. Again, Option C is at irregular intervals when it shoudl be fixed.

Question 52
Kim’s mother notices a continuing trend with the schedule of reinforcement she has chosen to use.
A. Kim’s room is always clean.
B. Kim’s room is never clean.
C. Kim’s room is cleaned on Saturday night and is dirty again by Tuesday morning.
D. Kim’s room is cleaned on Sunday night and is dirty again by Tuesday morning.

Should be A. Option B - Why would it neve be clean if the girl gets a reinforcer everytime she cleans her room? Option C and D are related to time interval and it was referring to fixed ratio before.   

Question 53
Which schedule of reinforcement would be more effective in encouraging Kim to keep her room tidy throughout the week?
A. Continuousreinforcement B. Variable-ratio
C. Fixed-interval
D. Variable-interval.

Can't be option D because it just doesn't fit the context - like would variable-interval actually work? Option C is maybe. Option B is partial reinforcement so that is good for long term, after a while Kim would keep her room clean all the time. Look, I'm not 100% but ill say C. These are difficult and sometimes its just that there are more than one answer, but one answer is just more sutiable.

Btw please check the answers to see if I know what I am doing haha because I'm still learning my psych notes so I might not be the best one to tell u.

If someone could take the time to answer these and explain why, it would be very much appreciated :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: DailyInsanity on October 10, 2016, 06:07:27 pm
Hi, could someone please explain why using a random sampling technique such as random stratified sampling wouldn't lead to the introduction of participant related variables, but a non-random sampling method like stratified sampling would?

Many Thanks.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Tess_r3 on October 14, 2016, 07:41:00 am
I know that this is a really generalized question but i need help on ER. I am making sure to address each of the dot point suggestions, but i ma never scoring more then about a 6. I there any tips. I have asked two different teachers at my school for help, but they have given me different answers. one teacher said never dot point in ER as them may only count the first ten, whilst another said that you should may dot point paragraphs. Is it true that you are nto only marked for the content but also the coherence?? If anyone has some tips that would be great. 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 14, 2016, 11:37:13 am
I know that this is a really generalized question but i need help on ER. I am making sure to address each of the dot point suggestions, but i ma never scoring more then about a 6. I there any tips. I have asked two different teachers at my school for help, but they have given me different answers. one teacher said never dot point in ER as them may only count the first ten, whilst another said that you should may dot point paragraphs. Is it true that you are nto only marked for the content but also the coherence?? If anyone has some tips that would be great.
write equally for each section. From examiners, i hear its marked holistically, so while it may seem that an explanation of extraneous variable may be short or whatever, writing each dot point they specify to an equal length is important. :) probs looking through examiner reports would be useful
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Tess_r3 on October 15, 2016, 08:54:09 am
Thanks for the reply HasibA
I have another question...this subject is confusing.
I just hit a VCAA question i am not sure on. It was 2010 exam 2, and talked about the decay theory. It said that the decay theory applies to all short term memory, sensory memory and long term memory, but I thought it only applied to long term memory? Thea answer was weird and said that ABCand D where all correct!!. Its question 6.  So does this mean i have to take it that the decay theory can apply to all registers?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: MB_ on October 16, 2016, 04:36:58 pm
For section c, does 'a description of the weaknesses of the experimental design' include weaknesses of the sampling method?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on October 16, 2016, 06:23:18 pm
For section c, does 'a description of the weaknesses of the experimental design' include weaknesses of the sampling method?
No, it refers to weaknesses of independent groups, repeated measures or matched-participants design!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on October 16, 2016, 06:26:04 pm
hi!
Can someone tell me what'd they answer to this?
'Describe two ways in which categorical approach is a better approach than dimensional approach.' [2 marks]
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: MB_ on October 16, 2016, 06:33:42 pm
No, it refers to weaknesses of independent groups, repeated measures or matched-participants design!
Ok, because in the suggested answer it also mentions situational variables, the experimenter effect and the placebo effect.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on October 16, 2016, 07:21:29 pm
Ok, because in the suggested answer it also mentions situational variables, the experimenter effect and the placebo effect.
I was assuming there'd be more dot points asking you to address those? What does the question say exactly?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: MB_ on October 16, 2016, 07:59:48 pm
I was assuming there'd be more dot points asking you to address those? What does the question say exactly?

It says exactly 'a description of the weaknesses of the experimental design'.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: FatimaEl on October 17, 2016, 02:19:24 pm
hi!
Can someone tell me what'd they answer to this?
'Describe two ways in which categorical approach is a better approach than dimensional approach.' [2 marks]

1. Unlike the dimensional approach that classifies the severity of a mental illness on a continuum/spectrum, the categorical approach provides a more definitive ('yes/no') answer and a decision is made whether the disorder is present or absent.
2. The diagnosis procedure for the categorical approach is standard amongst health professionals, making this approach more efficient, as the many dimensions of the dimensional approach that are to be assessed can overcomplicate a mental health assessment.

hope that helped you out! i found this question to be a very good one as it is quite common for questions to ask why the dimensional approach is better, but its important to know reasons why categorical would be better just in case :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on October 17, 2016, 07:34:39 pm
1. Unlike the dimensional approach that classifies the severity of a mental illness on a continuum/spectrum, the categorical approach provides a more definitive ('yes/no') answer and a decision is made whether the disorder is present or absent.
2. The diagnosis procedure for the categorical approach is standard amongst health professionals, making this approach more efficient, as the many dimensions of the dimensional approach that are to be assessed can overcomplicate a mental health assessment.

hope that helped you out! i found this question to be a very good one as it is quite common for questions to ask why the dimensional approach is better, but its important to know reasons why categorical would be better just in case :)
Thank you so much! your answer was really helpful :)
i know right, ive barely seen categorical being the better approach before, good luck for psych :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on October 17, 2016, 07:36:50 pm
It says exactly 'a description of the weaknesses of the experimental design'.
Well because it is section C it makes sense to include extraneous variables that could come about as a result of the experimental design if this is for the 10 marker question.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Tess_r3 on October 18, 2016, 06:35:11 pm
Hi, I am sorry if this question has already being asked, but with exams drawing nearer i just want to check some of my psych terms. I sort-of don't get the difference between central executive and episodic buffer. I know the central executive makes descisions and controls attention, whilst the episodic buffer mental represants various bits of info to be consciously worked on, but which is involved with LTM??? What if i was asked which retrieves information from LTM?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jayleno on October 18, 2016, 09:45:24 pm
Hey guys , just wondering do we need to know research methods about every experiment stated in the study design? For example Sperry and Gazaniga '
By this I mean do we need to know the Iv , do , ethics and such
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: FatimaEl on October 18, 2016, 10:00:51 pm
Hi, I am sorry if this question has already being asked, but with exams drawing nearer i just want to check some of my psych terms. I sort-of don't get the difference between central executive and episodic buffer. I know the central executive makes descisions and controls attention, whilst the episodic buffer mental represants various bits of info to be consciously worked on, but which is involved with LTM??? What if i was asked which retrieves information from LTM?
"which is involved with LTM???"
Since the central executive is in control of attention, it decides what is worthy, or what deserves, to be processed into the long term and what doesnt.Once it has decided that "yes, this should go into the LTM", it will instruct the episodic buffer to combine both the auditory and visuals (to form a scene ("episode") in its unique storage space (episodic buffer has its only place of temporary storage) before being directly transferred into the LTM.
Thus they are both involved in the LTM. However episodic buffer is more directly involved.
"What if i was asked which retrieves information from LTM?"
The episodic buffer retrieves information that it transferred to the LTM (however only under the control of the central executive, as this is the "boss") if the information requires modification or to be focused on at a specific time. So it is the episodic buffer that retrieves info from the LTM. But the central executive does direct the flow of LTM thoughts from working memory and attention and back to LTM, however it does this by using the episodic buffer. So its not the central executive that is directly involved in the retrieval of LTM.

I hope this answer is correct, this is my understanding, its quite a complex topic.  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: FatimaEl on October 18, 2016, 10:20:04 pm
Hey guys , just wondering do we need to know research methods about every experiment stated in the study design? For example Sperry and Gazaniga '
By this I mean do we need to know the Iv , do , ethics and such
So i just checked, and yes we do. I dont know how i didnt know this  :-\
After every area of study the following sentence is there: (in bold i have included the psychologists they are referring to)
Hope that helped everyone, now i got to go cram, oops
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: eliseeeeee on October 19, 2016, 12:35:08 pm
Hi!! I was just wondering whether acronyms such as CS, UCS, UCR etc are acceptable when talking about classical conditioning on the exam?? Or acronyms such as LTM/STM for memory, PNS/CNS when talking about the nervous system and so on?
Thanks  :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 19, 2016, 12:53:41 pm
Hi!! I was just wondering whether acronyms such as CS, UCS, UCR etc are acceptable when talking about classical conditioning on the exam?? Or acronyms such as LTM/STM for memory, PNS/CNS when talking about the nervous system and so on?
Thanks  :D
mention them as the full item first, then you can use them. i.e blah blah Long Term Memory (LTM)- then use LTM from then on!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on October 20, 2016, 02:34:17 pm
hey guys which scedule of reinforcement is least resistant to extinction??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: FatimaEl on October 20, 2016, 05:12:29 pm
hey guys which scedule of reinforcement is least resistant to extinction??
variable-ratio is the most resistant to extinction
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on October 20, 2016, 05:21:28 pm
variable-ratio is the most resistant to extinction
yo that's true but the person asked for least resistant.

Least resistant is fixed interval ;)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nadiaaa on October 20, 2016, 06:02:27 pm
yo that's true but the person asked for least resistant.

Least resistant is fixed interval ;)
THanks and can i ask why it leads to the fastest extinction?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Swagadaktal on October 20, 2016, 06:24:42 pm
THanks and can i ask why it leads to the fastest extinction?
*applies logic*
so
if i give you a cookie every 10 seconds regardless of how well you twerk, and then i stop giving you cookies, you're gonna get frustrated that you dont get a cookie every 10 seconds when u twerk and you'll stop twerking.

However, if I give you a cookie after a random amount of proper ghetto black girl twerks, you're gonna keep twerking properly in the anticipation that you'll get a cookie - so you're least likely to forget how to ghetto black girl twerk you feel?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: FatimaEl on October 20, 2016, 06:28:40 pm
variable-ratio is the most resistant to extinction
oh, haha my bad :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 22, 2016, 11:54:33 am
yo that's true but the person asked for least resistant.

Least resistant is fixed interval ;)
I think it would be more correct to say least resistant is the continuous schedule of reinforcement..of course it depends on what options are listed as this would probably be a multi-choice question
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Jay.C on October 22, 2016, 12:51:15 pm
(http://uploads.tapatalk-cdn.com/20161021/68a2a7e34171b9ad7e702c3ddc2f4d0f.jpg)

For the role of the amygdala could the answer be different from VCAAs given answer in the examiners report "the primary function of the amygdala is the consolidation of emotional information in memory"

E.g could it be - "the function of the amygdala is the formation of implicit, procedural memory's"
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 22, 2016, 02:12:03 pm
what type of memory is most affected by amnesia?
i.e 2014 psych exam, MCQ 27, out of sensory, working, short term and long term memory? i put STM in that specific scenario but i think i misread and i cant find info about it in my textbook - thanks ! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Tess_r3 on October 22, 2016, 07:13:39 pm
Hi, I think i am confused about descriptive and inferential statistics. I know that the p-value determines if the conclusion can be made or not, but how does it determine if the hypothesis is supported Is there a chance that the p-value is statistically significant but the hypothesis is not correct- (e.g. there was a correlational change between iv and dv but it wasn't what was expected?)

Also, in the extended response, sometimes it asks for if the conclusion supported the hypothesis but there was no hypothesis and there was only an aim. what am i meant to write?

Does anyone have any ideas?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 22, 2016, 08:32:16 pm
are we expected to calculate a savings score in the short answer section? do i have to remember the formula? ty :)

edit: when asked in section c to write an introduction, what exactly do we include in that? this from a NEAP exam, and it asks for a intro and method for an experiment (which i can do) :) ty
Title: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Jay.C on October 23, 2016, 06:33:53 pm
Do we have to know about sperlings study on memory yield??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 23, 2016, 07:10:13 pm
Do we have to know about sperlings study on memory yield??
dont think so? did u find this on a VCAA paper?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 23, 2016, 08:27:51 pm
are we expected to calculate a savings score in the short answer section? do i have to remember the formula? ty :)

edit: when asked in section c to write an introduction, what exactly do we include in that? this from a NEAP exam, and it asks for a intro and method for an experiment (which i can do) :) ty

Yes you should know how to do the savings score, however questions about the meaning of the savings score occur much more often-so try to understand both the maths and interpretation of the savings score.
No. If this is in the exam, background info will be given.
Do we have to know about sperlings study on memory yield??
what type of memory is most affected by amnesia?
i.e 2014 psych exam, MCQ 27, out of sensory, working, short term and long term memory? i put STM in that specific scenario but i think i misread and i cant find info about it in my textbook - thanks ! :)
Amnesia is related to long term memory, it is most commonly induced by brain damage. Consider specific cases like what you studied about retrograde and anterograde amnesia-they relate to an inability to retrieve or store long term memories.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 24, 2016, 10:28:57 pm
anyone have any tips for not getting confused between proactive interference and retroactive interference?
as well as any acronyms (hehe psych) used to remember large sets of info?
my best one is Run Scon- where Repression is unconscious, and Suprresion is conscious
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on October 24, 2016, 10:33:15 pm
anyone have any tips for not getting confused between proactive interference and retroactive interference?
as well as any acronyms (hehe psych) used to remember large sets of info?
my best one is Run Scon- where Repression is unconscious, and Suprresion is conscious

I'm on my phone, so apologies for short message, but:

Proactive =
Old interfering with new;
Retroactive =
New interfering with old
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 24, 2016, 10:43:35 pm
I'm on my phone, so apologies for short message, but:

Proactive =
Old interfering with new;
Retroactive =
New interfering with old
that's gold HAHAHAH thanks mate!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Pineapple66 on October 25, 2016, 06:42:19 am
Hey guys! apologies
 for the onslaught of questions but if you can help with any of these/ even just one it would be greatly appreciated!:)

Q. When it says the Amygdala is responsible for the formation of stimulus-response conditioning, does this mean classically conditioned responses?
 
Q. Accepted duration of STM? Also for the duration of LTM is it unlimited or indefinite? Or are they interchangeable?

Q in relation to developmental plasticity, is it the neurons location before or after migration that determines its function?

Q. What is the timing of the stimulus in operant conditioning? I thought it was always before (as in the discriminative stimulus), but one of the prac exams I did says it occurs sometimes after and sometimes before the response?

Q. Veejay attends a university lecture every Tuesday at 10am in the Phinneas Lecture theatre. He always automatically sits in the same seat in the 12th row of the 33 row lecture theatre, although he neer actually counts the rows to work this out.
Veejay’s memory of the location of his seat is an example of (bolded is the answer) :
A.   Episodic
B.   Semantic
C.   Procedural
D.   Working
Thought it was procedural since it's automatic..

Q. When Julius was a child he regularly watched his mother go through the steps required to erect the family tent on the annual fam camping holidays. By the time Julius was a teenager he could methodically go through the steps required to erect the tent himself, despite never being formally taught how to put it up.
Julius has formed as _____ memory which has resulted in the establishment of new synaptic configurations of the brain; this is an example of ______ plasticity. (bolded is the answer)
A.   Explicit; developmental
B.   Explicit; adaptive
C.   Implicit; developmental
D.   Implicit; adaptive

Thought it was implicit cause it’s a procedural memory and developmental because the learning occurred when he was a child…? also how do you differentiate between adaptive and developmental plasticity in a child?


Q. In regards to Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve, the textbook says that “if overlearnt the material is likely to be retained for longer and with greater accuracy” yet apparently (according to an exam) “the rate of forgetting is always the same regardless of how well practiced or learned it is.” So.. which is it? :/

Q. Someone else asked this but I don't think anyone got round to it, but if the results support the hypothesis but they are statistically insignificant does that mean the hypothesis is not supported and a conclusion can't be made? also what does it mean by "implications" of results?

thanks so much! :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jayleno on October 25, 2016, 12:32:37 pm
If p value is P<0.5 and the rsampling method was convenience , can the results be generalised ? And can you say it supports the hypothesis
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: StupidProdigy on October 25, 2016, 04:16:45 pm
If p value is P<0.5 and the rsampling method was convenience , can the results be generalised ? And can you say it supports the hypothesis
No. For psych we want P<0.05 NOT P<0.5. Also if your sample is selected via convenience sampling it is highly unlikely to be representative of the broader population-e.g say a teacher used his/her class as a sample (convenience sampling) for testing heart rate, we can see that this sampling will not generalise to the whole population (due to older people existing in the population and having slower heart rates.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nt2387 on October 25, 2016, 06:20:01 pm

Q. Accepted duration of STM? Also for the duration of LTM is it unlimited or indefinite? Or are they interchangeable?


Duration of STM: 12-30 seconds
Duration of LTM: relatively permanent.

I think indefinite is fine, but unlimited is used to describe capacity only.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: TooLazy on October 25, 2016, 07:55:16 pm
Does anyone know why EEG recordings are quantitative data only?

Like I understand its quantitative because it is measured in waves per second etc.
But cant it be qualitative too? Eg if you categorise it into beta, alpha ... and so on. Isnt that a qualitative trait?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Pineapple66 on October 25, 2016, 10:19:17 pm
Duration of STM: 12-30 seconds
Duration of LTM: relatively permanent.

I think indefinite is fine, but unlimited is used to describe capacity only.

thanks! :)

Does anyone know why EEG recordings are quantitative data only?

Like I understand its quantitative because it is measured in waves per second etc.
But cant it be qualitative too? Eg if you categorise it into beta, alpha ... and so on. Isnt that a qualitative trait?

I'm not sure but I think it's because Qualitative is more..subjective? Like emotional state, difficulty of a task etc whereas the reason physiological recordings are so reliable is because its quantitative and the least subjective. Even the labels beta, alpha etc are based on the quantitative measurements of the waves' frequency and amplitude, in other words external criterion. So I don't think these labels are qualitative, but rather just a way to simplify expressing the quantitative characteristics of the waves (instead of saying "waves with high amplitude and low frequency" every time you want to talk about Delta waves.)

ahhh I'm so nervous about psych :S
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: MandhreeE on October 26, 2016, 01:46:40 pm
hi guys would someone mind clarifying developmental and adaptive plasticity for me. I always seem to get confused. like with developmental plasticity is it only during childhood? and with the adaptive is it only when we experience damage to the brain?
thank you.
Hope everyone smashed English!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: qwertyu1234567 on October 26, 2016, 02:21:02 pm
Hi guys,
Could someone please explain the difference between stratified sampling and random-stratified sampling?
Thanks so much and good luck for tomorrow :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: deejay9 on October 26, 2016, 02:38:58 pm
Hi guys,
Could someone please explain the difference between stratified sampling and random-stratified sampling?
Thanks so much and good luck for tomorrow :)

Stratified sampling:
- Divide the population into strata based on relevant characteristics
- Select a sample from each stratum using the same proportions as the population

Random-stratified:
- Divide the population into strata based on relevant characteristics
- Randomly select a sample from each stratum using the same proportions as the population

E.g. There's 300 people in my population and I divide them into 3 strata based on eye colour - brown (100 people), green (100 people) and blue (100 people). I want a sample of 30, so I would need 10 people from each stratum so that the proportions are the same. Using stratified sampling, I would just pick the first 10 from each stratum without any attempt to make sure that everyone has an equal chance. Using random-stratified, I would assign each person a number and then randomly select my 10 using a random number generator or something.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: FatimaEl on October 26, 2016, 02:55:04 pm
Stratified sampling:
- Divide the population into strata based on relevant characteristics
- Select a sample from each stratum using the same proportions as the population

Random-stratified:
- Divide the population into strata based on relevant characteristics
- Randomly select a sample from each stratum using the same proportions as the population

E.g. There's 300 people in my population and I divide them into 3 strata based on eye colour - brown (100 people), green (100 people) and blue (100 people). I want a sample of 30, so I would need 10 people from each stratum so that the proportions are the same. Using stratified sampling, I would just pick the first 10 from each stratum without any attempt to make sure that everyone has an equal chance. Using random-stratified, I would assign each person a number and then randomly select my 10 using a random number generator or something.

Thank you!! even tho i didnt ask the question your answer clarified my thoughts! :D

hi guys would someone mind clarifying developmental and adaptive plasticity for me. I always seem to get confused. like with developmental plasticity is it only during childhood? and with the adaptive is it only when we experience damage to the brain?
thank you.
Hope everyone smashed English!!

Not entirely correct, yes developmental plasticity is more extensive throughout childhood and generally diminishes with age, but adaptive plasticity is ALSO more extensive, substantial and quicker during childhood, the difference here is that developmental refers to maturation, synaptogenisis and synaptic pruning and, once again, diminishes with age, whereas adaptive refers to changes in neural structures to adapt/compensate for brain damage and  can occur during any time in our lifespan.
Basically just be cautious when saying "only" cause that limits your answer and could cost you a mark. So say 'generally' for a more accurate answer (ironic)
Also just a quick tip my teacher taught me, when you're uncertain in a mc question, avoid circling the ones that use "always" or "only" because they're normally are trying to throw you off by sounding right, but the word "only" or "always" makes the option wrong, if that makes sense? This tip has saved me in SO many trials, so i really trust it!
hope that helped  ;D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: qwertyu1234567 on October 26, 2016, 03:13:38 pm
Stratified sampling:
- Divide the population into strata based on relevant characteristics
- Select a sample from each stratum using the same proportions as the population

Random-stratified:
- Divide the population into strata based on relevant characteristics
- Randomly select a sample from each stratum using the same proportions as the population

E.g. There's 300 people in my population and I divide them into 3 strata based on eye colour - brown (100 people), green (100 people) and blue (100 people). I want a sample of 30, so I would need 10 people from each stratum so that the proportions are the same. Using stratified sampling, I would just pick the first 10 from each stratum without any attempt to make sure that everyone has an equal chance. Using random-stratified, I would assign each person a number and then randomly select my 10 using a random number generator or something.

Thanks!!

Also, just to confirm is this correct?
- Synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning occur in developmental plasticity
- Rerouting and sprouting occur in adaptive plasticity
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: deejay9 on October 26, 2016, 03:17:58 pm
Thanks!!

Also, just to confirm is this correct?
- Synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning occur in developmental plasticity
- Rerouting and sprouting occur in adaptive plasticity

Yes that's correct!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nt2387 on October 26, 2016, 03:20:05 pm
Thanks!!

Also, just to confirm is this correct?
- Synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning occur in developmental plasticity
- Rerouting and sprouting occur in adaptive plasticity
Yes that is correct.

Also synaptogenesis and *synaptic pruning* occur in adaptive plasticity as well, since adaptive plasticity is just the ability for the brain to change in response to experience.

*Not 100% sure.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: MandhreeE on October 26, 2016, 03:25:55 pm
thank you! just another question with the HPA axis is it correct to say that when an individual is experiencing stress both the flight/fight and HPA axis is activated the when the F/F response is activated it provides immediate action and the HPA axis  provides a more long term response? OR perhaps a better way of asking my question is what is the difference between the HPA axis and the flight/fight reponse.
Thank you!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: BLTCC on October 26, 2016, 03:36:49 pm
Hi! Any tips for completing the extended response section when it is pretty much a "create your own"??
Thanks heaps
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: MandhreeE on October 26, 2016, 03:37:32 pm
Do we need to know about the General Adaptation Syndrome? If so would someone mind explaining what it is ?
Thank you
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: deejay9 on October 26, 2016, 03:44:44 pm
Do we need to know about the General Adaptation Syndrome? If so would someone mind explaining what it is ?
Thank you

It's not in the study design anywhere, so I wouldn't worry. I don't even think it's mentioned in the Grivas textbook as it was taken out of the course in 2013.

thank you! just another question with the HPA axis is it correct to say that when an individual is experiencing stress both the flight/fight and HPA axis is activated the when the F/F response is activated it provides immediate action and the HPA axis  provides a more long term response? OR perhaps a better way of asking my question is what is the difference between the HPA axis and the flight/fight reponse.
Thank you!!

When a stressor/threat is perceived, the fight-flight response is activated immediately. If the stressor/threat persists and is long-term, the body needs to activate other physiological responses, so the HPA axis is activated. So basically, the HPA axis is activated for chronic stressors because the body can't sustain the fight-flight response for long periods.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nt2387 on October 26, 2016, 03:46:01 pm
thank you! just another question with the HPA axis is it correct to say that when an individual is experiencing stress both the flight/fight and HPA axis is activated the when the F/F response is activated it provides immediate action and the HPA axis  provides a more long term response? OR perhaps a better way of asking my question is what is the difference between the HPA axis and the flight/fight reponse.
Thank you!!
HPA axis isn't on the study design. I wouldn't stress over it.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: qwertyu1234567 on October 26, 2016, 04:24:36 pm
Hi! Any tips for completing the extended response section when it is pretty much a "create your own"??
Thanks heaps

Yeah I've been wondering this too, assuming that you mean "create your own procedure/experiment" type questions...
Also, does anyone have any tips to receiving marks at the higher end for section C?
My teacher said that you would have to go beyond the dot-points listed so I'm just wondering what everyone else has heard
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 26, 2016, 05:05:23 pm
do we have to know about naturalistic observation, controlled observation and clinical observation?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: qwertyu1234567 on October 26, 2016, 06:35:43 pm
do we have to know about naturalistic observation, controlled observation and clinical observation?

I doubt it since its not explicitly stated on the study design, but i guess it doesn't hurt
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on October 26, 2016, 06:41:48 pm
do we have to know about naturalistic observation, controlled observation and clinical observation?

I don't even remember coming across those terms last year, haha.

I'd forget about them :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: FatimaEl on October 26, 2016, 06:46:00 pm
do we have to know about naturalistic observation, controlled observation and clinical observation?
We learnt about that in unit 1&2 but not 3&4 so i'd say no.

Hi! Any tips for completing the extended response section when it is pretty much a "create your own"??
Thanks heaps
Currently im reading the examination reports to help me out as theres tips in there:
http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Documents/exams/psychology/2013/psych_examrep13.pdf
http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Documents/exams/psychology/2014/psychology_examrep14.pdf
http://www.vcaa.vic.edu.au/Documents/exams/psychology/2015/psych_examrep15.pdf
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: qwertyu1234567 on October 26, 2016, 07:23:25 pm
Is sprouting the same as saying "dendrites become bushier"??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Pineapple66 on October 26, 2016, 08:50:06 pm
Is sprouting the same as saying "dendrites become bushier"??

yup!

THIS QUESTION:
Which of the following is an example of allostasis?
C. an increase in the rate of respiration in anticipation of exercise
D. a decrease in heart rate in response to increased blood pressure

someone mind explaining this? esp since i though allostasis was the achievement of stability through change
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: MB_ on October 26, 2016, 08:57:51 pm
Is sprouting the same as saying "dendrites become bushier"??

Sprouting does involve dendrites becoming bushier but more specifically it is the growth of new bushier nerve fibres with more branches to make new connections.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: deejay9 on October 26, 2016, 09:08:28 pm
yup!

THIS QUESTION:
Which of the following is an example of allostasis?
C. an increase in the rate of respiration in anticipation of exercise
D. a decrease in heart rate in response to increased blood pressure

someone mind explaining this? esp since i though allostasis was the achievement of stability through change

A decrease in heart rate would be homeostasis, since homeostasis involves changing the body's internal environment by keeping certain bodily conditions constant. Heart rate is generally steady, so when it becomes accelerated homeostasis would operate to ensure that it goes back to a normal rhythm. Also, allostasis involves the body adjusting and changing its physiological state to meet internal and external demands. The question says "in anticipation of exercise", so the body's allostatic systems increase the respiration rate as it knows it will soon encounter external demands in the form of physical exercise. Therefore the answer is C.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: HasibA on October 26, 2016, 09:43:27 pm
anyone help me out w/ a nice definition of 'sensitivity' with regards to recall, recognition, relearning etc.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Pineapple66 on October 26, 2016, 10:17:50 pm
A decrease in heart rate would be homeostasis, since homeostasis involves changing the body's internal environment by keeping certain bodily conditions constant. Heart rate is generally steady, so when it becomes accelerated homeostasis would operate to ensure that it goes back to a normal rhythm. Also, allostasis involves the body adjusting and changing its physiological state to meet internal and external demands. The question says "in anticipation of exercise", so the body's allostatic systems increase the respiration rate as it knows it will soon encounter external demands in the form of physical exercise. Therefore the answer is C.

thank you!!! makes a lot more sense :)

anyone help me out w/ a nice definition of 'sensitivity' with regards to recall, recognition, relearning etc.

^ same, been trying to look for something for that.. so far all I got is "Sensitivity essentially refers to how effective each method is in retrieving information." or "A more sensitive measure will register the memory is present if only a small amount of it remains. A less sensitive measure will only register the memory is present when a large proportion is present."

With Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve, does how you encoded it (eg. elaborative rehearsal) and level of processing have any effect on the rate of forgetting? or is it always the same?

Cheers!
oh and good luck to everyone!:)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: FatimaEl on October 26, 2016, 10:39:15 pm
^ same, been trying to look for something for that.. so far all I got is "Sensitivity essentially refers to how effective each method is in retrieving information." or "A more sensitive measure will register the memory is present if only a small amount of it remains. A less sensitive measure will only register the memory is present when a large proportion is present."
anyone help me out w/ a nice definition of 'sensitivity' with regards to recall, recognition, relearning etc.
I define sensitivity the way my book does, which is
"sensitivity of a measure of retention refers to its ability to access the amount of information that has been stored in memory"

With Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve, does how you encoded it (eg. elaborative rehearsal) and level of processing have any effect on the rate of forgetting? or is it always the same?

yes, rate of forgetting, in regards to Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve, is influenced by
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: minerva on December 12, 2016, 08:02:08 am
I just got my study scores. 39 raw for psych. I got 88/100 for Unit 3 Sacs and my results say I got B for GA1??????!!?? Disappointed because I got A+ on the exam and no 40  :'(
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: EdwinaB19 on January 02, 2017, 05:12:08 pm
Hi,
I'm picking up psych as a 3/4 in 2017 and did bio 3/4 last year.

Does psych require the same level of interpretation and application as bio does?
Should I approach psych in a similar way as people generally approach bio?

Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nt2387 on January 02, 2017, 06:24:54 pm
Hi,
I'm picking up psych as a 3/4 in 2017 and did bio 3/4 last year.

Does psych require the same level of interpretation and application as bio does?
Should I approach psych in a similar way as people generally approach bio?

Thanks!

I can't comment on Psychology's similarities to Bio but I will say that there has been a push in recent years to increase the number of 'application' questions in Psychology. I believe VCAA are shifting away from exams which are dominated by 'lower order thinking' questions which require a simple rote learned answer. Instead, you'll find that the questions they ask you are often accompanied by detailed scenarios, requiring you to reference the scenario in your response in order to attain full marks.

That being said, I found that the application questions weren't that difficult because half of your response will contain the familiar theory to back up the response.

I would approach Psychology by creating a detailed set of theory notes. There are bound to be simplistic questions in your exam and SACS and you want to ensure that you pick up all those marks. I would get a copy of Checkpoints and practice the more difficult application questions which separate the state throughout the year. After a while these will become second nature.

I'll also advise you to spend a good amount of time learning the Research Methods part of the course ( I am not 100% sure if it is in the new study design). The state average for the 10 marker question is usually around 3 or 4, so it's an opportunity for you to completely separate yourself from the competition and gives you breathing room if you find some of the SA questions more challenging than usual.

Good Luck!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on January 02, 2017, 06:26:19 pm
Hi,
I'm picking up psych as a 3/4 in 2017 and did bio 3/4 last year.

Does psych require the same level of interpretation and application as bio does?
Should I approach psych in a similar way as people generally approach bio?

Thanks!

Hey there! I'm not greatly familiar with the requirements for Biology, however I would say that Psychology assessments (especially the exam) place an emphasis on applying your knowledge to a scenario/case study, with information that you will need to decipher and interpret.
Best of luck!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on February 10, 2017, 03:39:10 pm
In one part of my textbook cortisol is explained as slowing tissue repair and the healing of wounds, but in other part it says (quote) that 'corticosteroids such as cortisol ... are released into the bloodstream to further energise the body and help repair any damage that may have occurred'. I'm just confused, can someone explain this please? Have I missed out on something? Thanks  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: akka13722 on February 24, 2017, 10:00:42 pm
In one part of my textbook cortisol is explained as slowing tissue repair and the healing of wounds, but in other part it says (quote) that 'corticosteroids such as cortisol ... are released into the bloodstream to further energise the body and help repair any damage that may have occurred'. I'm just confused, can someone explain this please? Have I missed out on something? Thanks  :)

I believe that when cortisol is released it's not used for the functions it normally undertakes (maintaining the immune system especially), hence the reduced immunity after exposure to a chronic stressor is because cortisol is no longer doing its previous job, not that it actually causes slower healing directly.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on March 29, 2017, 02:54:32 pm
I'd like to know the reasoning behind the answer to this question:
Situation (paraphrased from SAC): Jane's son is sent to jail. Jane decides to take time off work and starts to take up drinking. A few months later, she realises that it isn't helping her cope.
Question (I don't fully remember, so it's something along the lines of ==>): What stage of appraisal is it when she realises that drinking isn't helping?
The correct answer: secondary appraisal
My answer: primary appraisal
There was no option for reappraisal

Is the answer "secondary appraisal" correct because reappraisal happens in secondary appraisal instead of primary appraisal?

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: keke on March 29, 2017, 03:08:52 pm
I'd like to know the reasoning behind the answer to this question:
Situation (paraphrased from SAC): Jane's son is sent to jail. Jane decides to take time off work and starts to take up drinking. A few months later, she realises that it isn't helping her cope.
Question (I don't fully remember, so it's something along the lines of ==>): What stage of appraisal is it when she realises that drinking isn't helping?
The correct answer: secondary appraisal
My answer: primary appraisal
There was no option for reappraisal

Is the answer "secondary appraisal" correct because reappraisal happens in secondary appraisal instead of primary appraisal?

Thanks

Secondary appraisal is the answer since it's about making judgements of how you deal with the stressor/stress, which in Jane's case is realising that drinking isn't helping her cope. Primary appraisal can't be the answer as that's about making judgements on whether if a stressor is irrelevant, benign-positive or stressful. In your question's context, Jane has already perceived the situation as stressful so she has already passed the primary appraisal stage.

Reappraisal also isn't correct as it's essentially primary appraisal repeated.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on March 29, 2017, 09:14:07 pm
Hi!
Could someone please explain what 'implications' are in the discussion section of a report? Some friends are saying that it is about whether the results are 'relevant' to the real world. For example, watching the video during Loftus' experiment is not the same as seeing an accident in real life. Therefore, it is not necessarily relevant due to potential different responses.

Other people also said that it is how the results will affect people in real life (this is what i thought it was). For example, Loftus' experiment shows the eye-witness testimony is not foolproof and can be influenced by leading questions and misinformation after the event.


Could someone point me in the right direction? Would be best if it was by tomorrow but I was thinking I might put down both (since they don't contradict in an ERA report SAC) just to make sure i cover the bases.

Thanks!!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on April 03, 2017, 11:41:21 am
Hi!
Could someone please explain what 'implications' are in the discussion section of a report? Some friends are saying that it is about whether the results are 'relevant' to the real world. For example, watching the video during Loftus' experiment is not the same as seeing an accident in real life. Therefore, it is not necessarily relevant due to potential different responses.

Other people also said that it is how the results will affect people in real life (this is what i thought it was). For example, Loftus' experiment shows the eye-witness testimony is not foolproof and can be influenced by leading questions and misinformation after the event.


Could someone point me in the right direction? Would be best if it was by tomorrow but I was thinking I might put down both (since they don't contradict in an ERA report SAC) just to make sure i cover the bases.

Thanks!!!

What is required as part of the "implications" part of an ERA is not that specific, seeing as what you can write about will vary depending on the actual study. Therefore, you could probably write on either or both; however generally, I'd personally focus on 'how the results can be applied on a wider-scale' (that is, in the real world).

Best of luck! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on April 13, 2017, 10:05:24 pm
Hey :)
I'm having a bit of trouble picking out the ABC's in operant conditioning

Firstly, if a question asked to explain someones change in behaviour using the three phase model of operant conditioning, would you select the ABC for before the behaviour change and also for after so you have two 'sets' of ABC's?

Also, could someone tell me if my answer for this question is right (there are no answers)

Charlotte experiences the 'runners high' (due to endorphin release) when she ran a mini-marathon and as a result has started running 10 kilometers three times a week. Explain charlotte's changed behaviour using the three phase model of operant conditioning

Is the antecedent experiencing the runners high when she went on the mini-marathon, the behaviour is going for a run for 10km 3 times a week and the consequence is the endorphin release causing another runners high?
As there isn't any other info given I'd assume you would only write one 'set' of ABC's??

Thanks for the help :)


Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on April 26, 2017, 02:11:52 pm
Hey guys!!!

Has anyone purchased a Cambridge checkpoints book for psych?
I was just wondering if it'll be useful- are the question in their from past papers that are relevant to the new study design OR are they new questions written by the author VCAA style?
Cheers everyone :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: saraaburns on April 26, 2017, 10:49:04 pm
Has anyone purchased a Cambridge checkpoints book for psych?
I was just wondering if it'll be useful- are the question in their from past papers that are relevant to the new study design OR are they new questions written by the author VCAA style?

Yes, I have and for the most part of Unit 3 it's been a massive pain in the ass. Lots of their questions come from VCAA and some are new. If you're correcting answers and one of them looks a bit strange - make sure you check the actual VCAA examiner's report because sometimes they write the wrong answer..

Generally, the longer something has been in the study design and even more importantly the more consistent something has been in the study design the better. Chapter 1/2 of Checkpoints are atrocious and filled with shit that is completely irrelevant to the course. From what I remember about 5 of the 50 multiple choice questions for Nervous System functioning were actually current. Heaps of questions were either completely out of place or were about all the lobes and parts of the cerebral cortex from Unit 1. Beware with those two chapters - the one's on stress are slightly better. It's a really good book if you're looking at stress and sleep (which has remained fairly the same and has really only moved units). There's a tonne of questions on those which I'd recommend. If you're looking for some more questions I'd recommend doing some Exam 2 (Unit 4) Exams from pre-2011 which will basically just give you stacks of learning and memory related content. From what I've seen in checkpoints, the further down the book you get the better it is - but the first chapters are slack.

In summary, is checkpoints good sort of but only after you sort through the four million irrelevant questions and work out which answers are actually factual and correct

And find other sources for more accurate questions on nervous system functioning

Hope this helps,

Sara

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: AngusC on April 27, 2017, 12:12:26 am
Hey :)
I'm having a bit of trouble picking out the ABC's in operant conditioning

Firstly, if a question asked to explain someones change in behaviour using the three phase model of operant conditioning, would you select the ABC for before the behaviour change and also for after so you have two 'sets' of ABC's?

Also, could someone tell me if my answer for this question is right (there are no answers)

Charlotte experiences the 'runners high' (due to endorphin release) when she ran a mini-marathon and as a result has started running 10 kilometers three times a week. Explain charlotte's changed behaviour using the three phase model of operant conditioning

Is the antecedent experiencing the runners high when she went on the mini-marathon, the behaviour is going for a run for 10km 3 times a week and the consequence is the endorphin release causing another runners high?
As there isn't any other info given I'd assume you would only write one 'set' of ABC's??

Thanks for the help :)



I believe your answer would be sufficient. If you aren't sure, I think in addition to saying "she experiences another runner's high", you might also write "which creates a sense of well being". There was a similar exam question worth 6 marks that averaged 2.6 in the state. One mark was awarded for each phase correctly named, and another for each phase correctly explained in relation to the scenario. Therefore, 3 each for naming and explaining the phases.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on April 29, 2017, 09:39:27 pm
does anyone know if action potential refers to the electrochemical message travelling through neurons and synapses OR is it just referring to the electrical impulse travelling through a neuron?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on April 30, 2017, 11:46:45 am
does anyone know if action potential refers to the electrochemical message travelling through neurons and synapses OR is it just referring to the electrical impulse travelling through a neuron?

Tough question! This varies a bit from resource to resource. My personal understanding is that the action potential is just the electrical impulse travelling through a neuron (although I am happy to be challenged on this).

Note that you wouldn't need to know this for the end-of-year exam, so don't stress too much about it :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on May 05, 2017, 09:50:36 am
Hello :)

Could someone explain why/how Alzheimer's disease isn't reversible?

Thanks so much
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: dribeiro on May 06, 2017, 10:20:29 am
Hello :)

Could someone explain why/how Alzheimer's disease isn't reversible?

Thanks so much

Alzheimer's disease involves the formation of amyloid plaques which, in Alzheimer's, are toxic to neurons in the brain. Also, neurofibrillary tangles form which contribute to degradation of neurons in the brain. So we have these two factors contributing to the death of neurons in the brain, and we know that once neurons die we generally cannot regenerate them. Therefore, this disease is not reversible.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: dribeiro on May 06, 2017, 10:26:39 am
does anyone know if action potential refers to the electrochemical message travelling through neurons and synapses OR is it just referring to the electrical impulse travelling through a neuron?

Great question. The action potential is the electrochemical message which travels through neurons. When this action potential reaches the axon terminal, it stimulates the events which ultimately lead to the release of neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft to the post-synaptic neuron which could then stimulate an action potential in that neuron, and so on. So to answer your question - the action potential does not refer to the message travelling across the synapse, only the electrochemical message travelling through neurons.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on May 07, 2017, 12:27:51 pm
Hello :)

Could someone explain why/how Alzheimer's disease isn't reversible?

Thanks so much

Basically, Alzheimer's disease involves the death or degeneration of neurons, which is why it isn't reversible. And, as driberio spoke about above, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles both form (let me know if you need more info about what these actually are). Alzheimer's disease also results in the brain shrinking in size, due to the death of neurons in the brain.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on May 07, 2017, 12:29:06 pm
Great question. The action potential is the electrochemical message which travels through neurons. When this action potential reaches the axon terminal, it stimulates the events which ultimately lead to the release of neurotransmitters across the synaptic cleft to the post-synaptic neuron which could then stimulate an action potential in that neuron, and so on. So to answer your question - the action potential does not refer to the message travelling across the synapse, only the electrochemical message travelling through neurons.

Awesome, that's what I thought - but you put it into words so much more nicely than I did :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on May 14, 2017, 07:06:46 am
-what is the difference between memory encoding and memory consolidation; if any? In the textbook they are used interchangeably
eg. Reconsolidation: Re-encoding a memory that has been retrieved from LTM to STM, back into LTM; possibility of altering memories as we integrate the memory with new information

-in reconsolidation, does the memory ALWAYS change or does it have the possibility of changing? (see my def above)

Thank you in advance :))
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on May 14, 2017, 07:18:41 am
what is meant by firing of a neuron? is it the entire electrochemical message sent through the neurons and synaptic gap? or just the electrical image. I found this def quite confusing:

Firing: When an electrical impulse travels through a neuron, is released from the presynaptic neuron and is transmitted to the postsynaptic neuron
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on May 14, 2017, 07:25:41 am
what areas of the brain are the most 'plastic'? in some textbooks it says motor and sensory cortices, some say association areas, some say:

Location of LTP: hippocampus; motor, visual and auditory cortices of cerebral cortex (associated with memory and learning)

Which one is right? Its soo frustrating having different sources say different things!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on May 14, 2017, 10:36:24 am
-what is the difference between memory encoding and memory consolidation; if any? In the textbook they are used interchangeably
eg. Reconsolidation: Re-encoding a memory that has been retrieved from LTM to STM, back into LTM; possibility of altering memories as we integrate the memory with new information

They're basically the same thing for VCE Psych, and you'll quite often see them used interchangeably.

Quote
-in reconsolidation, does the memory ALWAYS change or does it have the possibility of changing? (see my def above)

Memories can be changed during reconsolidation (e.g. if new info is learnt or leading questions are presented), but aren't guaranteed to change. 

Quote
What is meant by firing of a neuron? is it the entire electrochemical message sent through the neurons and synaptic gap? or just the electrical image. I found this def quite confusing:

Firing: When an electrical impulse travels through a neuron, is released from the presynaptic neuron and is transmitted to the postsynaptic neuron

Again, in VCE Psych, you might see 'firing' refer to the entire process of information sent through the neurons and synaptic gap, or just the electrical impulse travelling through the neuron. In my personal opinion, firing refers to the entire process of information transmission through a neuron and being passed to another neuron, but it could be used for either.

Quote
what areas of the brain are the most 'plastic'? in some textbooks it says motor and sensory cortices, some say association areas, some say:

Location of LTP: hippocampus; motor, visual and auditory cortices of cerebral cortex (associated with memory and learning)

Which one is right? Its soo frustrating having different sources say different things!

Yeah, conflicting sources can be a very common source of frustration in Psych - I feel you :( My understanding is that it is sensory and motor areas in the cerebral cortex, although I am basing that knowledge off the Grivas textbook.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on May 17, 2017, 10:48:35 am
1. what is the difference between synaptic, neural and adaptive plasticity, if any? This is what i have:
Synaptic plasticity: The ability of the synapse to change over time through use or disuse
Neural plasticity: The ability of the brain’s neural structures or functions to be changed by experience throughout the lifespan
Adaptive plasticity: the ability of the adult brain to change, adapt and grow throughout life in response to interaction with the environment and stimulating experiences

They seem the same to me...

2. When asked for examples of stimulus generalisation, discrimination, etc. is it ok to use pavlov's experiments?

3. if students are allocated into groups, say the teacher walks around and points to each person in line and goes 'group 1,group 2, group 3, group 4' thats NOT random allocation right? cause where they sit impacts results?

4. is there a difference between observational learning and vicarious conditoning? My defs:
Vicarious conditioning: When someone observes a model’s behaviour being reinforced or punished, and later behaves in the same/similar way or refrains from doing so as a result of the observation
Observational learning: Occurs when someone uses observation of a model’s actions and the consequences of those actions to guide their future actions. Also called modelling, social learning theory or social cognitive theory.

5. In the key processes of observational learning (attention, retention...) when is the behaviour actually shown (at which stage)?

6. What is an operant and could you provide an example? I dont understand this:
Operant: any voluntary response (without any stimulus) that acts on the environment in the same way each time to produce some kind of consequence

7. Don't remember where this sentence was from, i think Jacaranda TB, but is this true?
‘Spontaneous recovery is often stronger when it occurs after a lengthy period following extinction of the response than when it occurs relatively soon after extinction’ cause i thought that over time it should weaken rather than strengthen

8. What are the similarities/differences between: operant, classical conditioning and observational learning

Thank you so much :)




Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on May 21, 2017, 10:44:18 am
1. what is the difference between synaptic, neural and adaptive plasticity, if any? This is what i have:
Synaptic plasticity: The ability of the synapse to change over time through use or disuse
Neural plasticity: The ability of the brain’s neural structures or functions to be changed by experience throughout the lifespan
Adaptive plasticity: the ability of the adult brain to change, adapt and grow throughout life in response to interaction with the environment and stimulating experiences

For this study design in VCE Psych, I would consider them all to mean basically the same thing. Often you will see them used interchangeably in resources, so don't let this confuse you too much :)

Quote
2. When asked for examples of stimulus generalisation, discrimination, etc. is it ok to use pavlov's experiments?

Yeah, absolutely I would think it is ok, unless the questions says specifically not to.

Quote
3. if students are allocated into groups, say the teacher walks around and points to each person in line and goes 'group 1,group 2, group 3, group 4' thats NOT random allocation right? cause where they sit impacts results?

You're right, technically no, this isn't random allocation, as there could be bias and where people sit impact results. If this were me, I would check with your teacher if possible, as I'm guessing this is for a SAC, and write whatever she wants you too :)

Quote
4. is there a difference between observational learning and vicarious conditoning? My defs:
Vicarious conditioning: When someone observes a model’s behaviour being reinforced or punished, and later behaves in the same/similar way or refrains from doing so as a result of the observation
Observational learning: Occurs when someone uses observation of a model’s actions and the consequences of those actions to guide their future actions. Also called modelling, social learning theory or social cognitive theory.

No, basically vicarious conditioning is just a key part of how observational learning works, as it refers to learning through the actions of others.

Quote
5. In the key processes of observational learning (attention, retention...) when is the behaviour actually shown (at which stage)?

The observer actually performs the behaviour at the reproduction stage :) If you are referring to the model, then they would perform the behaviour during the attention stage, I believe.

Quote
6. What is an operant and could you provide an example? I dont understand this:
Operant: any voluntary response (without any stimulus) that acts on the environment in the same way each time to produce some kind of consequence

The operant is simply the behaviour that an individual performs during the process of operant conditioning. For example, pointing a TV remote at the TV and pressing the power button would be an operant. This acts on the environment as it causes the TV to turn on - which would mean that you are more likely to use the remote again in the future. But basically, operant is just another term for behaviour or response (in terms of operant conditioning) :)

Quote
7. Don't remember where this sentence was from, i think Jacaranda TB, but is this true?
‘Spontaneous recovery is often stronger when it occurs after a lengthy period following extinction of the response than when it occurs relatively soon after extinction’ cause i thought that over time it should weaken rather than strengthen

Yes, that is in the Jacaranda textbook. To my understanding, spontaneous recovery does get stronger if there is a longer rest break following extinction, rather than if it was only a few hours after extinction, for example. However, if there are multiple spontaneous recoveries, they tend to get weaker each time.

Quote
8. What are the similarities/differences between: operant, classical conditioning and observational learning

This is quite a big question, so I'll just touch on a few:

- In operant conditioning the learner is active, while in classical conditioning the learner is passive
- In operant conditioning the behaviour is voluntary, while in classical conditioning it is involuntary/reflexive
- In both operant conditioning and observational learning, the likelihood of a behaviour being performed again depends on the consequences of the behaviour
- In operant conditioning, an individual performs the behaviour themselves, whereas in observational learning, an individual observes a model performing a behaviour

I hope this is useful!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on May 21, 2017, 07:36:28 pm
Hey,
So I was doing some questions, and I came across this:

Sensory Memory:
 a) is known as working memory
 b) is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.
 c) preserves information in its original form for less than a few seconds.
 d) is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthly periods of time.

I know that the first two are referring to the short term memory, and sensory memory has a duration of .2-4 seconds. So I circled C, but according to the answers, it's D? Can someone please tell me if im wrong, how it is D, or if its just a printing error? I'm so confused and my memory SAC is next week.

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: lovelyperson on May 21, 2017, 08:12:08 pm
Hey,
So I was doing some questions, and I came across this:

Sensory Memory:
 a) is known as working memory
 b) is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.
 c) preserves information in its original form for less than a few seconds.
 d) is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthly periods of time.

I know that the first two are referring to the short term memory, and sensory memory has a duration of .2-4 seconds. So I circled C, but according to the answers, it's D? Can someone please tell me if im wrong, how it is D, or if its just a printing error? I'm so confused and my memory SAC is next week.

Thanks

C should be correct. D can't be correct as sensory memory recall, and hence how long information is held, decays very rapidly.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on May 23, 2017, 04:09:10 pm
Hey,
So I was doing some questions, and I came across this:

Sensory Memory:
 a) is known as working memory
 b) is a limited capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.
 c) preserves information in its original form for less than a few seconds.
 d) is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthly periods of time.

I know that the first two are referring to the short term memory, and sensory memory has a duration of .2-4 seconds. So I circled C, but according to the answers, it's D? Can someone please tell me if im wrong, how it is D, or if its just a printing error? I'm so confused and my memory SAC is next week.

Thanks

Yep, as said above, C is definitely correct.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on May 27, 2017, 07:04:32 pm
Okay guys:

I was wondering if any of you know of any resources for psychology?

Also if you have business management, further math and English resources that would be lovely
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: AngelWings on May 27, 2017, 10:05:10 pm
Okay guys:

I was wondering if any of you know of any resources for psychology?

Also if you have business management, further math and English resources that would be lovely
Have you checked this or ExamPro out? If not, they might be your two best AN-sourced ones out there to begin with. If you're looking for more, check out some of the other textbooks available (Grivas et al., Nelson, Oxford IIRC), Checkpoints or maybe even the practise exam companies (e.g. TSFX, TSSM, Engage Education). These will be ample study material and majority of these are available in most of the other subjects you've listed too.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on May 28, 2017, 02:19:34 pm
Hey Psychlings!

I am currently in year 12 and I am doing psychology (obviously)

I was wondering, usually people who get above 45 in psychology do like 15 practice exams.
With the new study design there isn't much to practice on!
What resources have you been using, are planning to use or recommend if you are aiming for a 45 in psychology?

Your replies are appreciated!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: AngelWings on May 28, 2017, 02:54:34 pm
Hey Psychlings!

I am currently in year 12 and I am doing psychology (obviously)

I was wondering, usually people who get above 45 in psychology do like 15 practice exams.
With the new study design there isn't much to practice on!
What resources have you been using, are planning to use or recommend if you are aiming for a 45 in psychology?

Your replies are appreciated!!
Hey Ashjames!

I've had a quick peek at the 2017 Psych Study Design and it doesn't look like it's overly changed from previous years. Although not 100% accurate, any previous resources up to 2017 should still be relevant to some degree (70-95% usually between years). Thus, you can use any of the ones I listed in the previous post with a hint of caution, with the knowledge that textbooks and the latest Checkpoints are usually relevant to the current or last study design. I can't find it currently, but someone probably remembers where the study design changes are kept for you to double check that, so you can avoid the sections that have been altered. Hopefully that helps.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on May 28, 2017, 03:01:18 pm
Hey Ashjames!

I've had a quick peek at the 2017 Psych Study Design and it doesn't look like it's overly changed from previous years. Although not 100% accurate, any previous resources up to 2017 should still be relevant to some degree (70-95% usually between years). Thus, you can use any of the ones I listed in the previous post with a hint of caution, with the knowledge that textbooks and the latest Checkpoints are usually relevant to the current or last study design. I can't find it currently, but someone probably remembers where the study design changes are kept for you to double check that, so you can avoid the sections that have been altered. Hopefully that helps.

Yep - the thread I link below may be of use. :)

A summary of changes to the 2017+ study design.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on May 28, 2017, 03:38:44 pm
Hey Psychlings!

I am currently in year 12 and I am doing psychology (obviously)

I was wondering, usually people who get above 45 in psychology do like 15 practice exams.
With the new study design there isn't much to practice on!
What resources have you been using, are planning to use or recommend if you are aiming for a 45 in psychology?

Your replies are appreciated!!

It's a painful problem, I do feel sorry for you.

To give you an idea, I did about 10 prac exams for Psych, as they can be pretty long and arduous. I won't lie, I feel like the Psych study design has changed quite significantly from the previous one - particularly Unit 4, although I haven't looked at that in as much detail yet.

I would still definitely be doing past VCAA exams and trying to pick out relevant exam questions. Painful, I know, but still definitely worth it. VCAA have also put out a sample exam for the new study design. Other than that, the companies I did practice exams from included NEAP, Insight and STAV, so I would check those out to see if they've put out anything new. 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on May 28, 2017, 03:41:54 pm
@Ashjames,

Out of interest, would you find it useful if somebody (hypothetically) went through previous Psych exams and identified which questions were still relevant? Like, would that make things easier? :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on May 28, 2017, 05:35:15 pm
@Ashjames,

Out of interest, would you find it useful if somebody (hypothetically) went through previous Psych exams and identified which questions were still relevant? Like, would that make things easier? :)

OMGGGG are you serious??? I'd be on cloud 9 if someone did that for me!!!! Seeing as I have 2 other subjects which are content heavy (texts and traditions and business management) I kind of don't have enough time for anything like that  :'( (you feel me??)

But if someone meant to do that, I would appreciate it soooooo muchhhhhhhhhh  ;D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on May 30, 2017, 07:52:44 pm
Wait guys, so if I was given a report, how would I identify a possible hypothesis for the study? And is the saving score stuff something we need to learn, or just what relearning is?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: lovelyperson on May 30, 2017, 08:10:22 pm
Wait guys, so if I was given a report, how would I identify a possible hypothesis for the study?

It's usually explicitly stated in the introduction as something like "we hypothesised that...", but if you're stuck, you can usually deduce it from the conclusion or ending of the discussion.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on May 31, 2017, 10:41:37 am
OMGGGG are you serious??? I'd be on cloud 9 if someone did that for me!!!! Seeing as I have 2 other subjects which are content heavy (texts and traditions and business management) I kind of don't have enough time for anything like that  :'( (you feel me??)

But if someone meant to do that, I would appreciate it soooooo muchhhhhhhhhh  ;D

It will get done. 8)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on June 04, 2017, 09:44:00 pm
Hey guys !!! It's me again hehe, so basically i was wondering,
1- Can we forget information that is held in the short term and sensory memories? Or is it because they haven't been consolidated properly, they were never able to be forgotten in the first place?
2- Would consolidation and encoding be considered the same thing or?
3- How do context and state dependent cues help our ability to retrieve implicit and explicit memories? Is it because they just aid in locating and retrieving the memories?
4- and what are some limitations of the retrieval failure theory?

THANKS AGAIN DUDES <3
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: lovelyperson on June 04, 2017, 10:04:23 pm
Hey guys !!! It's me again hehe, so basically i was wondering,
1- Can we forget information that is held in the short term and sensory memories? Or is it because they haven't been consolidated properly, they were never able to be forgotten in the first place?
2- Would consolidation and encoding be considered the same thing or?
3- How do context and state dependent cues help our ability to retrieve implicit and explicit memories? Is it because they just aid in locating and retrieving the memories?
4- and what are some limitations of the retrieval failure theory?

THANKS AGAIN DUDES <3

1) Nope. Forgetting is defined as an inability to retrieve stored information, and since information technically isn't stored within sensory or STM, you can't 'forget' information in them.

2) Nope. Consolidation is making memories stronger neurologically, whereas encoding is converting information into a form that could be stored in memory. There is some overlap, but they're mostly different.

3) Yes? Not sure though - check with someone else for this one. .

4) Only one I could think of is that  you can't really validly test the model scientifically, since you can't be sure if the memory is even in LTM in the first place.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 05, 2017, 04:51:31 pm
1) Nope. Forgetting is defined as an inability to retrieve stored information, and since information technically isn't stored within sensory or STM, you can't 'forget' information in them.

2) Nope. Consolidation is making memories stronger neurologically, whereas encoding is converting information into a form that could be stored in memory. There is some overlap, but they're mostly different.

3) Yes? Not sure though - check with someone else for this one. .

4) Only one I could think of is that  you can't really validly test the model scientifically, since you can't be sure if the memory is even in LTM in the first place.

Top answers, Remi! Would agree with all of them. Just a couple of notes I would add:

2) There definitely is some overlap between consolidation and encoding, and occasionally you may see the terms used similarly.

3) State and context dependent cues do make it easier to locate and retrieve the memory, as has been said. This is simply because the external environment (for content) or the feeling/emotion (for state) acts a cue to help retrieve those memories. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on June 05, 2017, 05:04:00 pm
3) State and context dependent cues do make it easier to locate and retrieve the memory, as has been said. This is simply because the external environment (for content) or the feeling/emotion (for state) acts a cue to help retrieve those memories. :)

You can even use this knowledge to aid your own exam performance. :) For example, if you know where your exams will be held (as in, the physical location), you might like to do your practice exams there! ;)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 05, 2017, 05:08:04 pm
OMGGGG are you serious??? I'd be on cloud 9 if someone did that for me!!!! Seeing as I have 2 other subjects which are content heavy (texts and traditions and business management) I kind of don't have enough time for anything like that  :'( (you feel me??)

But if someone meant to do that, I would appreciate it soooooo muchhhhhhhhhh  ;D

Ashjames, just a note to you (and others) that you may want to check out this thread here, if you haven't already. 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: LukeFromVic on June 07, 2017, 10:29:33 pm
Hey Guys,

I stumbled upon this in the textbook regarding recall, relearning and recognition;
   
"Recall tends to be the least sensitive measure of retention
Relearning tends to be the most sensitive measure of retention
Recognition tends to be less sensitive than relearning but more sensitive than recall. "

Can somebody please explain what the term 'senstive' means in this context?! I don't really understand what it's trying to say.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on June 08, 2017, 09:14:17 am
Hey Guys,

I stumbled upon this in the textbook regarding recall, relearning and recognition;
   
"Recall tends to be the least sensitive measure of retention
Relearning tends to be the most sensitive measure of retention
Recognition tends to be less sensitive than relearning but more sensitive than recall. "

Can somebody please explain what the term 'senstive' means in this context?! I don't really understand what it's trying to say.



You can basically replace "sensitive" with "effective". So recall is least likely to be effective in the retention of information, and recognition the most effective.

It's weird terminology, I agree. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on June 08, 2017, 04:23:06 pm
Hey psych buddies!!!

I have 2 questions:
- To type notes or not to type notes? ( which is more effective, handwritten or typed?)

- Should I go to a psych lecture? Is it necessary? Are they effective? If so, which company do you most recommend to attend to? (Sorry, that was like 4 questions!)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on June 08, 2017, 04:25:59 pm
Hey psych buddies!!!

I have 2 questions:
- To type notes or not to type notes? ( which is more effective, handwritten or typed?)

- Should I go to a psych lecture? Is it necessary? Are they effective? If so, which company do you most recommend to attend to? (Sorry, that was like 4 questions!)

Regarding notes: I personally much prefer handwritten, but this is a personal preference. I found that the information sunk in more easily (especially compared to when I tried to type notes for a couple of weeks at uni). :)

Regarding lectures: why not ATAR Notes? 8) They're free, super high quality - and the Psych lecture will be taken by none other than howey! That is, the absolute legend who made this thread. ;D So you know you'll be in good hands! If you like, I can post the link to registrations here as soon as it becomes available. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on June 08, 2017, 04:27:28 pm
And one more question:

Are ATARNOTES going to be holding any lectures in the future at RMIT? I totally missed the first ones!  :'( :'( :'(
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on June 08, 2017, 04:28:37 pm
And one more question:

Are ATARNOTES going to be holding any lectures in the future at RMIT? I totally missed the first ones!  :'( :'( :'(

You bet. ;D See above post - the Psych one will be taken by howey!

I'll post the link here as soon as it's available. ;)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on June 08, 2017, 04:51:16 pm
You bet. ;D See above post - the Psych one will be taken by howey!

I'll post the link here as soon as it's available. ;)

Oh of course, Howey has helped a lot with psych on the forums! So I wouldn't miss any lecture that he does!!!!!!!!!!!!

And yes, I'll definitely attend the ATAR notes lectures (now that I realized it's a pretty good idea) so please link it here if you can!!! ( DW if you forget, I'll keep my open for it anyway)

And what other subjects does ATAR notes offer? (specifically, do you offer business management?)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on June 08, 2017, 06:46:54 pm
Mariamnourine, check out this thread! :)

*Free VCE Lectures* - Mid-Year 2017 - Exclusive to Forum - Register Now!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on June 10, 2017, 02:10:53 pm
Hey guys, just got a question regarding operationalising variables. So, the experiment we're doing is basically the serial position effect, with there being a control group who has immediate recall of a word list. The experimental group has a delayed recall by 50 seconds where they have to do something in that time, then recall the words. So, how would I go about operationalising the IV and DV, as I am quite confused.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: lovelyperson on June 10, 2017, 02:32:44 pm
Hey guys, just got a question regarding operationalising variables. So, the experiment we're doing is basically the serial position effect, with there being a control group who has immediate recall of a word list. The experimental group has a delayed recall by 50 seconds where they have to do something in that time, then recall the words. So, how would I go about operationalising the IV and DV, as I am quite confused.

When asked to operationalise variables, ask yourself "how would I measure this?" So for in your case, ask yourself: "how would I measure the delayed 50 seconds?", and "how would I measure how many words from the list have been recalled?" You'll then plonk the answers to these questions into your variables, then boom! operationalised.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on June 10, 2017, 03:01:47 pm
When asked to operationalise variables, ask yourself "how would I measure this?" So for in your case, ask yourself: "how would I measure the delayed 50 seconds?", and "how would I measure how many words from the list have been recalled?" You'll then plonk the answers to these questions into your variables, then boom! operationalised.
Thanks for that! We are also measuring the position of the words recalled (start, middle, end), so how does one operationalise that?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: lovelyperson on June 10, 2017, 04:17:56 pm
Thanks for that! We are also measuring the position of the words recalled (start, middle, end), so how does one operationalise that?

Talk about how'll the words are going to be presented to participants; will it be done verbally, on a piece of paper, or in another way?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on June 10, 2017, 05:27:24 pm
Talk about how'll the words are going to be presented to participants; will it be done verbally, on a piece of paper, or in another way?
Ermmm, I mean the DV. We are trying to get the serial position effect to occur, and we're measuring the position of the words recalled (start, middle or end), so how would I operationalise the DV?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 11, 2017, 10:28:04 am
Ermmm, I mean the DV. We are trying to get the serial position effect to occur, and we're measuring the position of the words recalled (start, middle or end), so how would I operationalise the DV?

I think your operationalised DV would simply be something like "The percentage of participants who correctly write down the word presented in the list". I'm assuming that participants are writing down their answers - if the are saying them verbally then you would need to change this.

In a way, you sort of have a couple of independent variables:
1. The position of the word in the list
2. Whether or not there is a delay after the presentation of the list

I'm assuming you're probably going with the second IV, as that is the major focus of the experiment.

This is a bit of a tricky one purely due to wording, I agree. I hope I haven't confused you more!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on June 11, 2017, 01:10:57 pm
Hey guys its me again xD
So when you're writing an investigation report, what is the difference between summary of results and the discussion? are they basically the same thing? Or are there some differences i'm missing?
Thanks !!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 11, 2017, 02:09:21 pm
Hey guys its me again xD
So when you're writing an investigation report, what is the difference between summary of results and the discussion? are they basically the same thing? Or are there some differences i'm missing?
Thanks !!!

G'day again!

There is a little bit of a difference.

A summary of results is where you put the results of the experiment. For example, you'll include any data in the form of tables, graphs, charts etc. This section may include a small piece of writing that summarise the results - but only summarise! For example, you might say '90% of participants remembered the last word that was presented to them'. However, you would not say why - that is for the discussion.

The discussion is usually a much larger part of the report. In the discussion, you examine the results and explain why the results occurred (e.g. for the example above, because of the recency effect, still in short-term memory etc.). It usually starts with a statement on whether the hypothesis is supported or rejected. You also note any extraneous variables or errors that occurred during the experiment and whether you can generalise the results to the wider population (which depends on your sample, population and method). The discussion section often ends with a brief conclusion.

I hope that helps! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on June 11, 2017, 02:21:32 pm
Thanks Howey!!! Just one more question (for now hehe) what do we write in a conclusion? Like what's different between that and the discussion?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 11, 2017, 02:57:15 pm
Thanks Howey!!! Just one more question (for now hehe) what do we write in a conclusion? Like what's different between that and the discussion?

A conclusion is generally just one or two sentences, and just summarises the whole experiment. E.g. Overall, this experiment clearly showed the existence of the serial position effect and therefore demonstrated the existence of both short-term and long-term memory.

Often, it is just added onto the end of the discussion, and is generally pretty short.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on June 11, 2017, 07:07:55 pm
Im pre sure you guys are getting sick of me rn xD but is there any difference between limitations of a study and the extraneous/confounding variables present? What else can i write under my limitations section?
Basically how to write an effective discussion pls.
THANKS AGAIN
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on June 12, 2017, 02:46:52 pm
In your limitations section you talk about how relevant your findings are to the real world. Limitations are caused by variables, but I wouldn't say they are variables. Some questions which can help you write this section include:
what population is my sample representative of, if any? Why?
What confounding variables may have impacted the results?
How would each variable impact the results?
What could a future researcher do to protect against this?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on June 14, 2017, 03:10:07 pm
Question:  How is the Amygdala and the cerebral cortex involved in long-term memory?
What are their roles in regards to long term memory formation and storage?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on June 14, 2017, 06:21:24 pm
Question:  How is the Amygdala and the cerebral cortex involved in long-term memory?
What are their roles in regards to long term memory formation and storage?

Amygdala is involved in formation and encoding of implicit memories which then are passed onto the cerebral cortex for storage. The cerebral cortex basically stores long term memories according to what type of information was processed. Eg. Procedural memories are stored in the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex.

I'm learning this too, so someone correct me if I'm wrong! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on June 17, 2017, 12:18:52 pm
Questions:

1.Are episodic memories more susceptible to memory loss then semantic memories? Explain with reference to Alzheimer's disease

2. Explain the role of the temporal lobe in memory formation. What memories does it store?

3. Which is the Amygdala NOT responsible for?
a) learning
b)memory
c)fear
d)all emotions

4. Explain the existence of short term and long term memory using the serial position effect

5. Wendy and bill witnessed a car accident. Wendy was standing at the curb, while bill witnessed it from inside a bakery. Wendy always has vivid flashbacks of the event. One year later, Bill and Wendy were giving eyewitness testimony in court, Bill gave a different story to othre one he gave on the scene of the accident

a) Explain the role of the Amygdala with reference to Wendy's reaction
b) What hormone was responsible for Wendy's reactions?
C) With reference to Elizabeth Loftus, explain why Bill might have given different testimony in court

6. Explain anterograde amnesia with reference to an example
Thanks guys!!

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 18, 2017, 10:35:24 am
1.Are episodic memories more susceptible to memory loss then semantic memories? Explain with reference to Alzheimer's disease

I'm not 100% sure on this, but personally I would say that both episodic and semantic memories are heavily affected by Alzheimer's disease. The key thing is that explicit memories (semantic and episodic) tend to be affected earlier in the disease and more severely than implicit memories.

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2. Explain the role of the temporal lobe in memory formation. What memories does it store?

The temporal lobe contains both the hippocampus and the amygdala. Therefore, it is involved in the consolidation of explicit memories (the primary role of the hippocampus) and the formation of emotional memories (the amygdala). As for storage, neither the hippocampus or the amygdala store memories, as long-term explicit memories are distributed around the cerebral cortex. It is likely the temporal lobe will store auditory information from these memories, as auditory information is processed in the temporal lobe.

Quote
3. Which is the Amygdala NOT responsible for?
a) learning
b)memory
c)fear
d)all emotions

Bit of a strange question, this. Personally, I would say d) all emotions, as the amygdala is involved in learning, memory and fear, and d) just seems like a bit of a strange answer, even though the amygdala does have a key role in regulating emotional reactions. Happy to be challenged on this one!

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4. Explain the existence of short term and long term memory using the serial position effect

The key here is to consider the primacy and recency effect. The primacy effect (items at the start of the list being remembered better) are rehearsed multiple times and therefore pass into LTM - therefore proving the existence of LTM. The recency effect (items at the end of the list being remembered better) occurs due to these items still being in STM - therefore proving the existence of STM.

Quote
5. Wendy and bill witnessed a car accident. Wendy was standing at the curb, while bill witnessed it from inside a bakery. Wendy always has vivid flashbacks of the event. One year later, Bill and Wendy were giving eyewitness testimony in court, Bill gave a different story to othre one he gave on the scene of the accident

a) Explain the role of the Amygdala with reference to Wendy's reaction

Wendy's amygdala was responsible for this event being remembered strongly, and therefore able to be easily retrieved. During times of heightened emotional arousal, such as the accident, noradrenaline is released at the amygdala, which stimulates the amygdala to signal to the hippocampus that stronger encoding of the memory is needed. If the memory is encoded very strongly, this could explain Wendy's constant flashbacks.

Quote
b) What hormone was responsible for Wendy's reactions?

As touched on above, noradrenaline, although adrenaline also plays a role.

Quote
C) With reference to Elizabeth Loftus, explain why Bill might have given different testimony in court

Loftus found that memories could be reconstructed over time. Therefore, Bill may have reconstructed his memory of the accident over the past year due to new information becoming available, or due to being asked leading questions. This can lead to new information being inserted into Bill's memory, causing the memory to be fallible and possible incorrect, and different to the memory that he originally had.

Quote
6. Explain anterograde amnesia with reference to an example

Anterograde amnesia is when an individual is unable to form new long-term explicit memories after the brain trauma/incident occurs (such as a head knock). H.M. is a famous example of this - he had most of his medial temporal lobes removed and was unable to form new explicit long-term memories afterwards.

I hope this helps! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on June 18, 2017, 12:54:52 pm
I'm not 100% sure on this, but personally I would say that both episodic and semantic memories are heavily affected by Alzheimer's disease. The key thing is that explicit memories (semantic and episodic) tend to be affected earlier in the disease and more severely than implicit memories.

The temporal lobe contains both the hippocampus and the amygdala. Therefore, it is involved in the consolidation of explicit memories (the primary role of the hippocampus) and the formation of emotional memories (the amygdala). As for storage, neither the hippocampus or the amygdala store memories, as long-term explicit memories are distributed around the cerebral cortex. It is likely the temporal lobe will store auditory information from these memories, as auditory information is processed in the temporal lobe.

Bit of a strange question, this. Personally, I would say d) all emotions, as the amygdala is involved in learning, memory and fear, and d) just seems like a bit of a strange answer, even though the amygdala does have a key role in regulating emotional reactions. Happy to be challenged on this one!

The key here is to consider the primacy and recency effect. The primacy effect (items at the start of the list being remembered better) are rehearsed multiple times and therefore pass into LTM - therefore proving the existence of LTM. The recency effect (items at the end of the list being remembered better) occurs due to these items still being in STM - therefore proving the existence of STM.

Wendy's amygdala was responsible for this event being remembered strongly, and therefore able to be easily retrieved. During times of heightened emotional arousal, such as the accident, noradrenaline is released at the amygdala, which stimulates the amygdala to signal to the hippocampus that stronger encoding of the memory is needed. If the memory is encoded very strongly, this could explain Wendy's constant flashbacks.

As touched on above, noradrenaline, although adrenaline also plays a role.

Loftus found that memories could be reconstructed over time. Therefore, Bill may have reconstructed his memory of the accident over the past year due to new information becoming available, or due to being asked leading questions. This can lead to new information being inserted into Bill's memory, causing the memory to be fallible and possible incorrect, and different to the memory that he originally had.

Anterograde amnesia is when an individual is unable to form new long-term explicit memories after the brain trauma/incident occurs (such as a head knock). H.M. is a famous example of this - he had most of his medial temporal lobes removed and was unable to form new explicit long-term memories afterwards.

I hope this helps! :)



Yes Howey- it has helped immensely!!! You're such a gun!! way to go Howey!! ;) ;)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on June 18, 2017, 01:06:41 pm
Bit of a strange question, this. 

Agreed upon Howey- its a really strange question (don't know where my teacher got this from???) I'll let you know what the correct answer is when I know.
Yeah I also agree with d), because the Amygdala is responsible for classically conditioned emotional responses (such as littleAlbert) so its definitely not b)learning, and the other 2 options are just TOO OBVIOUS!!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: EdwinaB19 on June 22, 2017, 07:51:44 pm
Hey I was wondering if anyone knew why stage 3 of NREM is 3-10 minutes long and why it's so short?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on June 23, 2017, 03:40:13 pm
This ones specifically for Howey::

I got my SAC back and my teacher told my that the Amygdala question was correct, it was d) all emotions

I really don't know how she came up with that, but thanks for your help anyways!  :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 25, 2017, 10:28:16 am
Hey I was wondering if anyone knew why stage 3 of NREM is 3-10 minutes long and why it's so short?

Hi! To be honest, no, I don't know why it's so short. As soon as there are over 50% delta brain waves it is classified as stage 4 sleep, so presumably this doesn't take very long after leaving stage 2. The good news is you don't need to know (for VCE purposes) why Stage 3 is so short. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 25, 2017, 10:29:42 am
This ones specifically for Howey::

I got my SAC back and my teacher told my that the Amygdala question was correct, it was d) all emotions

I really don't know how she came up with that, but thanks for your help anyways!  :D

Good to hear, Ashjames!! It really was a bit of a strange question - I'm glad you got the mark :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: lovelyperson on June 26, 2017, 02:36:06 pm
Ermmm, I mean the DV. We are trying to get the serial position effect to occur, and we're measuring the position of the words recalled (start, middle or end), so how would I operationalise the DV?

Super super late response, but oh whoops - howey answered your question though.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on June 27, 2017, 01:44:37 pm
Questions:

Are amplitude and frequency only used to measure the brains electrical activity in regards to EEG? Are they used to measure electrical activity in EOG and EMG? ( basically, are amplitude and frequency used in EOG,EMG and EEG? or is it used only in EEG?)

Why is consciousness placed on a continuum?

 :) :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: amigos on June 27, 2017, 03:02:13 pm
Questions:

Are amplitude and frequency only used to measure the brains electrical activity in regards to EEG? Are they used to measure electrical activity in EOG and EMG? ( basically, are amplitude and frequency used in EOG,EMG and EEG? or is it used only in EEG?)

Why is consciousness placed on a continuum?

 :) :)

Not really sure, but I would assume amplitude and frequency are used only in EEGs, as they're measures of brain waves and thus irrelevant to EOGs and EMGs.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on June 27, 2017, 06:54:05 pm
As touched on above, noradrenaline, although adrenaline also plays a role.

Just a clarification/correction here (looking back over my stuff and the study design) that adrenaline is the primary neurohormone involved in the consolidation of emotional memories, although noradrenaline does play a significant role as well.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on June 28, 2017, 10:02:38 pm
Hey again!!!
I just had a question, so since when we’re watching like a tv show we love or playing a game, and we sort of get addicted to it, are we paying focused attention to it, since we don't really tend to be aware of other things that might be going around us? Because if we are, then how come we tend to lose track of time?  Isn’t that like a trait of an altered state of consciousness? Or is it also losing track of time another thing associated with focused attention like the reduced awareness of our surroundings?
Thanks !
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 03, 2017, 07:17:13 pm
Hey again!!!
I just had a question, so since when we’re watching like a tv show we love or playing a game, and we sort of get addicted to it, are we paying focused attention to it, since we don't really tend to be aware of other things that might be going around us? Because if we are, then how come we tend to lose track of time?  Isn’t that like a trait of an altered state of consciousness? Or is it also losing track of time another thing associated with focused attention like the reduced awareness of our surroundings?
Thanks !

Yes, if you're closely watching a TV show or a game, then you would be using focused/selective attention. However, you would definitely still be in NWC, not an ASC. Even though you might lose track of time to some extent and have slightly reduced awareness, when you are using selective/focused attention you are still in NWC. This is probably because the distorted sense of time and reduced awareness isn't as significant as in an ASC (e.g. if you compare it to sleep, when you have basically no track of time and very little awareness).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on July 04, 2017, 09:12:29 am
Is there any difference between automatic processes and autonomic processes? If not, are they interchangeable and can they both be accepted by VCAA?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on July 04, 2017, 10:26:35 am
Is there any difference between automatic processes and autonomic processes? If not, are they interchangeable and can they both be accepted by VCAA?

Yes, there are differences. Autonomic processes are carried out by the autonomic nervous system; whereas, automatic processes occur with minimal or no attention or conscious effort. Another way to think about automatic processes is that you can complete two automatic processes concurrently

In terms of awareness we talk about activities such as an experienced rider maintaining balance on a bike as being an automatic process, but doing this uses the skeletal muscles which are controlled by the somatic NS not the autonomic NS.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: raaginim on July 05, 2017, 12:34:26 am
1.Difference between synaptogenesis and circuit formation and neurogenesis?
2. Stimulus discrimination and response discrimination same thing or different?
3. Are LTP and LTD adaptive plasticity or developmental plasticity?
4. Do we need to know about the consolidation theory? On the forum on ATAR notes it days it is removed from this years study design but in out textbook (oxford) there is information on it.
Thank you so much!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on July 06, 2017, 07:10:44 pm
I have a few questions:

- Is sleep deprivation considered to be an ASC?
-How can a sleep diary be indicative of the state of consciousness someone is in?
-Is video monitoring and objective measure or a subjective measure?

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: mishs on July 06, 2017, 07:28:28 pm
Hey Ashjames!
I believe sleep deprivation CAUSES an ASC but in itself isn't technically an ASC.
Does that make sense?
Wikipedia (yes, yes I know I shouldn't use it but w/e) says "that can cause ASC includes sleep deprivation. This refers to the loss of sleep that will provoke possible seizures, caused by fatigue. Sleep deprivation can be chronic or short-term depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. Many patients can even report hallucinations because sleep deprivation impacts the brain as well. A Harvard Medical school study conducted in 2007, also indicated with the use of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) that a sleep-deprived brain was not capable of being in control of its sensorimotor functions.[35] Therefore, there was impairment to the patient’s self-awareness. Patients were also prone to be a lot clumsier than if had they not been experiencing sleep deprivation."

I think it's a bit of a grey area, so unless you REALLY have to use it in a response or as an example, I'd steer clear of it and look for simpler, more clear cut examples.

Hope that helped!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: andrew_loka on July 07, 2017, 11:20:24 am
Hey guys,
Just a quick insight on my situation. Unit 3 has finished and Tbh I got average scores so I'm looking to lift heaps in unit 4. Any tips on what I should be doing? Currently, in preparation, i've been doing some practise questions after I make notes on the topic that we study. Also, I've been wondering where I can get unit 4 practise sacs from.
Thanks heaps!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on July 07, 2017, 12:06:15 pm
I have a few questions:

- Is sleep deprivation considered to be an ASC?
-How can a sleep diary be indicative of the state of consciousness someone is in?
-Is video monitoring and objective measure or a subjective measure?

Thanks


Self diaries record a persons (beliefs about their) pattern of behaviour in regards to sleep. For example, the person may be instructed to shade in boxes which hours during which they were asleep, to draw a downwards arrow when they think they fell asleep, and draw an up arrow when they have had caffeine. There may be other symbols for things like food, drink, exercise etc.   This is then given to a researcher who will interpret the data.

Video monitoring is subjective as it is open to interpretation. For example someone might watch the person shift position a lot and say "they're restless" another might say "they were having a bad dream" and another might say "they felt uncomfortable and were shifting to a different position"
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on July 07, 2017, 02:49:58 pm
Hey guys,
Just a quick insight on my situation. Unit 3 has finished and Tbh I got average scores so I'm looking to lift heaps in unit 4. Any tips on what I should be doing? Currently, in preparation, i've been doing some practise questions after I make notes on the topic that we study. Also, I've been wondering where I can get unit 4 practise sacs from.
Thanks heaps!


Hey Andrew!!!
Its totally okay if you didn't do as well as you wished in Unit 3 - those marks were a realty check for you, and know it's great that you have realized that you need to improve!!

I know it can be a bit daunting with these marks, but if you slay unit 4 and the exam you'll be fine!!

Regarding Unit 4 practice SAC's I've got a few and I can link them for you here.However, the key to success in unit 4 is knowing the content back-to-front. Also, what made you get those average marks in unit 3?? was it because you weren't studying sufficiently? Or maybe it was last minute studying? Figure out your areas of weaknesses and work on them!

Remember nobody perfect!! We learn from our mistakes and practice makes perfect!! [just a bunch of cliches to cheer you up!]

Also- Apparently I am only allowed to post 4 attachments. However if you are interested in more quizzes and SAC's for unit 4, shot me an email: [email protected]
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: andrew_loka on July 07, 2017, 03:15:41 pm

Hey Andrew!!!
Its totally okay if you didn't do as well as you wished in Unit 3 - those marks were a realty check for you, and know it's great that you have realized that you need to improve!!

I know it can be a bit daunting with these marks, but if you slay unit 4 and the exam you'll be fine!!

Regarding Unit 4 practice SAC's I've got a few and I can link them for you here.However, the key to success in unit 4 is knowing the content back-to-front. Also, what made you get those average marks in unit 3?? was it because you weren't studying sufficiently? Or maybe it was last minute studying? Figure out your areas of weaknesses and work on them!

Remember nobody perfect!! We learn from our mistakes and practice makes perfect!! [just a bunch of cliches to cheer you up!]

Also- Apparently I am only allowed to post 4 attachments. However if you are interested in more quizzes and SAC's for unit 4, shot me an email: [email protected]

Hey!
Thanks heaps for replying :) I think my problem is wording the questions correctly and time management in SACs (more-so the wording probably cause I picked it up in 3/4 without doing 1/2). I feel like I know the answers but the specific words that need to be there I don't know so I end up explaining it in the answer which makes me drop marks here and there. Thanks heaps for the practise SACs I know I have my sleep and consciousness SAC coming up soon after holidays and then my ERA so hopefully, I can lift up a lot more this unit!
Aiming high!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: madhu04 on July 07, 2017, 09:06:01 pm
Hello everyone, I am new to this forum. I am not even sure if I am asking my question in the correct place! But I am giving it a shot!

I have two questions (it is taken out from a extended response question) ! Can anyone please answer them?

1) Give Explanation of at least two physiological differences between NWC and an ASC.
2) Explanation of another factor that may lead to any identified differences that is not due to being in altered state.

Thanks guys  :) :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: PhoenixxFire on July 08, 2017, 09:25:41 am
Hello everyone, I am new to this forum. I am not even sure if I am asking my question in the correct place! But I am giving it a shot!

I have two questions (it is taken out from a extended response question) ! Can anyone please answer them?

1) Give Explanation of at least two physiological differences between NWC and an ASC.
2) Explanation of another factor that may lead to any identified differences that is not due to being in altered state.

Thanks guys  :) :D

Yes you're in the right place. Welcome to AN. I'm a bit rusty on psychology so correct me if i'm wrong also these aren't the best examples for question 1 but it would be something like:
1. 2 physiological differences between NWC and ASC is that in NWC there is an increased heart rate and higher body temperature than when in an ASC. (explain)
2. The increased body temperature could be due to a high air temperature.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: madhu04 on July 08, 2017, 09:11:49 pm
Yes you're in the right place. Welcome to AN. I'm a bit rusty on psychology so correct me if i'm wrong also these aren't the best examples for question 1 but it would be something like:
1. 2 physiological differences between NWC and ASC is that in NWC there is an increased heart rate and higher body temperature than when in an ASC. (explain)
2. The increased body temperature could be due to a high air temperature.

Thank You so much for replying. Based on your suggestion I got some hint and was able to come with an answer. However I referred some other resources and came to know that in NWC an individual would fairly have steady or normal heart rate and body temperature whereas in ASC an individual Heart rate and Body temperature may increase or decrease depending on the type of ASC an individual is in. ex: Sleep-low Body temperature/Heart rate whereas in drug induced- high body temperature and heart rate.

But indeed really helped me with second question because I was like what?? I HAVE NO IDEA!  :P

Anyway thank you so much again  :) ;D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 09, 2017, 10:26:40 am
1.Difference between synaptogenesis and circuit formation and neurogenesis?

Hi raaginim, and welcome to AN! Sorry for the delay in answering - it's been a pretty hectic week with lectures and what-not :)

To be honest, I don't know the difference between these - what I can assure you is that you don't need to know them for VCE Psych (unless your teacher is being really nasty in SAC's - you certainly don't need too for the exam). If anyone else does know the difference feel free to jump in and explain, but I'm not sure - the only knowledge I have here is that synaptogenesis is the forming of synapses early in life.

Quote
2. Stimulus discrimination and response discrimination same thing or different?

Again, I haven't heard of response discrimination, but it certainly sounds like the same thing as stimulus discrimination, which is when a person/animal only responds to a specific stimulus that they were conditioned to respond to. 'Stimulus discrimination' is the term that VCAA will use, not response discrimination.

Quote
3. Are LTP and LTD adaptive plasticity or developmental plasticity?

Personally, I would say developmental plasticity - although again this is outside of the study design and therefore not examinable. For the current study design, both LTP and LTD are considered synaptic plasticity, and developmental and adaptive plasticity don't appear in Unit 3/4.

Quote
4. Do we need to know about the consolidation theory? On the forum on ATAR notes it days it is removed from this years study design but in out textbook (oxford) there is information on it.

Not specifically about consolidation theory , although you do need to know about 'the role of adrenaline in the consolidation of emotionally arousing experiences', according to the study design.

I hope this helps! :)

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: amigos on July 10, 2017, 03:16:42 pm
Is there any difference between 'afferent pathway' and 'sensory pathway'? If there's none, which one should I use?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on July 10, 2017, 03:32:26 pm
Is there any difference between 'afferent pathway' and 'sensory pathway'? If there's none, which one should I use?

In regards to neurons "afferent" means "Heading towards the CNS", so this term can be used in regards to sensory information, and is the one the one that I would recommend. In my experience people treat "afferent" as being a "more advanced" term
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 10, 2017, 05:40:05 pm
Is there any difference between 'afferent pathway' and 'sensory pathway'? If there's none, which one should I use?

As miniturtle said above, 'afferent' simply means heading towards the CNS, and sensory pathways head towards the CNS - so for VCE Psych they're basically interchangeable. You can use either, but I would recommend 'afferent neuron/pathway', as it sounds smarter ;)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: madhu04 on July 10, 2017, 05:54:23 pm
Which answer is better for this question?   :-[ or any other suggestion if both don't cover all points required to get full marks?

Neural communication is essential for coordinating every thought and action. Provide a detailed description of how two neurons communicate by transmitting and receiving information.  (3 marks)

Answer 1:  Action potential results in terminal button on the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron to release a chemicals called neurotransmitter into the synapse. The neurotransmitter is then received by the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron.

Answer 2: Communication between the neuron begins with information being transmitted from synapse to the dendrites in the post-synaptic neuron. This information in the form of electrical impulse is then passed through soma and along the axon. This information in the electrical impulse is then passed through soma and along the axon. A neurotransmitter is secreted from terminal buttons to the synapse and is then received by the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 10, 2017, 07:29:43 pm
Which answer is better for this question?   :-[ or any other suggestion if both don't cover all points required to get full marks?

Neural communication is essential for coordinating every thought and action. Provide a detailed description of how two neurons communicate by transmitting and receiving information.  (3 marks)

Answer 1:  Action potential results in terminal button on the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron to release a chemicals called neurotransmitter into the synapse. The neurotransmitter is then received by the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron.

Answer 2: Communication between the neuron begins with information being transmitted from synapse to the dendrites in the post-synaptic neuron. This information in the form of electrical impulse is then passed through soma and along the axon. This information in the electrical impulse is then passed through soma and along the axon. A neurotransmitter is secreted from terminal buttons to the synapse and is then received by the dendrite of the post-synaptic neuron.


Hi madhu04,

Personally, I like number 2 better - although I would probably change it a little bit so it reads something like this:

Communication between two neurons occurs at the synapse. Neurotransmitters are released from the terminal buttons of the pre-synaptic neuron, travel across the synaptic gap, and attach to receptors on the dendrites of the post-synaptic neuron. These neurotransmitters then have an effect (either excitatory or inhibitory) on the post-synaptic neuron. This message, or effect, may then spread to the next neuron through neurotransmitters, and so on.

Sorry, I basically rewrote the whole thing, my bad ;)

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on July 12, 2017, 12:23:37 am
Hey guys!
So idk if this question is really psych related but for those that have previously done psych, do you reckon it's better to do questions from the jacaranda text book or from checkpoints and things such as that? Idk i guess its because i find questions from checkpoints much clearer than those from the textbook, and so I was curious. Also, and these are more psych related, but
1. Explain whether sleep cycles and sleep episodes may occur voluntarily, involuntary or both.
2. Explain whether a hypnogogic state is an ASC distinguishable from sleep or dreaming.
Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on July 12, 2017, 03:43:20 pm
Hey guys!
So idk if this question is really psych related but for those that have previously done psych, do you reckon it's better to do questions from the jacaranda text book or from checkpoints and things such as that? Idk i guess its because i find questions from checkpoints much clearer than those from the textbook, and so I was curious. Also, and these are more psych related, but
1. Explain whether sleep cycles and sleep episodes may occur voluntarily, involuntary or both.
2. Explain whether a hypnogogic state is an ASC distinguishable from sleep or dreaming.
Thanks!

I think that checkpoints is better, for a few reasons:
a) This is the style VCAA presents questions in
b) You will learn how VCAA likes answers to be given
c) You may not always know what exact topic is being tested
However, you also need to ensure that you are adequately covering aspects of the course which are new to the study design.

1. (I'm not 100% confident that this is the correct wording)   Sleep can occur involuntarily, especially when sleep deprived such as when a driver enters a micro-sleep. A person can choose to engage in behaviours which increase the chance of them falling asleep, but this does not guarantee that sleep will occur.

2. Again, not 100% what the answer they want is but here's my take on it:
In a hypnogogic state a person experiences perceptual distortions and may have no muscular control yet remain aware of their surroundings. Awareness of the surrounding environment does not occur during sleep and dreaming, which separates this from those states. The presence of perceptual distortions indicates that this is an ASC.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on July 14, 2017, 05:06:40 pm
Does anybody know if there's answers available for the 2017 sample exam from VCAA?

I'm confused about Question 7 d ii. where it asks how the standard deviation suggest about the encoding in STM. I understand that SD is how far the scores vary from the mean, but unsure how to word/relate that to the encoding part.
And also question e ii. where it asks to use relevant psychological concepts. Would the answer be something similar to semantic encoding??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on July 14, 2017, 05:51:07 pm
Does anybody know if there's answers available for the 2017 sample exam from VCAA?

I'm confused about Question 7 d ii. where it asks how the standard deviation suggest about the encoding in STM. I understand that SD is how far the scores vary from the mean, but unsure how to word/relate that to the encoding part.
And also question e ii. where it asks to use relevant psychological concepts. Would the answer be something similar to semantic encoding??
VCAA doesn't supply answers for the sample exam, so there is no official answer.

d) ii) That ability to encode words into short-term memory varies between individuals

e) ii) I would link this to elaborative rehearsal
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: littledreamer on July 16, 2017, 10:16:00 am
Hey guys I just wanted to ask if its worth learning the saving score formula? I've seen questions pop up in checkpoints and a TSSM paper but I wasn't taught it in class, what do you guys think? did your teachers teach you the formula? Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on July 16, 2017, 10:19:27 am
Hey guys I just wanted to ask if its worth learning the saving score formula? I've seen questions pop up in checkpoints and a TSSM paper but I wasn't taught it in class, what do you guys think? did your teachers teach you the formula? Thanks :)

I think it's worth it; it shouldn't take very long. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: amigos on July 16, 2017, 10:23:34 am
Hey guys I just wanted to ask if its worth learning the saving score formula? I've seen questions pop up in checkpoints and a TSSM paper but I wasn't taught it in class, what do you guys think? did your teachers teach you the formula? Thanks :)

Yup! We were taught it at our school and it popped up on our SAC. Just know the formula and what the score represents.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 16, 2017, 12:00:54 pm
Yup! We were taught it at our school and it popped up on our SAC. Just know the formula and what the score represents.

I second this - it's important to know what the score actually represents - which is the amount of info remembered from the first learning experience. So many students learn the formula but don't actually know what it means... definitely worth knowing, although personally I doubt it would come up on an exam.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: dsabeta on July 16, 2017, 04:12:28 pm
Hey guys, I have a question regarding my ERA title.
I've conducted an experiment where I basically conditioned my cat using operant conditioning, however my teacher told me that the title doesn't jump out at her and to try and twist it somehow in order to make it more eye-catching and interesting, but I'm finding it quite difficult to do so hahaha.
SO, I'm currently stuck with "Can you condition a cat to associate the sound of a bell with receiving a treat?". Is there ANY way I can make this title more appealing?  :'(
Any help is appreciated!!

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 17, 2017, 06:49:24 pm
Hey guys, I have a question regarding my ERA title.
I've conducted an experiment where I basically conditioned my cat using operant conditioning, however my teacher told me that the title doesn't jump out at her and to try and twist it somehow in order to make it more eye-catching and interesting, but I'm finding it quite difficult to do so hahaha.
SO, I'm currently stuck with "Can you condition a cat to associate the sound of a bell with receiving a treat?". Is there ANY way I can make this title more appealing?  :'(
Any help is appreciated!!

Tough one. There's no obvious answer. Everything I come up with is as long and convoluted as yours, if not worse.

E.g. Can a cat learn to associate the sound of a bell with receiving a treat using operant conditioning? or Can operant conditioning be used to condition a cat to associate the sound of a bell with receiving a treat?

Neither of them are overly good, I'm afraid :(
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on July 18, 2017, 04:35:10 pm
Hey guys, I have a question regarding my ERA title.
I've conducted an experiment where I basically conditioned my cat using operant conditioning, however my teacher told me that the title doesn't jump out at her and to try and twist it somehow in order to make it more eye-catching and interesting, but I'm finding it quite difficult to do so hahaha.
SO, I'm currently stuck with "Can you condition a cat to associate the sound of a bell with receiving a treat?". Is there ANY way I can make this title more appealing?  :'(
Any help is appreciated!!



Maybe "Can cats be classically conditioned?"
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on July 18, 2017, 07:22:38 pm
Okay- dumb question:

I still can't figure out the difference between physiological and psychological?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 18, 2017, 07:26:28 pm
Okay- dumb question:

I still can't figure out the difference between physiological and psychological?

No such thing as a dumb question :)

The way I remember it is this (it's not very sciency):
Physiological - in the body (e.g. increased heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, body temp etc.)
Psychological - in the brain
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on July 18, 2017, 07:50:53 pm
Okay- dumb question:

I still can't figure out the difference between physiological and psychological?

physiological -> physical
eg sweating, increased heart rate, trembling
psychological -> mental
eg anxiety, difficulty concentrating

Some can be both eg being tired
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on July 18, 2017, 10:57:11 pm
ughhh how would I be survivig year 12 if there was no Atar notes to clarify everthing for me??? Thanks Howey and miniturtle!!!!!!!  :) ;)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: raaginim on July 19, 2017, 11:16:50 am
1. For psychological and physiological, isn't an EEG physiological even though it has to do with the brain or is it psychological?
2. Is video monitoring a methods of subjective reporting or objective?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: PhoenixxFire on July 19, 2017, 11:27:47 pm
1. For psychological and physiological, isn't an EEG physiological even though it has to do with the brain or is it psychological?
2. Is video monitoring a methods of subjective reporting or objective?

1. Yes an EEG is physiological. It is 'in the brain' but it is not psychological. Another way to think about is that physiological is things you can see (whether by eye or with machinery) whereas psychological you can't see but it can cause physiological reactions (eg. anxiety (psycho.) causing a faster heart rate(physio))

2. Video monitoring is objective because it is not dependant on the individual. Think about it this way. Subjective = subject to the participants opinions/views etc. Objective = Object; can be experienced the same way by many people.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on July 20, 2017, 10:57:16 am
HEY psych students!

I was just wondering where I can find the template for the research methods poster (we have to base our research methods SAC of it)
Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: gabrielx458 on July 21, 2017, 08:29:45 pm
I'm doing Recall vs. Recognition for my psych investigation poster and having trouble identifying how my IV (recall condition and recognition condition) and my DV (how many nonsense syllables are reproduced) will be measured?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on July 21, 2017, 09:29:17 pm
I'm doing Recall vs. Recognition for my psych investigation poster and having trouble identifying how my IV (recall condition and recognition condition) and my DV (how many nonsense syllables are reproduced) will be measured?

I did the same thing :)

For operationalising the DV I did something like: "The number of randomly generated nonsense syllables accurately identified from a previously shown list"
There are definitely also other ways to achieve this.
What exactly are you going to do to be testing recognition rather than recall (or vice versa)? Answering that question should give you your answer for the IV
If you're still stuck let me know and I'll help you with it
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 23, 2017, 10:53:40 am
I'm doing Recall vs. Recognition for my psych investigation poster and having trouble identifying how my IV (recall condition and recognition condition) and my DV (how many nonsense syllables are reproduced) will be measured?

As miniturtle said above, the DV would be something like 'The number of nonsense syllables correctly identified from a list of nonsense syllables that was previously shown'.
Depending on how exactly you're doing your experiment, the IV would differ a little bit. For recognition, you might mention how many words are in the list etc., whereas for recall, you might talk about how long they have to recall the words, whether they are writing them etc.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: cvkn on July 23, 2017, 09:31:24 pm
I need help! What is the difference between phobia and specific phobia? According to textbook definitions they kinda mean the same thing.....
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 24, 2017, 04:53:22 pm
I need help! What is the difference between phobia and specific phobia? According to textbook definitions they kinda mean the same thing.....

In my opinion, I would take them to mean the same thing (I do).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on July 31, 2017, 06:46:10 pm
Hey everyone!!

I was just doing my notes for the dot point 'the effects of a full night of sleep deprivation in comparison with BAC''

Now obviously, going without sleep for a full night is the equivalent of having a BAC of 0.10. But I was just wondering how would you compare that?? They are relatively the same!!

I did some research and I found out that having a BAC of 0.10 will result in euphoria, grater self-confidence and receding of 'good' feelings? Maybe that can be a point of comparison?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on July 31, 2017, 06:54:05 pm
Hey everyone!!

I was just doing my notes for the dot point 'the effects of a full night of sleep deprivation in comparison with BAC''

Now obviously, going without sleep for a full night is the equivalent of having a BAC of 0.10. But I was just wondering how would you compare that?? They are relatively the same!!

I did some research and I found out that having a BAC of 0.10 will result in euphoria, grater self-confidence and receding of 'good' feelings? Maybe that can be a point of comparison?

Yeah, this is an interesting one. It's one area I'm really not sure how they're going to examine.

One thing to note is that sleep deprivation tends to result in a negative mood, while a BAC of 0.10 often results in a positive mood. This could be one point to compare.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: andrew_loka on July 31, 2017, 09:48:45 pm
Hi guys, so my schools starting our ERA and i have no clue what to do mine on. If anyone could lend us a hand and give me some ideas or even send me their old ones if you still got em that would be great! Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: amigos on July 31, 2017, 11:17:57 pm
Hi guys, so my schools starting our ERA and i have no clue what to do mine on. If anyone could lend us a hand and give me some ideas or even send me their old ones if you still got em that would be great! Thanks!

Anything to do with memory - it's the simplest area to do it on and there's heaps of studies to base it off.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: andrew_loka on August 01, 2017, 05:33:45 pm
Anything to do with memory - it's the simplest area to do it on and there's heaps of studies to base it off.
Yeah, i'm thinking about doing how chunking improves the amount of items recollected from our short term memory
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on August 01, 2017, 05:38:34 pm
Yeah, i'm thinking about doing how chunking improves the amount of items recollected from our short term memory

That sounds like a pretty good plan to me! Feel free to run us through your ideas; we can give more specific feedback from there. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on August 01, 2017, 06:21:07 pm
Yeah, i'm thinking about doing how chunking improves the amount of items recollected from our short term memory

Chunking would be a nice one to study. My only concern with it is that it appears to have been taken off the study design - but if you've studied it at school then it should be fine.

Another good option (that a lot of people do) is the serial position effect.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on August 01, 2017, 09:25:39 pm
Hi,
1. Do we need to know about different types of attention e.g. selective, focused, divided attention?
2. My textbook says that the EMG detects, amplifies and records the electrical activity of heart muscles? Isn't to supposed to measure muscles (in general)?
3. Is there any difference between muscle atonia and cataplexy? My textbook implies that cataplexy is paralysis when the person is conscious (is this just after waking) and that muscle atonia happens during REM sleep.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Glasses on August 04, 2017, 05:09:28 pm
Hi,
1. Do we need to know about different types of attention e.g. selective, focused, divided attention?
2. My textbook says that the EMG detects, amplifies and records the electrical activity of heart muscles? Isn't to supposed to measure muscles (in general)?
3. Is there any difference between muscle atonia and cataplexy? My textbook implies that cataplexy is paralysis when the person is conscious (is this just after waking) and that muscle atonia happens during REM sleep.

Hey there!
1. Based on the study design, I'm going to say no - there is no mention of the types of attention in the study design (in fact the only time 'attention' is mentioned is regards to the observational learning process) - so I think it is quite unlikely you'll be asked about the types of attention.
2. You're definitely right in questioning that! I'm confident that an EMG measures the electrical activity of the muscles in general, so I wouldn't use the textbook's explanation. (Which textbook is it by the way?)
3. Cataplexy is a sudden period of muscle weakness that generally occurs during the day and often occurs after 'strong emotions'. Muscle atonia, on the other hand, usually refers to the significant relaxation/paralysis of the skeletal muscles during REM. Therefore I'd say a key difference is that cataplexy occurs whilst conscious; whilst muscle atonia occurs whilst asleep (and specifically whilst in REM sleep).

Best of luck! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on August 04, 2017, 07:52:10 pm
Hi,
1. Do we need to know about different types of attention e.g. selective, focused, divided attention?
2. My textbook says that the EMG detects, amplifies and records the electrical activity of heart muscles? Isn't to supposed to measure muscles (in general)?
3. Is there any difference between muscle atonia and cataplexy? My textbook implies that cataplexy is paralysis when the person is conscious (is this just after waking) and that muscle atonia happens during REM sleep.

As narcolepsy has been cut from the study design I doubt that we would need to know about cataplexy.
I would, however, have that that we should be aware of the different types of attention as related to awareness.
I 100% agree with Glasses in regards to the EMG
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on August 05, 2017, 08:27:48 pm
Hey everyone.

I'm a bit confused, for consciousness do I compare a full nights sleep deprivation to a BAC of 0.05 or 0.10? Because in a technical sense, a full nights of sleep deprivation is not 1 full day, it is more likely 2 or 3 days because we sleep for 8 hours everyday, not 24 hours. So I was just confused- if anyone has finished their notes for this can you tell me how you did it?- would be really helpful
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on August 06, 2017, 10:19:00 am
As narcolepsy has been cut from the study design I doubt that we would need to know about cataplexy.
I would, however, have that that we should be aware of the different types of attention as related to awareness.
I 100% agree with Glasses in regards to the EMG

Yeah, I agree with this as well.

Personally, I would learn about the different types of attention (the two being selective/focused and divided) - they're very easy.

EMG definitely all muscles.

Definitely don't need to know about narcolepsy and its associated effects.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on August 06, 2017, 10:23:17 am
Hey everyone.

I'm a bit confused, for consciousness do I compare a full nights sleep deprivation to a BAC of 0.05 or 0.10? Because in a technical sense, a full nights of sleep deprivation is not 1 full day, it is more likely 2 or 3 days because we sleep for 8 hours everyday, not 24 hours. So I was just confused- if anyone has finished their notes for this can you tell me how you did it?- would be really helpful

Personally, I would say that 24 hours 'sustained wakefulness', or one day of sleep deprivation, is equivalent to a BAC of 0.10% in terms of performance on cognitive psychomotor tasks. 17 hours sustained wakefulness = BAC of 0.05%.

It is a bit of a tricky area, that's for sure :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on August 08, 2017, 04:18:00 pm
Hey everyone.

I'm a bit confused, for consciousness do I compare a full nights sleep deprivation to a BAC of 0.05 or 0.10? Because in a technical sense, a full nights of sleep deprivation is not 1 full day, it is more likely 2 or 3 days because we sleep for 8 hours everyday, not 24 hours. So I was just confused- if anyone has finished their notes for this can you tell me how you did it?- would be really helpful

I think you are confusing sleep deprivation and sleep debt. 

If a teenager stays awake from 8 am Friday to 8 am Saturday they have 24 hours sleep deprivation and 9 hours sleep debt.

Hope this helps :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on August 08, 2017, 09:15:10 pm
Guys, for the stages of sleep (NREM and REM), is it true that we don't need to know the brain waves and physiological responses for each stage?
The study design says that we don't but my school taught it for some reason??

If we don't need to know the brain waves for each stage and the physiological responses, then what do we actually need to know about the sleep stages?

Thanks!! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on August 09, 2017, 07:05:21 am
Guys, for the stages of sleep (NREM and REM), is it true that we don't need to know the brain waves and physiological responses for each stage?
The study design says that we don't but my school taught it for some reason??

If we don't need to know the brain waves for each stage and the physiological responses, then what do we actually need to know about the sleep stages?

Thanks!! :)

It was part of the old study design,  but you do NOT need to know it this year.

I can't give you a definitive answer on what we do need, but make sure you learn how the proportions  of each stage changes throughout the lifespan.  Also things like which stage someone can be most easily woken up from. 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on August 09, 2017, 09:15:21 am
Guys, for the stages of sleep (NREM and REM), is it true that we don't need to know the brain waves and physiological responses for each stage?
The study design says that we don't but my school taught it for some reason??

If we don't need to know the brain waves for each stage and the physiological responses, then what do we actually need to know about the sleep stages?

Thanks!! :)

To be honest, I don't think anybody really knows. My understanding is it's not in the study design, but schools might be teaching it briefly just in case (due to it being the first year of the new study design etc.). :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on August 09, 2017, 04:32:06 pm
Hey Butterfly girl

On the study design, it specifically states that corresponding brainwaves to each stage of sleep need not be known- so that answers your question
Regarding what you actually need to know, just what basically happens in each stage. For example, during stage 1, hypnic jerks can occur, Stage 4 NREM sleep is the deepest stages of sleep and REM sleep is characterized by a paralysis in muscles, called Atonia. Just characteristic of each stage.

I hope this helps you
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on August 13, 2017, 10:08:09 am
Hey Butterfly girl

On the study design, it specifically states that corresponding brainwaves to each stage of sleep need not be known- so that answers your question
Regarding what you actually need to know, just what basically happens in each stage. For example, during stage 1, hypnic jerks can occur, Stage 4 NREM sleep is the deepest stages of sleep and REM sleep is characterized by a paralysis in muscles, called Atonia. Just characteristic of each stage.

I hope this helps you

Personally, I don't even think that you'll need to know about things such as hypnic jerks, as the study design also specifically excludes physiological responses to each stage. It's really tough to tell what you actually need to know - definitely not brain waves. I would think simply things like duration of each stage, the amount of each stage through the lifespan and through a sleep episode, and how difficult a person is to wake (e.g. difficult during NREM stage 4, fairly easy during REM?NREM stage 1).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on August 21, 2017, 10:03:34 pm
What do we need to know about stimulants and depressants in regards to consciousness? My textbook is regurgitating everything, from short term effects to long term effects for over 10 different drugs. Do we need to know all that?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on August 22, 2017, 09:29:15 am
Hello :)
With the 4P model, could certain risk factors act as more than 1P in different situations?
for instance, poor sleep is typically referred to as a precipitating risk factor but say someone already has a mental disorder, and is experiencing poor sleep (possibly due to the mental disorder), would poor sleep be a perpetuating risk factor in this case?

Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on August 22, 2017, 06:31:55 pm
What do we need to know about stimulants and depressants in regards to consciousness? My textbook is regurgitating everything, from short term effects to long term effects for over 10 different drugs. Do we need to know all that?

Short answer - no.

In terms of stimulants and depressants, the only time they are explicitly listed on the study design is in relation to brainwaves, and the changes that they cause. (Stimulants = more beta, Depressants = more alpha, theta, delta).

In regards to consciousness, I personally don't think there's too much you need to know. For example, remember than senses will be heightened by using a stimulant and dulled by using a depressant (pretty common sense), and basic things like that.

In terms of knowing different stimulants/depressants, I would remember that caffeine, nicotine and amphetamines are a stimulant, and alcohol, benzos and opiates (e.g. heroin) are classified as depressants. However, I would expect them to tell you most of the time, unless it's something really obvious like caffeine.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on August 22, 2017, 06:33:42 pm
Hello :)
With the 4P model, could certain risk factors act as more than 1P in different situations?
for instance, poor sleep is typically referred to as a precipitating risk factor but say someone already has a mental disorder, and is experiencing poor sleep (possibly due to the mental disorder), would poor sleep be a perpetuating risk factor in this case?

Hi -273.15!

Yes, they probably could be in reality, but I would always class them in one category only if possible, just to reduce confusion, both for you and the examiners. There should be a table in the textbook that shows which category they fall in.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on August 27, 2017, 11:54:41 am
hey guys


I was just wondering, on the study design it says that we need to know the effects of sleep walking and sleep onset insomnia on the sleep-wake cycle.

What is meant by this?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on August 27, 2017, 12:30:39 pm
Hey guys, just had a question about the 4P model. I get that predisposing factors are previous factors which make an individual more likely to develop a mental illness, but what is the difference between predisposing and precipitating risk factors?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on August 27, 2017, 12:34:45 pm
hey guys


I was just wondering, on the study design it says that we need to know the effects of sleep walking and sleep onset insomnia on the sleep-wake cycle.

What is meant by this?

Good question! Basically, sleep walking doesn't have a huge effect on the sleep-wake cycle, but people may experience a reduced amount of sleep and a reduced amount of NREM 3/4 sleep if they keep waking up because they're sleep walking. Therefore, they may experience sleep deprivation and excessive sleepiness during waking hours.

Sleep-onset insomnia is a bit clearer. If people aren't able to fall asleep, they will probably have a reduced sleep time and therefore suffer from partial sleep deprivation (if they have to get up for school/work the next morning and can't sleep in). This can then result in excessive sleepiness during waking hours.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on August 27, 2017, 12:38:33 pm
Hey guys, just had a question about the 4P model. I get that predisposing factors are previous factors which make an individual more likely to develop a mental illness, but what is the difference between predisposing and precipitating risk factors?

Great question! They are pretty similar, there is just a very subtle difference.

A predisposing risk factor increases susceptibility to a particular mental disorder. The best example of this is genetic vulnerability.

A precipitating risk factor increase susceptibility to and also contribute to the occurrence of a particular mental disorder. These factors generally occur just before the onset of a disorder - think of things like a break-up/death and substance use.

The difference is pretty small and there can be some overlap - I would suggest you memorise the table in the textbook showing the 4P factor model :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on August 27, 2017, 12:46:28 pm
Good question! Basically, sleep walking doesn't have a huge effect on the sleep-wake cycle, but people may experience a reduced amount of sleep and a reduced amount of NREM 3/4 sleep if they keep waking up because they're sleeping walking. Therefore, they may experience sleep deprivation and excessive sleepiness during waking hours.

Sleep-onset insomnia is a bit clearer. If people aren't able to fall asleep, they will probably have a reduced sleep time and therefore suffer from partial sleep deprivation (if they have to get up for school/work the next morning and can't sleep in). This can then result in excessive sleepiness during waking hours.


My gosh Howey, you never fail to impress

Thank you so much- it makes sense now!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on August 27, 2017, 12:50:14 pm

Thanks a lot for that! The small difference makes sense now. :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on August 27, 2017, 04:27:54 pm
Hey guys,

Just a quick question

I was just wondering when you are comparing the effects of sleep deprivation with BAC for concentration, can we say that when an individual is sleep deprived they have difficulty completing simple tasks, and finds it easy completing complex tasks, whereas an individual with a BAC of .05 finds it difficult to complete difficult tasks [such as driving  car] and simple tasks [such as walking on a line steadily]

Was just wondering because VCAA it is very vague about this dot point
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on August 27, 2017, 06:26:31 pm
I was just wondering when you are comparing the effects of sleep deprivation with BAC for concentration, can we say that when an individual is sleep deprived they have difficulty completing simple tasks, and finds it easy completing complex tasks, whereas an individual with a BAC of .05 finds it difficult to complete difficult tasks [such as driving  car] and simple tasks [such as walking on a line steadily]
I wouldn't say they find it "easy" to complete complex tasks, they are just less disadvantaged than simple ones. I don't feel like this is different for driving, but I could be wrong.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on August 27, 2017, 09:05:01 pm
Hey Guys,

Just finishing off some old sleep notes and I came across that basically a person will feel the most tired upon being woken up from stages 3 and 4 of NREM.

Anyone know why this is?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on August 28, 2017, 06:51:27 am
Hey Guys,

Just finishing off some old sleep notes and I came across that basically a person will feel the most tired upon being woken up from stages 3 and 4 of NREM.

Anyone know why this is?

Stages 3&4 NREM are deep sleep, and it is most difficult to wake someone from this state.
The deeper the sleep the bigger the impact: Usually someone woken in stage 3 will feel groggy and be disorientated; someone woken from stage four will usually take several minutes to become oriented and will also feel groggy. This is also termed "sleep inertia".

Think of it as the body wasn't prepared to be woken up, and now that that has happened there is a bit of delay before you catch up.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on August 28, 2017, 10:22:18 am

My gosh Howey, you never fail to impress

Thank you so much- it makes sense now!

He's a great man, isn't he? :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on August 29, 2017, 04:09:14 pm
Hey I just had a few questions:

Why is Jet lag worse when an individual travels east?

What are 2 qualitative and 2 quantitative measures that could be found on a sleep diary?

Does EEG produce qualitative or quantitative results? Is EEG a primary or secondary source of data?

What is one limitation  of the restoration theory?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: bdgonz on August 29, 2017, 05:52:15 pm
Hey I just had a few questions:

Why is Jet lag worse when an individual travels east?

What are 2 qualitative and 2 quantitative measures that could be found on a sleep diary?

Does EEG produce qualitative or quantitative results? Is EEG a primary or secondary source of data?

What is one limitation  of the restoration theory?



Not too sure about the Jet Lag question, but I know the phrase 'West is Best', but I'm also unsure why. This article may have the answer:
http://www.traveller.com.au/why-is-jet-lag-worse-when-flying-east-gqehul

Sleep diary:
Qualitative: Individual's writing down details of their sleep when they wake up OR waking up individuals during specific stages of sleep and asking them to describe their experiences
Quantitative: Waking up individuals and asking them to rate their quality sleep from a scale of 1-10 (can't really think of another one for quantitative, maybe asking participants to state the NUMBER of dreams they remember having in a sleep).

An EEG is a GRAPH, and GRAPHS are always quantitative data. An EEG can be a primary or a secondary source. If the experimenter directly uses an EEG themselves, then it is primary, however if the experimenter seeks EEG results from an external source, it will be secondary.

One limitation of the restoration theory is that if we abide by it, a person that is bed-ridden (lacks physical activity) should technically spend less time in NREM sleep (as it is unlikely that their body needs to be replenished due to limited physical activity). This however is untrue (it is still approximately 20% REM and 80% NREM).

Hope this helps.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on August 29, 2017, 06:46:57 pm
Hey guys,


Just some more questions:


How do you reduce the effects of shift work disorder?

-o you allow the individual to stay one one shift for an extended period of time and then shift their work shift forward?

OR

-Do you allow an individual to stay in one shift for an extended period of time and then shift their work shift backward?


2. what if the lethal BAC for most adults?

3. compare the sleep patterns of adolescents with that of elderly. [2 differences]

4. On a question I got, we had to chose which fact was the most correct about sleep and there was:

-As we age the proportion of NREM sleep increases
- as we age the proportion of REM sleep decreases?

Which one is the most correct answer?????
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on August 29, 2017, 08:09:09 pm
Does anyone have tips on improving the long answer questions (10 mark ones and 6 mark ones) for psych?

I have no idea where to start with these and the expected structure etc.



Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: PhoenixxFire on August 29, 2017, 09:34:50 pm
Does anyone have tips on improving the long answer questions (10 mark ones and 6 mark ones) for psych?

I have no idea where to start with these and the expected structure etc.





Approach them like you would a really short essay, generally these will be your scenario questions so just work your way through it. Make sure you can see what the 10 marks would be for (ie. make 10 points) If you want to post one of your questions i'll tell you how I would approach it but i probably won't be much help with the actual answer because i did Psych last year (old study design)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on August 30, 2017, 09:05:44 am
Does anyone have tips on improving the long answer questions (10 mark ones and 6 mark ones) for psych?

I have no idea where to start with these and the expected structure etc.





Similar thoughts to PhoenixxFire's post above. I think a bit part of doing well in these questions is simply understanding where your marks will come from. I'd recommend spending 5-10 minutes on a few 6-10 mark questions trying to map out such a breakdown; this should (hopefully) help work out how to approach the question. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: shxre on August 30, 2017, 10:15:14 am
How much do we need to know about sleep hygiene and stimulus control therapy? Just wondering because it is in the textbook but we didn't really cover it in class that much or get assessed on it in our SAC?
Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on August 30, 2017, 06:07:52 pm
Okay thankyou!

And also, how much detail would we need to know for the reception and transmission across the synapse?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on August 31, 2017, 10:46:50 pm
Okay thankyou!
And also, how much detail would we need to know for the reception and transmission across the synapse?

You need to know the names of the neural structures (axon terminal, dendrite, synaptic gap etc), you need to know that neurotransmitters are released from vesicles in the axon terminal and that they attach to receptors on the dendrites. You should also be able to relate inhibitory & excitatory effects to the lock and key model, and show awareness of uptake channels.



For others aswell:

Its always easiest to shift the sleep wake cycle BACK rather than forward. This is why "west is best" and progressively later shifts are better than progressively earlier shifts.

Also north/south is better than east or west, and keeping the same shift is better than a rotating roster.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on September 03, 2017, 12:00:50 pm
How much do we need to know about sleep hygiene and stimulus control therapy? Just wondering because it is in the textbook but we didn't really cover it in class that much or get assessed on it in our SAC?
Thanks!

I doubt you'll have to know much about sleep hygiene and stimulus control therapy, although I would have a basic idea what they involve. I don't think VCAA will ask a question specifically about either of them, but there may be an in-depth answer on CBT as a whole where you could use that information (particularly if CBT was in the ER question).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on September 04, 2017, 12:04:46 am
Hey I just had a few questions:

Why is Jet lag worse when an individual travels east?


I hope this isn't too late, but I think my teacher explained it because of the reason that the body has a natural tendency for the sleep-wake cycle to be extended to a 25 hour long period rather than a 24 hours long period. (Jacaranda Textbook, pg397 Box 9.1). Therefore, since travelling east 'shortens' the day (since time will 'jump' forward'), it runs counter to our natural tendency for the biological clock to extend the day. Whereas, travelling west 'lengthens' the day (since time will 'jump' backwards' - giving more daylight) and therefore runs with our biological clock's tendency to extend the day.

To clarify the 'jump' forward or backward: imagine you are travelling to Singapore. There is normally a three hour difference, with Australia being 3 hours ahead of Singapore, i.e. 12pm in Melbourne is 9am in Singapore. When you get on the plane to go to Singapore, you are travelling west. If you depart Melbourne at Noon, you will arrive Singapore at 8pm (Melbourne time). However, in Singapore, this is only 5pm (local time), meaning that your day has been 'extended'.
On the other hand, if you are travelling from Singapore to Melbourne, leaving at noon and arriving at 8pm (Singapore time), the local time in Melbourne will be 11pm. Therefore, your day has been 'shortened'.

Hope this clarified things. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on September 05, 2017, 05:12:46 pm
On a recent SAC, there was the following question:
"What does the EEG measure?" 1 mark
My answer was:
"The EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain in the form of brainwaves."
The teacher said that my answer was wrong and that the correct answer should be:
"The EEG detects, amplifies and records the electrical activity of the brain in the form of brainwaves."

Was my marking truly deserved? I think that I answered the question fully, considering that the question already provides the function of what the EEG does, which I reiterated fully.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 05, 2017, 05:36:27 pm

On a recent SAC, there was the following question:
"What does the EEG measure?" 1 mark
My answer was:
"The EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain in the form of brainwaves."
The teacher said that my answer was wrong and that the correct answer should be:
"The EEG detects, amplifies and records the electrical activity of the brain in the form of brainwaves."

Was my marking truly deserved? I think that I answered the question fully, considering that the question already provides the function of what the EEG does, which I reiterated fully.

VCAA asked this exact question and used the same marking scheme as your teacher, so I don't feel that you can really contest the mark
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on September 05, 2017, 05:38:38 pm
On a recent SAC, there was the following question:
"What does the EEG measure?" 1 mark
My answer was:
"The EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain in the form of brainwaves."
The teacher said that my answer was wrong and that the correct answer should be:
"The EEG detects, amplifies and records the electrical activity of the brain in the form of brainwaves."

Was my marking truly deserved? I think that I answered the question fully, considering that the question already provides the function of what the EEG does, which I reiterated fully.

I think you definitely need the DARE (detects, amplifies and records electrical activity in...) acronym. It seems pretty specific and sucks, but yeah, probably fair marking in that particular instance IMO.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on September 05, 2017, 06:53:25 pm
I think you definitely need the DARE (detects, amplifies and records electrical activity in...) acronym. It seems pretty specific and sucks, but yeah, probably fair marking in that particular instance IMO.

Yup. The EEG, EMG and EOG definitions are the only three in the entire course that I tell students to know word-for-word. Must have DARE.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: joshgoundar on September 10, 2017, 08:37:43 pm
As the exam is approaching, I was wandering how would tackle the 10-marker this year. Since it is a new study design, how should we approach it?
I've seen a lot of people mentioning that the 2016 example, is a good representation, as this year is focusing on "evaluating" results/theories.
But my school hasn't started exam revision, and I am still unsure on how to tackle the 10 marker this year.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 10, 2017, 08:45:10 pm
As the exam is approaching, I was wandering how would tackle the 10-marker this year. Since it is a new study design, how should we approach it?
I've seen a lot of people mentioning that the 2016 example, is a good representation, as this year is focusing on "evaluating" results/theories.
But my school hasn't started exam revision, and I am still unsure on how to tackle the 10 marker this year.

Practice reading other research and identifying IV, DV, EV, etc what would a suitable hypothesis, aim, conclusion etc  be. Importantly consider the ethics, ability to  generalise,  validity and reliability. How would you improve this experiment? What sampling & allocation procedures were used?  What are the advantages of them?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 11, 2017, 09:07:45 am
I'm a bit confused, what is the difference between predisposing and precipitating risk factors? Don't they both increases an individuals susceptibility to having a mental health disorder????  ???
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: osporth on September 11, 2017, 09:40:15 am
I'm a bit confused, what is the difference between predisposing and precipitating risk factors? Don't they both increases an individuals susceptibility to having a mental health disorder????  ???

From my understanding, predisposing increase vulnerability and are present for a longer period of time than precipitating. Precipitating influence the person's current mental state and are not necessarily long term. For example a predisposing factor would be a genetic link whereas a precipitating could be something relating to your current situation such as being under high stress.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 11, 2017, 09:43:14 am
Okay one more question, in my psych textbook it says that low self-efficacy is a good predictor of low mental health and high self-efficacy is a good predictor of high mental health. Isn't it suppose to be the other way around????
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: osporth on September 11, 2017, 09:51:06 am
Okay one more question, in my psych textbook it says that low self-efficacy is a good predictor of low mental health and high self-efficacy is a good predictor of high mental health. Isn't it suppose to be the other way around????

Self-efficacy refers to how much a person believes they are able to successfully approach a situation or task, so higher levels of self-efficiacy would mean that they believe more in themselves.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 11, 2017, 10:01:24 am
Self-efficacy refers to how much a person believes they are able to successfully approach a situation or task, so higher levels of self-efficiacy would mean that they believe more in themselves.

Ohhhhh, I get it.
thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 11, 2017, 05:59:14 pm
I'm a bit confused, what is the difference between predisposing and precipitating risk factors? Don't they both increases an individuals susceptibility to having a mental health disorder????  ???
yes, both of them do increase susceptibility. However, precipitating risk factors also contribute to occurrence. 
Eg having GABA disfunction (predisposing) vs nearly drowning (precipitating) in the development of a phobia of water
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on September 11, 2017, 10:56:49 pm
I'm a bit confused, what is the difference between predisposing and precipitating risk factors? Don't they both increases an individuals susceptibility to having a mental health disorder????  ???

Predisposing risk factors are those that 'pre-exist' in the individual. These are often the genetic factors of the individual such as a GABA dysfunction or a relative with a mental disorder. Keep in mind that these do not guarantee the development of a disorder, but only increase the risk. Precipitating risk factors tend to be the events that 'trigger' the mental health disorder, for example, these could the loss of a significant relationship that increases both the susceptibility and occurrence of the disorder.

I like to think of all predisposing risk factors as genetic. I then go to perpetuating to see the events that are ongoing, and then the remaining are either protective or precipitating. This can make it easier for elimination of the options :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 11, 2017, 11:06:52 pm
Predisposing risk factors are those that 'pre-exist' in the individual. These are often the genetic factors of the individual such as a GABA dysfunction or a relative with a mental disorder. Keep in mind that these do not guarantee the development of a disorder, but only increase the risk. Precipitating risk factors tend to be the events that 'trigger' the mental health disorder, for example, these could the loss of a significant relationship that increases both the susceptibility and occurrence of the disorder.

I like to think of all predisposing risk factors as genetic. I then go to perpetuating to see the events that are ongoing, and then the remaining are either protective or precipitating. This can make it easier for elimination of the options :)

Please also remember that non-genetic factors can also be predisposing eg. Disorgsnised attachment.

Otherwise, good points :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: abbeyrose on September 12, 2017, 12:43:28 pm
Could I please have some help with answering this question? Thank you in advance!

List some of the matched interventions that may be used at the various stages outlined in the transtheoretical model of behaviour change for a person who suffers anxiety.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on September 12, 2017, 08:07:28 pm
Can anyone please explain how "specific environmental triggers" precipitate a phobia. Basically what even are specific environmental triggers, the textbook doesn't explain them that well.

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 12, 2017, 08:56:01 pm
Can anyone please explain how "specific environmental triggers" precipitate a phobia. Basically what even are specific environmental triggers, the textbook doesn't explain them that well.

Thanks


Specific environmental trigger refers to a negative experience with an object or situation which causes the development of specific phobia.
Eg, Developing a phobia of an animal after being bitten by one
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on September 13, 2017, 04:49:18 pm
Specific environmental trigger refers to a negative experience with an object or situation which causes the development of specific phobia.
Eg, Developing a phobia of an animal after being bitten by one

Spot on. A traumatic experience with the phobic stimulus that 'caused' the phobia.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on September 13, 2017, 06:40:46 pm
Just a little wording thing, but for the definition for a precipitating risk factor would you say it increases susceptibility and contribute to occurrence of a specific mental disorder? Or increase susceptibility and contribute to re-occurrence?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 13, 2017, 06:43:17 pm
Just a little wording thing, but for the definition for a precipitating risk factor would you say it increases susceptibility and contribute to occurrence of a specific mental disorder? Or increase susceptibility and contribute to re-occurrence?
definitely occurrence

The mental health disorder does not have to have previously presented
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: mdon on September 14, 2017, 10:38:39 am
Hi all, so for the freeze response of the fight-flight-freeze, is it sympathetic or parasympathetic NS? Obviously fight and flight are sympathetic, but I have seen conflicting opinions regarding the freeze response. Some textbooks/companies are saying sympathetic, others are saying parasympathetic and both my teacher and I aren't sure as we can somewhat see both sides. Anyone have any solutions? Thanks heaps!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on September 14, 2017, 10:49:59 am
Hi all, so for the freeze response of the fight-flight-freeze, is it sympathetic or parasympathetic NS? Obviously fight and flight are sympathetic, but I have seen conflicting opinions regarding the freeze response. Some textbooks/companies are saying sympathetic, others are saying parasympathetic and both my teacher and I aren't sure as we can somewhat see both sides. Anyone have any solutions? Thanks heaps!

Hey mdon,

Welcome to ATAR Notes. :)

I'm on my phone and honestly haven't given this much thought at all, but I'd imagine sympathetic. What would be your reasoning for parasympathetic?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: mdon on September 14, 2017, 06:17:33 pm
Hey mdon,

Welcome to ATAR Notes. :)

I'm on my phone and honestly haven't given this much thought at all, but I'd imagine sympathetic. What would be your reasoning for parasympathetic?

Hey, thanks for your response. This is quoting straight out of the Nelson textbook regarding the freeze response: "However, when we are involved in life-threatening situations, such as serious accidents or violent crime, we may feel so overwhelmed and terrified by the event that we become traumatised. When this happens, we adopt the freeze response as our last attempt to survive. During the freeze response the sympathetic nervous system is suppressed and the parasympathetic nervous system is automatically activated. This stops us from attempting a fight or flight response that we feel has no chance of success. The freeze response is our most extreme defence strategy. It immobilises us by conserving our energy and directing it only to organs in the body's core we need for basic survival until the danger has passed. This is why people in a freeze state lose all power to communicate."

It goes on, but I think that's the gist of it. I've also found the companies QATs and Neap to have also said that it is the parasympathetic nervous system that is activated during the freeze response in the answers to some of their questions.

However, in saying that, the company STAV among others argue that it is the sympathetic nervous system that is activated.

So really, there are multiple reputable companies basically straight out disagreeing here, and it's left me pretty stumped. Is there any way we can know for sure?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on September 16, 2017, 09:46:52 am
Hey, thanks for your response. This is quoting straight out of the Nelson textbook regarding the freeze response: "However, when we are involved in life-threatening situations, such as serious accidents or violent crime, we may feel so overwhelmed and terrified by the event that we become traumatised. When this happens, we adopt the freeze response as our last attempt to survive. During the freeze response the sympathetic nervous system is suppressed and the parasympathetic nervous system is automatically activated. This stops us from attempting a fight or flight response that we feel has no chance of success. The freeze response is our most extreme defence strategy. It immobilises us by conserving our energy and directing it only to organs in the body's core we need for basic survival until the danger has passed. This is why people in a freeze state lose all power to communicate."

It goes on, but I think that's the gist of it. I've also found the companies QATs and Neap to have also said that it is the parasympathetic nervous system that is activated during the freeze response in the answers to some of their questions.

However, in saying that, the company STAV among others argue that it is the sympathetic nervous system that is activated.

So really, there are multiple reputable companies basically straight out disagreeing here, and it's left me pretty stumped. Is there any way we can know for sure?

I asked my teacher (she's a VCAA examiner) and she said that: 1) the parasympathetic is activated as it is associated with calming and relaxing effects, such as those seen in the freeze stage, and 2) if something is in a textbook, VCAA will mark it as correct (even if it really isn't).

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 16, 2017, 01:15:42 pm
hello everyone

I was jut wondering, in my textbook it says that unconscious responses are controlled by the somatic NS and the spinal cord, but in the notes I got it says they are controlled by the autonomic NS- which one is correct?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on September 16, 2017, 01:26:39 pm
Hey guys!
So i just did a practice exam, and I'm kind of confused about some of the answers to the multiple choice questions. Can someone please explain these to me?

1) Every morning, I let the chickens out of the henhouse where they roost overnight. As soon as they hear me coming, they begin to to scrape and peck at the door. This is likely explained by:
a) operant conditioning - opening henhouse is antecedent
b) classical condition - footsteps are conditioned stimulus
c) classical conditioning - opening door is UCS
d) operant conditioning - footsteps are antecedent
apparently the answer is D? i don't get how tho, I thought it was B.

2) Jimmy is three years old. One day when his mother took him to the supermarket, he noticed a box of Chuppa-Chups and screamed over and over “Want a lollipop; Want a lollipop!” his mother was embarrassed by the noise and gave him a Chuppa-Chup to suck – Jimmy became quiet immediately! After this had happened again, Jimmy becomes excited and yells “Want Lollipop, Want Lollipop!” whenever they approach the supermarket door and his mother gives him a
Chuppa-Chup as soon as she can.
How has conditioning influenced Jimmy's mother?
a) she has been negatively reinforced for the behaviour of giving Jimmy a lollipop.
b) she has been positively reinforced for the behaviour of giving jimmy a lollipop.
c and d are wrong so doesnt matter. I thought it was A, since giving the lollipop to Jimmy removes the negative stimulus of his screaming, increasing the likelihood of his mother performing the behaviour in the future. But apparently its B? i don't get it, pls explain.

3) Jacqui is undergoing an EEG as she attempts to solve complex puzzles. After a while she understands the problem and begins to work faster. Her EEG readings would show:
a) theta and gamma waves
b) beta and theta waves
c) theta and delta waves
d) gamma and beta waves
I circled B since she started working faster and understood the problem i didn't really get how there would be any gamma waves, she'd be more relaxed, but apparently the answer is D?

4) which of these phobias is likely to be resistent to treatment by systematic desensitisation?
a) fear of butterflies
b) fear of lifts
c) fear of failure
d) fear of snakes
i said failure bc how would you increasingly phobic approximations of failure, and you could use systematic desensitisation for snakes, but apparently the answer is D?

5) What does the term "GABA agonist" mean?
a) increases effects of GABA
b) decreases effects of GABA
c) acts as artificual GABA
d) replaces GABA
this might be more simple, but i thought GABA agonists imitate GABA, so it should be C? but apparently its A so.

THANKS GUYS
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 16, 2017, 02:28:27 pm
hello everyone

I was jut wondering, in my textbook it says that unconscious responses are controlled by the somatic NS and the spinal cord, but in the notes I got it says they are controlled by the autonomic NS- which one is correct?
Spinal reflex: somatic NS & spinal cord
Anything else that is involuntary: autonomic

To answer your question,  your notes are correct


@Novashock  I'm confused by some of the answers too, I strongly suspect that mistakes were made
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 16, 2017, 02:48:21 pm
hey guys [again]

amendments say we need to know GABA in PD- can someone please explain the role of GABA in Parkinson's disease. I only have the role of dopamine.

Appreciated-  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 16, 2017, 03:08:43 pm
hey guys [again]

amendments say we need to know GABA in PD- can someone please explain the role of GABA in Parkinson's disease. I only have the role of dopamine.

Appreciated-  :)

Your knowledge is fine,  this year you are allowed to know either GABA or dopamines role,  and don't need both.   Future years need to know dopamines role (only)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on September 16, 2017, 04:29:49 pm
1) Every morning, I let the chickens out of the henhouse where they roost overnight. As soon as they hear me coming, they begin to to scrape and peck at the door. This is likely explained by:
a) operant conditioning - opening henhouse is antecedent
b) classical condition - footsteps are conditioned stimulus
c) classical conditioning - opening door is UCS
d) operant conditioning - footsteps are antecedent
apparently the answer is D? i don't get how tho, I thought it was B.
For this, all I can think since the question doesn't explicitly state there is a particular naturally occurring response by the sound of you coming, such as them salivating or something, it would only make sense for it to be operant conditioning, as their response of scraping and pecking in voluntary.


2) Jimmy is three years old. One day when his mother took him to the supermarket, he noticed a box of Chuppa-Chups and screamed over and over “Want a lollipop; Want a lollipop!” his mother was embarrassed by the noise and gave him a Chuppa-Chup to suck – Jimmy became quiet immediately! After this had happened again, Jimmy becomes excited and yells “Want Lollipop, Want Lollipop!” whenever they approach the supermarket door and his mother gives him a
Chuppa-Chup as soon as she can.
How has conditioning influenced Jimmy's mother?
a) she has been negatively reinforced for the behaviour of giving Jimmy a lollipop.
b) she has been positively reinforced for the behaviour of giving jimmy a lollipop.
c and d are wrong so doesnt matter. I thought it was A, since giving the lollipop to Jimmy removes the negative stimulus of his screaming, increasing the likelihood of his mother performing the behaviour in the future. But apparently its B? i don't get it, pls explain.
For this, pretty sure the answers are wrong, as for it to be positive reinforcement, she must have had a positive stimulus added, but there has only been the removal of a negative stimulus (Jimmy crying), so it should be negative reinforcement.

3) Jacqui is undergoing an EEG as she attempts to solve complex puzzles. After a while she understands the problem and begins to work faster. Her EEG readings would show:
a) theta and gamma waves
b) beta and theta waves
c) theta and delta waves
d) gamma and beta waves
I circled B since she started working faster and understood the problem i didn't really get how there would be any gamma waves, she'd be more relaxed, but apparently the answer is D?
For this, even though we don't really need to know about gamma waves, they have the highest frequency and hence more involved in processing complex tasks and are present when doing tasks while active rather than theta waves, which are mainly present during sleep and sometimes during creative activities.

4) which of these phobias is likely to be resistent to treatment by systematic desensitisation?
a) fear of butterflies
b) fear of lifts
c) fear of failure
d) fear of snakes
i said failure bc how would you increasingly phobic approximations of failure, and you could use systematic desensitisation for snakes, but apparently the answer is D?
I think the answers for this are wrong as well.

5) What does the term "GABA agonist" mean?
a) increases effects of GABA
b) decreases effects of GABA
c) acts as artificual GABA
d) replaces GABA
this might be more simple, but i thought GABA agonists imitate GABA, so it should be C? but apparently its A so.
While you are right to an extent, a GABA agonist primarily increase inhibition of the brain by imitating GABA's inhibitory effect. However, A seems more correct since GABA agonists primarily aim to increase the inhibitory effect of GABA.

Hope that made sense!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on September 16, 2017, 07:09:31 pm
Hey guys!
So i just did a practice exam, and I'm kind of confused about some of the answers to the multiple choice questions. Can someone please explain these to me?

1) Every morning, I let the chickens out of the henhouse where they roost overnight. As soon as they hear me coming, they begin to to scrape and peck at the door. This is likely explained by:
a) operant conditioning - opening henhouse is antecedent
b) classical condition - footsteps are conditioned stimulus
c) classical conditioning - opening door is UCS
d) operant conditioning - footsteps are antecedent
apparently the answer is D? i don't get how tho, I thought it was B.

2) Jimmy is three years old. One day when his mother took him to the supermarket, he noticed a box of Chuppa-Chups and screamed over and over “Want a lollipop; Want a lollipop!” his mother was embarrassed by the noise and gave him a Chuppa-Chup to suck – Jimmy became quiet immediately! After this had happened again, Jimmy becomes excited and yells “Want Lollipop, Want Lollipop!” whenever they approach the supermarket door and his mother gives him a
Chuppa-Chup as soon as she can.
How has conditioning influenced Jimmy's mother?
a) she has been negatively reinforced for the behaviour of giving Jimmy a lollipop.
b) she has been positively reinforced for the behaviour of giving jimmy a lollipop.
c and d are wrong so doesnt matter. I thought it was A, since giving the lollipop to Jimmy removes the negative stimulus of his screaming, increasing the likelihood of his mother performing the behaviour in the future. But apparently its B? i don't get it, pls explain.

3) Jacqui is undergoing an EEG as she attempts to solve complex puzzles. After a while she understands the problem and begins to work faster. Her EEG readings would show:
a) theta and gamma waves
b) beta and theta waves
c) theta and delta waves
d) gamma and beta waves
I circled B since she started working faster and understood the problem i didn't really get how there would be any gamma waves, she'd be more relaxed, but apparently the answer is D?

4) which of these phobias is likely to be resistent to treatment by systematic desensitisation?
a) fear of butterflies
b) fear of lifts
c) fear of failure
d) fear of snakes
i said failure bc how would you increasingly phobic approximations of failure, and you could use systematic desensitisation for snakes, but apparently the answer is D?

5) What does the term "GABA agonist" mean?
a) increases effects of GABA
b) decreases effects of GABA
c) acts as artificual GABA
d) replaces GABA
this might be more simple, but i thought GABA agonists imitate GABA, so it should be C? but apparently its A so.

THANKS GUYS

Just curious, what company paper was this?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on September 17, 2017, 10:05:55 am
I asked my teacher (she's a VCAA examiner) and she said that: 1) the parasympathetic is activated as it is associated with calming and relaxing effects, such as those seen in the freeze stage, and 2) if something is in a textbook, VCAA will mark it as correct (even if it really isn't).

Good to hear! Personally, I thought it was when both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems were in a state of high arousal, but that is just based off the Jacaranda textbook.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on September 17, 2017, 10:19:26 am
Hey guys!
So i just did a practice exam, and I'm kind of confused about some of the answers to the multiple choice questions. Can someone please explain these to me?

1) Every morning, I let the chickens out of the henhouse where they roost overnight. As soon as they hear me coming, they begin to to scrape and peck at the door. This is likely explained by:
a) operant conditioning - opening henhouse is antecedent
b) classical condition - footsteps are conditioned stimulus
c) classical conditioning - opening door is UCS
d) operant conditioning - footsteps are antecedent
apparently the answer is D? i don't get how tho, I thought it was B.

2) Jimmy is three years old. One day when his mother took him to the supermarket, he noticed a box of Chuppa-Chups and screamed over and over “Want a lollipop; Want a lollipop!” his mother was embarrassed by the noise and gave him a Chuppa-Chup to suck – Jimmy became quiet immediately! After this had happened again, Jimmy becomes excited and yells “Want Lollipop, Want Lollipop!” whenever they approach the supermarket door and his mother gives him a
Chuppa-Chup as soon as she can.
How has conditioning influenced Jimmy's mother?
a) she has been negatively reinforced for the behaviour of giving Jimmy a lollipop.
b) she has been positively reinforced for the behaviour of giving jimmy a lollipop.
c and d are wrong so doesnt matter. I thought it was A, since giving the lollipop to Jimmy removes the negative stimulus of his screaming, increasing the likelihood of his mother performing the behaviour in the future. But apparently its B? i don't get it, pls explain.

3) Jacqui is undergoing an EEG as she attempts to solve complex puzzles. After a while she understands the problem and begins to work faster. Her EEG readings would show:
a) theta and gamma waves
b) beta and theta waves
c) theta and delta waves
d) gamma and beta waves
I circled B since she started working faster and understood the problem i didn't really get how there would be any gamma waves, she'd be more relaxed, but apparently the answer is D?

4) which of these phobias is likely to be resistent to treatment by systematic desensitisation?
a) fear of butterflies
b) fear of lifts
c) fear of failure
d) fear of snakes
i said failure bc how would you increasingly phobic approximations of failure, and you could use systematic desensitisation for snakes, but apparently the answer is D?

5) What does the term "GABA agonist" mean?
a) increases effects of GABA
b) decreases effects of GABA
c) acts as artificual GABA
d) replaces GABA
this might be more simple, but i thought GABA agonists imitate GABA, so it should be C? but apparently its A so.

THANKS GUYS

Hi Novashock,

I'll have a crack at explaining these. Just out of curiosity, what company/practice paper were these from?

1) I think D is correct. My key reason for this is that the hens scraping and pecking at the door is a voluntary behaviour, and therefore it will be operant conditioning, not classical conditioning. Basically, the antecedent stimulus (A) is the footsteps, the behaviour (B) is scraping and pecking at the door and the consequence (C) is being let out of the henhouse. I don't think B is correct as I would class it as operant conditioning, not classical conditioning.

2) I think you're right, A is correct. In terms of Jimmy's mother, she has undergone negative reinforcement, whereas Jimmy has undergone positive reinforcement.

3) You don't need to know about gamma waves at all, so don't worry about this question. We only look at beta, alpha, theta and delta in VCE Psych. However, the answer would be D (to the best of my understanding) because gamma brain waves are associated with high performance. Again though, I stress that you don't need to know this.

4) Ridiculous question. I would agree with you in saying C if I had to choose an answer, and I don't know why the answer would be D.

5) It is A in this case. Benzo's are GABA agonists and they stimulate the effect of GABA - they don't actually act as GABA themselves (from what I've seen and heard, this can be often confused and possibly taught wrong). Benzodiazepines increase GABA's inhibitory effects by making postsynaptic neurons more responsive to GABA, but don't actually mimic GABA themselves.

I hope this helps!! :) 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on September 17, 2017, 10:40:31 am
With reference to specific phobias and operant conditioning, is avoidance negatively enforced or positively enforced:
negatively enforced: removes anxiety and stress (I think this is more correct?)
positively enforced: good feelings of relief
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 17, 2017, 11:13:37 am
With reference to specific phobias and operant conditioning, is avoidance negatively enforced or positively enforced:
negatively enforced: removes anxiety and stress (I think this is more correct?)
positively enforced: good feelings of relief

I would say negatively reinforced,  as an undesirable stimulus is being removed
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on September 17, 2017, 11:26:00 am
With reference to specific phobias and operant conditioning, is avoidance negatively enforced or positively enforced:
negatively enforced: removes anxiety and stress (I think this is more correct?)
positively enforced: good feelings of relief

Definitely negatively reinforced, as the negative feelings of anxiety and worry are being removed
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 17, 2017, 02:17:17 pm
Okay so Novashock posted some questions she was unsure about, and I think I'm gonna start a debate about his:

For the first question, it clearly states that every morning she lets the chickens out of the hen house', so wouldn't that be classical conditioning because she has been doing it every morning, so the chickens have learned to associate her footsteps with freedom to the yard. So I'm leaning more towards classical conditioning.

Also out of curiosity, where the heck did you get such an ambiguous exam from????? VCAA are much more clear then that, so I wouldn't worry too much about those questions.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 17, 2017, 03:47:14 pm
Okay so Novashock posted some questions she was unsure about, and I think I'm gonna start a debate about his:

For the first question, it clearly states that every morning she lets the chickens out of the hen house', so wouldn't that be classical conditioning because she has been doing it every morning, so the chickens have learned to associate her footsteps with freedom to the yard. So I'm leaning more towards classical conditioning.

Also out of curiosity, where the heck did you get such an ambiguous exam from????? VCAA are much more clear then that, so I wouldn't worry too much about those questions.
Classical and operant condition both involve repetition so that is not a valid argument in my mind.

Classical conditioning results in involuntary responses eg fear, salivation, blinking   whereas operant conditioning involves voluntary behaviour eg hitting a switch. Scraping and pecking seem voluntary to me
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on September 17, 2017, 03:51:29 pm
Okay so Novashock posted some questions she was unsure about, and I think I'm gonna start a debate about his:

For the first question, it clearly states that every morning she lets the chickens out of the hen house', so wouldn't that be classical conditioning because she has been doing it every morning, so the chickens have learned to associate her footsteps with freedom to the yard. So I'm leaning more towards classical conditioning.

Cool, I like a debate :)

I personally think this is operant conditioning because the response from the chickens is clearly a voluntary response (pecking and scraping at the door). With classical conditioning, the response is involuntary/reflexive (e.g. Pavlov's dog drooling, Little Albert's fear response). [See VCAA 2015 Exam, MC Q3].

Out of curiosity, if you were to class this as classical conditioning, what do you believe the UCS, UCR, NS, CS and CR would be?

Edit: And as miniturtle said above, both OC and CC involve repetition.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on September 17, 2017, 06:51:43 pm
Hi Novashock,

I'll have a crack at explaining these. Just out of curiosity, what company/practice paper were these from?

1) I think D is correct. My key reason for this is that the hens scraping and pecking at the door is a voluntary behaviour, and therefore it will be operant conditioning, not classical conditioning. Basically, the antecedent stimulus (A) is the footsteps, the behaviour (B) is scraping and pecking at the door and the consequence (C) is being let out of the henhouse. I don't think B is correct as I would class it as operant conditioning, not classical conditioning.

2) I think you're right, A is correct. In terms of Jimmy's mother, she has undergone negative reinforcement, whereas Jimmy has undergone positive reinforcement.

3) You don't need to know about gamma waves at all, so don't worry about this question. We only look at beta, alpha, theta and delta in VCE Psych. However, the answer would be D (to the best of my understanding) because gamma brain waves are associated with high performance. Again though, I stress that you don't need to know this.

4) Ridiculous question. I would agree with you in saying C if I had to choose an answer, and I don't know why the answer would be D.

5) It is A in this case. Benzo's are GABA agonists and they stimulate the effect of GABA - they don't actually act as GABA themselves (from what I've seen and heard, this can be often confused and possibly taught wrong). Benzodiazepines increase GABA's inhibitory effects by making postsynaptic neurons more responsive to GABA, but don't actually mimic GABA themselves.

I hope this helps!! :) 

Question 4's answer might be to do with the fear of snakes being a natural fear within humans (adaptive in history), whereas the others are not?
But still, it's a bad question and wouldn't be asked :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 17, 2017, 07:22:30 pm
Cool, I like a debate :)

I personally think this is operant conditioning because the response from the chickens is clearly a voluntary response (pecking and scraping at the door). With classical conditioning, the response is involuntary/reflexive (e.g. Pavlov's dog drooling, Little Albert's fear response). [See VCAA 2015 Exam, MC Q3].

Out of curiosity, if you were to class this as classical conditioning, what do you believe the UCS, UCR, NS, CS and CR would be?

Edit: And as miniturtle said above, both OC and CC involve repetition.


oh yeah, I guess it make more sense to be operant conditioning, no need to roast me yall.  :o

I was thinking the NS could be the footsteps, and the UCS could also be the footsteps. but then I realized that pecking on the door is not a innate response, so I guess it is OC [You all got me]
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 18, 2017, 06:55:08 pm

oh yeah, I guess it make more sense to be operant conditioning, no need to roast me yall.  :o

I was thinking the NS could be the footsteps, and the UCS could also be the footsteps. but then I realized that pecking on the door is not a innate response, so I guess it is OC [You all got me]

I for one, am glad that you kept questioning until you understood. You've got a much better chance of correctly answering a q now that you've gone through that process than if you let it slide :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 18, 2017, 07:03:47 pm
I am really confused, how does the role of the stress response contribute to the development of a phobia??

In my textbook it says that the sympathetic NS is responsible for the fight-flight response, and then it goes on to discuss hoe the autonomic NS in people with phobias because they can not effectively control their stress responses??? WTH
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on September 19, 2017, 08:54:27 am
I am really confused, how does the role of the stress response contribute to the development of a phobia??

In my textbook it says that the sympathetic NS is responsible for the fight-flight response, and then it goes on to discuss hoe the autonomic NS in people with phobias because they can not effectively control their stress responses??? WTH
So basically, when a threat is perceived, the F-F-F response is activated. This can be an issue when there is no real threat (person being scared of a dog even though the dog is clearly harmless), this can inflate the persons anxiety levels since their perception of the threat is disproportional.  Because of the inflated levels of anxiety, the physiological stress response is often very severe and can persist at high levels.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on September 19, 2017, 09:04:36 pm
Hey guys a couple of questions on unit 4 AOS2:
1. how long does a mental health problem have to continue to be considered a disorder? eg. how long would grief have to go on for to be considered a mental disorder? I was thinking more than a month but yeah, im really not sure and it doesnt say in the TB

5. is stress/anxiety/grief considered mental health problems? i reckon they are cause they only last for a short period of time and are not as intense as a mental illness, but just want to clarify that they aren't considered 'mentally healthy'

6. In terms of specific phobia, 'Response is conditioned/learned and not automatic/reflexive' (taken from ATARnotes book) Isn't the response reflexive though cause its precipitated through classical conditioning?

7. my teacher said that gaba agonist means that benzo's MIMIC gaba; but i thought they just increase the effects of GABA by working on post synaptic receptors- making them more receptive?



Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 19, 2017, 09:14:10 pm
Hey guys a couple of questions on unit 4 AOS2:
1. how long does a mental health problem have to continue to be considered a disorder? eg. how long would grief have to go on for to be considered a mental disorder? I was thinking more than a month but yeah, im really not sure and it doesnt say in the TB

5. is stress/anxiety/grief considered mental health problems? i reckon they are cause they only last for a short period of time and are not as intense as a mental illness, but just want to clarify that they aren't considered 'mentally healthy'

6. In terms of specific phobia, 'Response is conditioned/learned and not automatic/reflexive' (taken from ATARnotes book) Isn't the response reflexive though cause its precipitated through classical conditioning?

7. my teacher said that gaba agonist means that benzo's MIMIC gaba; but i thought they just increase the effects of GABA by working on post synaptic receptors- making them more receptive?




1. No set rule, but I think 3 months is the general guide?
5. Depends on the severity and duration. Stress & grief can be definitely  perfectly healthy.
6. Classical conditioning is a form of conditioning. So the response IS conditioned/learned
7. They work on GABA receptors to have an inhibitory effect, thereby mimicking the function of GABA
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peterjennings__ on September 20, 2017, 09:28:15 am
Hey guys,

I just had a question regarding the following passage of writing;
A psychologist wanted to test whether or not information could be consolidated while an individual was sleeping. She advertised in a local newspaper for participants aged between 18 and 20 years, and sampled 100 applicants by pulling their names out of a hat. The participants were all pre-tested for their general knowledge of geography, Participants with the same scores were paired and then allocated to one of two groups using the toss of a coin. Participants were then exposed to one of two conditions
The first condition involved participants reading a list of 50 countries when they woke up after a night’s sleep. Before going to bed the following evening, they were asked to write down the names of as many countries from the list that they could remember. The other participants were exposed to a second condition. This involved the participants reading a list of 50 cities from around the world before going to bed and then writing down as many names from the list that they could recall upon waking from sleep the next morning. 

The question asked about the sampling procedure that was used in the experiment and I thought it was convenience sampling as the experimenter visited a local newspaper for restricted ages however my teacher said it was random sampling. Could somebody please clarify 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: PhoenixxFire on September 20, 2017, 12:22:25 pm
I would say that it is both. Convenience because it was a local newspaper, however it was random because the names were pulled out of a hat.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: howey on September 20, 2017, 06:09:58 pm
Hey guys,

I just had a question regarding the following passage of writing;
A psychologist wanted to test whether or not information could be consolidated while an individual was sleeping. She advertised in a local newspaper for participants aged between 18 and 20 years, and sampled 100 applicants by pulling their names out of a hat. The participants were all pre-tested for their general knowledge of geography, Participants with the same scores were paired and then allocated to one of two groups using the toss of a coin. Participants were then exposed to one of two conditions
The first condition involved participants reading a list of 50 countries when they woke up after a night’s sleep. Before going to bed the following evening, they were asked to write down the names of as many countries from the list that they could remember. The other participants were exposed to a second condition. This involved the participants reading a list of 50 cities from around the world before going to bed and then writing down as many names from the list that they could recall upon waking from sleep the next morning. 

The question asked about the sampling procedure that was used in the experiment and I thought it was convenience sampling as the experimenter visited a local newspaper for restricted ages however my teacher said it was random sampling. Could somebody please clarify 


Yeah, it's an ordinary question because it's a bit of both.

Ad = convenience sampling.
Out of a hat = random sampling.

They're basically taking a random sample from a convenience sample.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 20, 2017, 06:15:38 pm
Hey guys,

I just had a question regarding the following passage of writing;
A psychologist wanted to test whether or not information could be consolidated while an individual was sleeping. She advertised in a local newspaper for participants aged between 18 and 20 years, and sampled 100 applicants by pulling their names out of a hat. 

The question asked about the sampling procedure that was used in the experiment and I thought it was convenience sampling as the experimenter visited a local newspaper for restricted ages however my teacher said it was random sampling. Could somebody please clarify 


I agree with you and not your teacher.
This is why:
The population of research interest is all individuals ("wanted to test whether or not information could be consolidated while an individual")
There is not an even chance of anyone in the population being selected, those who read the newspaper and are 18-20 years old have a distinctly higher chance of being selected.

If, however, the population of research interest was "individuals between 18 and 20 years of age who respond to newspaper advertisements for psychology research" it would be random sampling

I would speak to your teacher about this more
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: littledreamer on September 20, 2017, 08:33:10 pm
hey guys, is anxiety a state of physiological or psychological arousal? can it be both like stress? thank you :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 20, 2017, 10:34:33 pm
hey guys, is anxiety a state of physiological or psychological arousal? can it be both like stress? thank you :)

Anxiety can be both a psychological and physiological state of arousal. For example the stress levels associated with anxiety are psychological and the physical changes to the body due to anxiety [rapid heart rate, high blood pressure] are physiological.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on September 24, 2017, 08:55:42 pm
Hi guys!! If someone could help me with these questions on stress i would really appreciate it
1. would you consider exercise to be a form of emotion-focused coping? i thought yes cause it assists in reducing the stress hormones in the body while also releasing feel-good endorphins. Also, is procrastination/substance use/oversleeping considered emotion focused coping? Again i think yes cause its like distraction
2. do eustress and distress have the same physiological response? if so, can they both be bad for your health then?
3. its hard to distinguish between major stress and catastrophes that disrupt entire communities (for example in Jacaranda TB it says natural disasters fall under both) so how would you distinguish the 2 and can you give examples that fall explicitly under each category?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: madhu04 on September 24, 2017, 09:53:37 pm
Hi guys!! If someone could help me with these questions on stress i would really appreciate it
1. would you consider exercise to be a form of emotion-focused coping? i thought yes cause it assists in reducing the stress hormones in the body while also releasing feel-good endorphins. Also, is procrastination/substance use/oversleeping considered emotion focused coping? Again i think yes cause its like distraction
2. do eustress and distress have the same physiological response? if so, can they both be bad for your health then?
3. its hard to distinguish between major stress and catastrophes that disrupt entire communities (for example in Jacaranda TB it says natural disasters fall under both) so how would you distinguish the 2 and can you give examples that fall explicitly under each category?

Hey, my opinion towards your questions are as follows:
1) Yes, I would consider exercise as a form of emotion-focused coping. It involves distraction from the actual stressor and it also helps to deal with negative feelings associated with the stressor, again your trying to distract from the negative feelings associated with stressor, by let's say for example: going for a run. (You may also want to include the fact that exercise release endorphin that provides a sense of wellbeing and improves mood.

2) Yes both results in same physiological response because it is both activated by sympathetic NS. And probably I would say any stress that activates SNS in the long run, can result in negative effects to your health. But I doubt on whether an individual would experience eustress for a long period time.

3)Well Major stress is basically events that is intense and extreme that causes stress regardless of who experiences. ex: Robbery-usually everyone will experience distress when they lose their valuable belongings. Catastrophes are traumatic events that affects the whole community at the same time. For example if a city floods, it affects the whole community/city at the same time. I know it's confusing how the Jacaranda TB states that natural disaster falls under both but I think all it's trying to say is anyone who experience a natural disaster will experience stress hence it is a major stress and usually a natural disaster affects a whole community rather than a single person hence it is a catastrophe.


-I hope I have cleared your doubts
Have a good night :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on September 25, 2017, 08:19:16 am
1. weird question haha...but why are genitals excited during SNS activation? I thought sexual drive should be suppressed since its not immediately essential to survival (or is it like, its an evolutionary thing where people are trying to 'mate' perhaps)
2. monosynaptic reflex arc only involves sensory and motor neurons, so spinal cord is not involved right??
3. would you say the soma initiates action potential rather than the dendrites? cause the soma decides whether or not the neuron will fire
4. when referring to neural impulse, they mean the electrical AND chemical components right? or just electrical?
5. so parkinsons is caused by NOT ENOUGH dopamine being produced, and/or too much GABA? (GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and dopamine is an excitatory neurotransmitter)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Atlantis on September 25, 2017, 11:09:10 am
3. would you say the soma initiates action potential rather than the dendrites? cause the soma decides whether or not the neuron will fire
4. when referring to neural impulse, they mean the electrical AND chemical components right? or just electrical?
5. so parkinsons is caused by NOT ENOUGH dopamine being produced, and/or too much GABA? (GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter and dopamine is an excitatory neurotransmitter)

3. When looking at the study design, it explicitly says that details of signal transduction are not required so I would not worry about what initiates a response, focus on what receives and transmits (both are words used in the SD) an electrical impulse - which is effectively the dendrites and the axon/myelin.
 
4. Yeah I would think they are referring to both electrical and chemical components (action potentials and chemicals responsible for initiating that electrical impulse - neurohormones and neurotransmitters)

5. Yes for the first part, as when a person has Parkinsons it means they have lost many of the cells responsible for producing Dopamine. For the second part it's actually a deficit in GABA that plays a role in Parkinsons, as GABA decreases muscle movement and there's a link to it and patients with Parkinsons (they experience symptoms such as muscle tremors and dystonia.) It's important to know that research tells us the cells producing both Dopamine and GABA are in the midbrain (so both are likely effected).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on September 25, 2017, 04:13:47 pm
hey,
I was just wondering, what methods of selection to we need to know for the exam?  Like which ones are listed on the study design, because on the study design, it says experiments, self re[ports, questionnaires ans interviews. But my book doesn't state all these [my book states case studies, observational studies]???


I'm stuck can someone help me? And also are experiments and case studies the same thing?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 26, 2017, 06:32:32 am

hey,
I was just wondering, what methods of selection to we need to know for the exam?  Like which ones are listed on the study design, because on the study design, it says experiments, self re[ports, questionnaires ans interviews. But my book doesn't state all these [my book states case studies, observational studies]???


I'm stuck can someone help me? And also are experiments and case studies the same thing?

They are methods of DATA COLLECTION and yes, you do need to know them. If you have the jacaranda book the sleep section has useful information on them.

No experiments and case studies are not the same. In an experiment, an IV is manipulated to investigate the impact on the DV.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on September 26, 2017, 07:58:23 am
Which company practice papers do you think are good or worth getting for this psych study design? My school didn't give us any.
Which ones were u guys given and are they worth getting?

Also, how are u guys going about studying for the psych exam, I started doing some checkpoints because not sure how to approach the new study design.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: dsabeta on September 26, 2017, 04:45:52 pm
Which company practice papers do you think are good or worth getting for this psych study design? My school didn't give us any.
Which ones were u guys given and are they worth getting?

Also, how are u guys going about studying for the psych exam, I started doing some checkpoints because not sure how to approach the new study design.

Hi!
I recently bought the TSSM sample exam for Unit 3&4 which is only for students (https://www.tssm.com.au/browse-resourceitem-details/psychology-trial-examination-paper-units-3-4-one-paper-905.aspx) , you can also get an exam that is for Unit 3 :-)
My school gave us the VCAA 2017 sample exam and the NEAP exam, however I also found another one for Unit 3 online (http://www.epsychvce.com/unit-3-trial-exam-2017-free.html).
Hope this helps!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on September 26, 2017, 07:33:52 pm
Thanks! Does anyone know any company papers that can be bought by students, other than TSSM?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on September 27, 2017, 09:28:47 pm
Can someone help me with these questions?

Do we need to know about the galvanic skin response, mnemonics, acrostics and about Bandura's Bobo doll experiment?

Also, when in altered state of consciousness, why is it easier to perform complex tasks than simple ones?

Thanks!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on September 28, 2017, 04:08:24 pm
Can someone help me with these questions?

Do we need to know about the galvanic skin response, mnemonics, acrostics and about Bandura's Bobo doll experiment?

Thanks!!

I don't think we need to know about GSR, mnemonics, acrostics or the Bobo doll experiment. However, it would be good to know that mnemonics is a type of elaborative rehearsal. Also, I think that it's a good idea to have a brief knowledge of the Bobo doll experiment, but the study design doesn't have anything mentioning it.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on September 28, 2017, 05:07:50 pm
Does eustress activate the sympathetic or the parasympathetic NS? There's a MC question from the epsych unit 3 trial exam which states eustress activates the parasympathetic NS, but I thought all stress would activate the sympathetic NS.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 28, 2017, 05:45:19 pm
Does eustress activate the sympathetic or the parasympathetic NS? There's a MC question from the epsych unit 3 trial exam which states eustress activates the parasympathetic NS, but I thought all stress would activate the sympathetic NS.

I believe that they have answered that incorrectly too
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: dsabeta on September 28, 2017, 07:19:31 pm
Hey guys!
I was just wondering if anyone knows where I can get some research methods resources? Worksheets maybe?
I'm not the best at research methods, but I'm definitely not the worst. I've already printed out the research methods sections from the past exams, as well as all the other trial exams I have. I was just hoping for some extra help before the exam
Thanks :-)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on September 28, 2017, 09:09:15 pm
Thanks!!

I'm still having trouble with the reasoning behind this:

when in altered state of consciousness, why is it easier to perform complex tasks than simple tasks?

I thought it would be easier to perform simple tasks because it requires less awareness??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 29, 2017, 06:56:10 am
Thanks!!

I'm still having trouble with the reasoning behind this:

when in altered state of consciousness, why is it easier to perform complex tasks than simple tasks?

I thought it would be easier to perform simple tasks because it requires less awareness??

Simple tasks are monotonous, tedious, repetitive, and boring.
The sleep deprived person isn't as engaged in the activity as they would be for a complex task, and this is what leads to them making more mistakes on simple rather than complex tasks.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pizza123 on September 29, 2017, 02:31:57 pm
hey guys, has anyone done the sample exam? I need help with question 7eii)

In the conclusion section of her scientific poster, Amelia proposed that her investigation could be extended to find out whether the words in List 2 would be more easily remembered if they were presented alongside pictures; for example, if the word ‘sock’ was presented alongside a picture of a sock.
Predict the results of Amelia’s proposed extended investigation, using relevant psychological concepts to justify your response.

Pretty much before the list of words were being read out loud.

thank you!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 29, 2017, 05:38:17 pm
hey guys, has anyone done the sample exam? I need help with question 7eii)

In the conclusion section of her scientific poster, Amelia proposed that her investigation could be extended to find out whether the words in List 2 would be more easily remembered if they were presented alongside pictures; for example, if the word ‘sock’ was presented alongside a picture of a sock.
Predict the results of Amelia’s proposed extended investigation, using relevant psychological concepts to justify your response.

Pretty much before the list of words were being read out loud.

thank you!

I haven't done it yet but from what you described:

It would be expected that more words from list 2 would be accurately remembered

Seeing the pictures would increase elaborative rehearsal and therefore strengthen the neural connections related to that memory,  aiding recall
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on September 30, 2017, 10:44:48 am
Hi guys,
Do we have to known about the NMDA and AMPA receptors?

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 30, 2017, 11:01:10 am
Hi guys,
Do we have to known about the NMDA and AMPA receptors?

Thanks

I think so, as part of glutamate's rule in learning.  It has been on trial exams I have completed
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on September 30, 2017, 11:12:20 am
Hello! This is Jacaranda's explanation of extinction within classical conditioning - is there something wrong with it?  :o

Extinction is the gradual decrease in the strength or rate of a CR that occurs when the UCS is no longer presented.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Atlantis on September 30, 2017, 11:30:48 am
Hello! This is Jacaranda's explanation of extinction within classical conditioning - is there something wrong with it?  :o


"when the UCS is no longer presented" is a bit strange, I think a better way to explain extinction is to say
Extinction is the gradual decrease in the strength or rate of a CR that occurs when the CS appears repeatedly without the UCS.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on September 30, 2017, 04:52:29 pm
In observational learning, how is it that the consequences are applied indirectly to the learner? If a consequence was self-reinforcement, wouldn't that directly strengthen the behaviour?

Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on September 30, 2017, 05:03:42 pm
In observational learning, how is it that the consequences are applied indirectly to the learner? If a consequence was self-reinforcement, wouldn't that directly strengthen the behaviour?

Thanks!
In observational learning various sources of motivation and reinforcement can be considered.
Vicarious conditioning may occur, through the model.
The  behaviour can also be directly reinforced when it is reproduced by the learner
Different forms of reinforcement are not mutually exclusive
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 200240 on October 01, 2017, 09:10:00 pm
Why are simple tasks affected by partial sleep deprivation but complex tasks are not?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: PhoenixxFire on October 01, 2017, 10:27:27 pm
Simple tasks are affected because you don't need much mental effort to complete them - they're habit. Complex tasks however you need lots of mental effort, meaning you have to focus on them. When your focusing you can complete them accurately. It seems kind of backwards but it actually makes sense.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 02, 2017, 06:51:18 am
Why are simple tasks affected by partial sleep deprivation but complex tasks are not?

Complex tasks are still affected, just not as much as simple ones. I'm not sure if we are expected to know that but I'd be careful with your wording just in case
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Notarobot on October 02, 2017, 08:55:28 pm
Which part of the study design is tested in the 10-mark question? Is it pages 11-13, 'key science skills'?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 02, 2017, 09:06:24 pm
Which part of the study design is tested in the 10-mark question? Is it pages 11-13, 'key science skills'?
It is as you said the "key science skills" on pg 11-13 that is tested for the 10-mark question.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 03, 2017, 09:41:14 am
Which part of the study design is tested in the 10-mark question? Is it pages 11-13, 'key science skills'?

Could be anything from the study design, but there's probably going to be at least some research methods in it.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashyyy23 on October 03, 2017, 03:53:10 pm
Hi guys, just wondering whether you are familiarising yourself in-depth with the lobes of the brain? It is not explicitly mentioned in the study design so I'm wondering if I'm just wasting my time?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaqiu on October 03, 2017, 03:58:21 pm
Hi, if anyone could help me with a few questions I have, it would be greatly appreciated:

In terms of operant conditioning, can stimulus generalisation/discrimination, extinction and spontaneous recovery only occur for behaviours that have been reinforced? If not, could someone explain how to properly explain these terms for operant conditioning?

Does immune system become suppressed immediately when cortisol is released or only after prolonged cortisol release?

And should I be learning the HPA Axis, some notes have included it but it doesn't seem to be on the study design?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 03, 2017, 06:00:07 pm

And should I be learning the HPA Axis, some notes have included it but it doesn't seem to be on the study design?


You don't need to be learning about HPA Axis as it isn't on the study design.
But if your having trouble understanding the whole stress process, then it may help you understand the stress response process.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 03, 2017, 06:11:51 pm
Hi guys, just wondering whether you are familiarising yourself in-depth with the lobes of the brain? It is not explicitly mentioned in the study design so I'm wondering if I'm just wasting my time?
You are very likely wasting your time.   It was in the previous study design, but is now only in units 1 & 2

Hi, if anyone could help me with a few questions I have, it would be greatly appreciated:

In terms of operant conditioning, can stimulus generalisation/discrimination, extinction and spontaneous recovery only occur for behaviours that have been reinforced? If not, could someone explain how to properly explain these terms for operant conditioning?

Does immune system become suppressed immediately when cortisol is released or only after prolonged cortisol release?

And should I be learning the HPA Axis, some notes have included it but it doesn't seem to be on the study design?


If I punish you everytime you say "um" you may stop saying "um" around me. But then if after a while I stop punishing you, then you will probably start saying um again.    If you dont see me for a while, but then you are around me again later, you'll probably not say "um" 
Does this help??

No, the impairment to the immune system occurs with prolonged exposure

The HPA axis stimulates cortisol release, and cortisol is on the study design
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaqiu on October 03, 2017, 07:35:52 pm
If I punish you everytime you say "um" you may stop saying "um" around me. But then if after a while I stop punishing you, then you will probably start saying um again.    If you dont see me for a while, but then you are around me again later, you'll probably not say "um" 
Does this help??

Thanks! Ok I get that, but if I'm talking about stimulus generalisation for example, my notes define it as: 'when the learned behaviour is made to another antecedent that is similar to the antecedent that was present when the behaviour was reinforced.'

But if the behaviour was punished shouldn't the definition include something like 'not producing the undesirable behaviour to an antecedent similar to the original antecedent present when behaviour was punished?'
 
This is the same for spontaneous recovery ('when a conditioned behavioural response is thought to have been extinguished but re-appears after a period of time, even if there is no reinforcement') and the other terms. I guess I am just having some difficulty understanding how to word the definitions and why most of the definitions only include reinforcement, not punishment?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peterjennings__ on October 03, 2017, 08:48:38 pm
Does anybody have a list of 5-10 standard effects of partial sleep deprivation on a person's affective, behavioural and cognitive functioning?
Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 03, 2017, 09:28:54 pm
When operationalising the DV do we need to mention everything involved in measuring it, including at what intervals they measure it?
Eg. If it's a self report test that is administered at set intervals of one day after, then 1month then 6 months?

Because I'm unsure whether we only mention the actual test or the time intervals too.

Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 04, 2017, 09:58:05 am
Thanks! Ok I get that, but if I'm talking about stimulus generalisation for example, my notes define it as: 'when the learned behaviour is made to another antecedent that is similar to the antecedent that was present when the behaviour was reinforced.'

But if the behaviour was punished shouldn't the definition include something like 'not producing the undesirable behaviour to an antecedent similar to the original antecedent present when behaviour was punished?'
 
This is the same for spontaneous recovery ('when a conditioned behavioural response is thought to have been extinguished but re-appears after a period of time, even if there is no reinforcement') and the other terms. I guess I am just having some difficulty understanding how to word the definitions and why most of the definitions only include reinforcement, not punishment?

I really wouldn't worry about definitions too much, they wouldn't take marks of you in the exam for writing it only in terms of reinforcement if they did ask for a definition (which in itself is unlikely). In this context you could take it to mean that the behaviour is not completing the activity, and that that behaviour is being reinforced if that helps you feel better about the definition provided but it's really not worth worrying over.

Does anybody have a list of 5-10 standard effects of partial sleep deprivation on a person's affective, behavioural and cognitive functioning?
Thanks :)

A:
-difficulty judging others emotions
-reduced empathy
-easily irritated and short-tempered
-impaired ability to regulate own emotions
-more likely to have an inappropriate emotional response
B:
-reduced motor co-ordination
-sleep inertia
-fatigue
-impaired behaviour control
-microsleeps
C:
-lapses in selective attention
-irrational thinking
-impaired memory
-impaired learning
-reduced ability to think clearly, especially for simple and/or boring tasks

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 06, 2017, 12:08:34 pm
Hey,


Can someone explain reliability and validity to me. I don't get it
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 06, 2017, 12:14:03 pm
Hey,


Can someone explain reliability and validity to me. I don't get it

Reliability is a measure that the if you repeat an experiment, you will get the same results each time

Validity is a measure of if your actually measuring the DV or something else
Eg. Your results could be reliable, but not valid because it doesn't actually measure what its supposed to measure.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 06, 2017, 12:16:29 pm
Whats the interaction between the amygdala, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in storing long term memories??

I know individual functions but I don't understand how they interact.

Thanks guys! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 07, 2017, 05:09:56 pm
Whats the interaction between the amygdala, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and cerebellum in storing long term memories??

I know individual functions but I don't understand how they interact.

Thanks guys! :)

There's a couple of different ones.
The cerebellum interprets the mental map made by the hippocampus
The hippocampus encodes memories more strongly when the amygdala signals it in response to noradrenaline
The hippocampus encodes and transfers declarative memories to the cerebral cortex for permanent storage
Both the amygdala and cerebellum are involved in classically conditioned memories
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 07, 2017, 09:52:34 pm
 I don't get the role of cortisol in stress? Like, what are the effects of prolonged release of cortisol in the bloodstream?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 08, 2017, 07:30:25 am
I don't get the role of cortisol in stress? Like, what are the effects of prolonged release of cortisol in the bloodstream?

Cortisol is released in the resistance stage of the GAS. It unlocks access to more energy supplies and protects against some of the negative side GAS of stress.  Unfortunately it also has its own side effects, such as impairing immune system action and retarding tissue repair
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 08, 2017, 09:33:23 am
Can someone please explain standard deviation and what we actually need to know?
I know it’s something like the lower the standard deviation, the more consistent (reliable) the data is.
How does it then also relate to validity?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 08, 2017, 12:40:14 pm
How much depth of knowledge do we need to know about Loftus' research into eyewitness testimonies?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 08, 2017, 12:42:30 pm
Can someone please explain standard deviation and what we actually need to know?
I know it’s something like the lower the standard deviation, the more consistent (reliable) the data is.
How does it then also relate to validity?

If there's a high standard deviation, it may mean that there are extraneous variables other than the IV affecting the DV as the results are not as close to each other. Thus, less valid.

Someone else confirm? I don't know if its correct.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 08, 2017, 01:15:30 pm
Can someone please explain standard deviation and what we actually need to know?
I know it’s something like the lower the standard deviation, the more consistent (reliable) the data is.
How does it then also relate to validity?
Standard deviation is the measure used to determine the spread of the data.
Are you sure your not mistaking this for the p-value instead?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 08, 2017, 07:01:28 pm
Can someone please explain standard deviation and what we actually need to know?
I know it’s something like the lower the standard deviation, the more consistent (reliable) the data is.
How does it then also relate to validity?

Standard deviation is related to the bell curve.  1 standard deviation either side of the mean always includes 68% of results, so lower standard deviation means more tightly grouped results/ narrower bell curve. 
Therfore, lower standard deviation increases reliability.

The standard deviation does not provide information about validity.


Note: standard deviation is a descriptive statistic in the study design.  P-value is an inferential statistic not in the study design
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 08, 2017, 08:35:58 pm
Standard deviation is related to the bell curve.  1 standard deviation either side of the mean always includes 68% of results, so lower standard deviation means more tightly grouped results/ narrower bell curve. 
Therfore, lower standard deviation increases reliability.

The standard deviation does not provide information about validity.


Note: standard deviation is a descriptive statistic in the study design.  P-value is an inferential statistic not in the study design
Oh sweet, the more you know.

I'm also lowkey embrassed that I didn't check the study design for changes :( :( :/.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 09, 2017, 10:49:36 pm
Okay, I really need someone to explain reliability and variability. It's not in my textbook and all the videos I watch just confuse me.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 10, 2017, 07:23:27 am
Okay, I really need someone to explain reliability and variability. It's not in my textbook and all the videos I watch just confuse me.
Validity: the experiment accurately measures the impact of the IV on the DV
Reliability: I get similar, or the same, results every time the experiment is done
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 11, 2017, 12:58:16 am
Guys how are u learning the content? I started doing practice exams but I feel like I still don't know all the content.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 11, 2017, 07:15:33 am
Guys how are u learning the content? I started doing practice exams but I feel like I still don't know all the content.
Do you feel like you are missing small info from throughout the course, or that you don't know some of the topics?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 11, 2017, 08:13:31 am
Do you feel like you are missing small info from throughout the course, or that you don't know some of the topics?

Like small pieces of info that are part of the study design

Have u done all the VCAA papers?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 11, 2017, 11:58:06 am
Guys how are u learning the content? I started doing practice exams but I feel like I still don't know all the content.

Same here. I've been dong a lot of practice exams, but I find that some questions are more easily answered then the others [such as classical conditioning], I answered questions correctly without revising my notes] But of course there are some questions that I was lacking knowledge of content to answer. So I only plan on memorizing my notes for the things I don't know [like for research methods, I ain't gonna memorize that because its kinda easy]
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 11, 2017, 04:13:33 pm
Like small pieces of info that are part of the study design

Have u done all the VCAA papers?

No, I haven't. I have, however, completed a few 2017 exams.

It might be useful for you to go through the study design and mark each dotpoint you are comfortable with. Then, work your way through the ones that you aren't confident in one-at-a-time, until you have ticked everything
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 12, 2017, 12:09:00 pm
With operant conditioning, is the consequence:
- The environmental event that occurs IMMEDIATELY after the behaviour?
Because sometimes the reinforcement/punishment may not occur exactly immediately after the behaviour..
e.g.) behaviour: Study for test coming up
        consequence: Get good mark on test therefore you are positively reinforced to repeat the behaviour of studying for a test due to the desirable outcome (getting a good mark).
^ Finding out the mark might take some time, so the consequence may not always occur immediately.
Should I remove the 'immediately' from my definition?
I hope I'm making sense! Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: yuki_hinata on October 12, 2017, 06:37:23 pm
Is it just me that’s having trouble with Loftus reconstruction? I don’t know what to talk about!! Help !
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on October 12, 2017, 07:00:12 pm
Is it just me that’s having trouble with Loftus reconstruction? I don’t know what to talk about!! Help !

Welcome to ATAR Notes! :)

What types of Loftus-related questions are you struggling with?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 12, 2017, 07:56:41 pm
With operant conditioning, is the consequence:
- The environmental event that occurs IMMEDIATELY after the behaviour?
Because sometimes the reinforcement/punishment may not occur exactly immediately after the behaviour..
e.g.) behaviour: Study for test coming up
        consequence: Get good mark on test therefore you are positively reinforced to repeat the behaviour of studying for a test due to the desirable outcome (getting a good mark).
^ Finding out the mark might take some time, so the consequence may not always occur immediately.
Should I remove the 'immediately' from my definition?
I hope I'm making sense! Thanks!

It doesnt have to be immediate,  but there is a correlation between stronger learning and shorter delays
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Notarobot on October 12, 2017, 08:10:38 pm
Hello I have a question about timing in the exam, thanks for the advice in Nick McIndoe's article how to study for the psych exam 3 weeks out. Regarding the timing, the two sections and the mark allocation, how long would you allocate for each section?

For reference:
Section A: 50 multiple choice questions (50 marks).
Section B: Short-answer and extended-answer questions, for a total of 70 marks.
The exam is 150 minutes long for a total of 120 marks.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 12, 2017, 09:02:25 pm
Is it necessary to memorize every single thing in Psych. Because I find that somethings don't need memorizing-just understanding.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 12, 2017, 09:41:14 pm
Guys I was thinking that we could all help each other for the 10 marker because no one knows how it's going to be marked. Do u think we should post our responses for sample questions and then give feedback on each others? We should start a thread for it. What do u guys think??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 12, 2017, 10:06:31 pm
Also, guys what do we write for ''attention'',''motivation' and 'reinforcement' in observational learning?? for when we use a scenario to discuss these.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 12, 2017, 10:28:14 pm
Also, guys what do we write for ''attention'',''motivation' and 'reinforcement' in observational learning?? for when we use a scenario to discuss these.

I'm gonna make up a situation:

Bob watches his mum bake a cake:
Attention: Bob directs focus to his mum- he closely and actively watches her bake the cake.
Motivation: Bob has the desire to bake a cake so he can be just as good as his mum
Reinforcement: Bob watches his mother feel proud of her cake that she has made, and all the compliments she is given, which increases the likelihood of Bob making the cake himself

Hope that helps!  :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on October 13, 2017, 09:57:54 am
Hello I have a question about timing in the exam, thanks for the advice in Nick McIndoe's article how to study for the psych exam 3 weeks out. Regarding the timing, the two sections and the mark allocation, how long would you allocate for each section?

For reference:
Section A: 50 multiple choice questions (50 marks).
Section B: Short-answer and extended-answer questions, for a total of 70 marks.
The exam is 150 minutes long for a total of 120 marks.

Hey, Notarobot!

Timing is a bit of a personal thing; some people may just naturally take longer on, for example, multiple choice questions than others. And that's totally fine. What's important is that you test this for yourself. By doing practice exams, you'll work out the right timing for you - and you can then implement that in your exam.

The exam format has changed a little since I did Psych, but with the current conditions, I would guess I would allocate the time (roughly) accordingly:
- Multiple choice: 25 minutes
- Short-answer and extended-answer: 125 minutes

Again, don't take that as like, a golden figure or anything. I've just made that up based on what I know I was like during Year 12 - quick with multiple choice questions, slower with the rest etc. The point isn't really giving you numbers - it's giving you the idea that, by testing it yourself, you'll be able to find the right conditions for you. :)

Guys I was thinking that we could all help each other for the 10 marker because no one knows how it's going to be marked. Do u think we should post our responses for sample questions and then give feedback on each others? We should start a thread for it. What do u guys think??

Sounds good to me!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 14, 2017, 08:55:05 am
How does classical conditioning work during systematic desensitization? because there's no neutral stimulus?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on October 14, 2017, 11:25:28 am
this is from a neap exam and has me so confused. i thought a phobia is a type of anxiety DISORDER therefore a mental disorder, and so a mentally healthy person cannot have a phobia (hence why i picked d) but the answer is a?? explanatory notes say that a mentally healthy person can have a phobia but fear response is only evoked in the presence of a phobic stimulus and therefore causes no impairment in daily functioning.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between mental health and phobia according to the mental health continuum?
a) a fear response is only evoked in the presence of a phobic stimulus and consequently causes no impairment in daily functioning
b) the threat of a phobic stimulus causes temporary impairment in daily functioning
c) the persistent and intense fear of a phobic stimulus causes disabling impairment in daily functioning
d) a mentally healthy person cannot have a phobia
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 14, 2017, 12:03:19 pm
this is from a neap exam and has me so confused. i thought a phobia is a type of anxiety DISORDER therefore a mental disorder, and so a mentally healthy person cannot have a phobia (hence why i picked d) but the answer is a?? explanatory notes say that a mentally healthy person can have a phobia but fear response is only evoked in the presence of a phobic stimulus and therefore causes no impairment in daily functioning.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between mental health and phobia according to the mental health continuum?
a) a fear response is only evoked in the presence of a phobic stimulus and consequently causes no impairment in daily functioning
b) the threat of a phobic stimulus causes temporary impairment in daily functioning
c) the persistent and intense fear of a phobic stimulus causes disabling impairment in daily functioning
d) a mentally healthy person cannot have a phobia

You have to remember though, mental health acts on a continuum and is always changing. It's not a black and white thing where you're mentally healthy or not, and there's always more than one factor that contributes to your position on it.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on October 14, 2017, 05:28:40 pm
How does classical conditioning work during systematic desensitization? because there's no neutral stimulus?

Alright, so it involves acquisition since you associate relaxation with the phobic stimulus, and extinction since you extinguish the phobic response by exposing levels of the CS(phobic stimulus), without presenting the UCS(something unpleasant).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on October 14, 2017, 10:27:26 pm
Which of the following would not be considered an aspect of stigma
A. Negative stereotypes around mental illness
B. A belief that mental illness is under the control of the sufferer
C. A belief that social support is an effective component of treatment for mental health
D. Isolation in the workplace based on colleagues knowledge of mental illness

I understand A and D is not the answer because those are components of stigma. C is the answer but I don't really understand this in relation to the question. And how B is an aspect of stigma was well.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 15, 2017, 07:36:08 am
Which of the following would not be considered an aspect of stigma
A. Negative stereotypes around mental illness
B. A belief that mental illness is under the control of the sufferer
C. A belief that social support is an effective component of treatment for mental health
D. Isolation in the workplace based on colleagues knowledge of mental illness

I understand A and D is not the answer because those are components of stigma. C is the answer but I don't really understand this in relation to the question. And how B is an aspect of stigma was well.

B is the idea of "just snap out of it" , "you're just being lazy" "it's just attention seeking" and "grow up". Obviously this is not supportive, and is detrimental to the perception of people with mental illness. 

C suggests the absence of a negative attitude towards people with mental illness
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaqiu on October 15, 2017, 06:33:46 pm
Is the exhaustion stage characterised by the individual being unable to get out of bed/ being physically depleted to a point where they can't function normally? Or if an individual gets a cold because of being stressed, can they be classed as being in the exhaustion stage?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 15, 2017, 08:49:57 pm
Is the exhaustion stage characterised by the individual being unable to get out of bed/ being physically depleted to a point where they can't function normally? Or if an individual gets a cold because of being stressed, can they be classed as being in the exhaustion stage?

Both. What characterises exhaustion however ultimately depends on the length of time being exposed to the stressor. The longer the exposure, the more bodily resources depleted, and more suppressed the immune system (due to cortisol release).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 15, 2017, 09:11:26 pm
Is the exhaustion stage characterised by the individual being unable to get out of bed/ being physically depleted to a point where they can't function normally? Or if an individual gets a cold because of being stressed, can they be classed as being in the exhaustion stage?

Stress doesn't cause illness, it increases susceptibility.
In exhaustion you don't necessarily need to have such low functioning that you are bedridden. That being said, I think that your first description is better than the second
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: EdwinaB19 on October 16, 2017, 08:55:22 pm
Hey!

I've been finding conflicting information about the proportion of REM to NREM that elderly people experience:

Can anyone confirm if they experience 15% REM and 80% NREM or 20% REM and 80%? (Or if it is another proportion)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 16, 2017, 09:43:49 pm
Hey!

I've been finding conflicting information about the proportion of REM to NREM that elderly people experience:

Can anyone confirm if they experience 15% REM and 80% NREM or 20% REM and 80%? (Or if it is another proportion)
I seem to have confliciting information regarding this as well! My notes have that Elderly people, on average sleep for 6 hours per night, since an individuals total sleep time diminishes with age, with a proportion of 75% NREM and 20-25% REM.

I don't think there are exact firgures or proportion in terms of NREM and REM sleep, so I wouldn't stress about this too much. Perhaps you could say 75-80% NREM and 20-25% REM.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 16, 2017, 10:53:52 pm
How are you guys gonna approach the 10-marker, I haven't started looking at it yet but not sure where to start. Does anyone have any ideas on how to start it?

My school hasn't even gone through it at all. Has anyone else's school gone through it?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 17, 2017, 07:16:51 am
How are you guys gonna approach the 10-marker, I haven't started looking at it yet but not sure where to start. Does anyone have any ideas on how to start it?

My school hasn't even gone through it at all. Has anyone else's school gone through it?

We've gone through it a lot.
I like to hightlight or underline key points and annotate first. Then I plan what I'll talk about for each point.  I begin with what I feel most confident they would like to see if I had difficulty in the previous step. Otherwise, I discuss in the order presented.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 17, 2017, 07:25:24 am
Also, does anyone know the answer to the SAMPLE exam question 6b?? I wasn't sure how to link it to the scenario
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 17, 2017, 07:39:05 am
We've gone through it a lot.
I like to hightlight or underline key points and annotate first. Then I plan what I'll talk about for each point.  I begin with what I feel most confident they would like to see if I had difficulty in the previous step. Otherwise, I discuss in the order presented.


Okay cool. Also just a few questions:
Do you think its better to write under subheadings or better not to do that?
How much do you write for the response approximately? Because I don't know how long it should be. The SAMPLE exam gives 1 and 1/2 pages so do u usually fill that up?
Also, how long do you think should be spent on it?

Thanks!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 17, 2017, 09:21:56 am
Can someone please explain the reasons why salivation and digestion is decreased when the sympathetic nervous system is activated (fight-flight-freeze response)?

Also, when talking about the spinal reflex (reflex arc), should I mention that the brain receives the message about the pain only after the response has been initiated? Or should I not mention it, and just explain how the reflex itself occurs without input from the brain?

Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 17, 2017, 10:19:30 am
Can someone please explain the reasons why salivation and digestion is decreased when the sympathetic nervous system is activated (fight-flight-freeze response)?

Also, when talking about the spinal reflex (reflex arc), should I mention that the brain receives the message about the pain only after the response has been initiated? Or should I not mention it, and just explain how the reflex itself occurs without input from the brain?

Thanks!

Salivation and digestion is decreased so that your body can divert most of its energy to responding to the threat or stressor that caused the sympathetic response, rather than carrying out digestion. It's also practical because if you're have a FFF response, you don't want to feel hungry (be salivating) because that will distract you from focusing on the threat.

In terms of the reflex arc, you could mention it if you want (it's not wrong to say it), but it just depends on what the questions asking and how many marks are allocated. So if the question was "what is the reflex arc" and it was 2 marks, you really don't need to mention the info about how the brain receives the message after the response has been initiated. If the question was a bit more specific, asking you to explain the process of how someone might perceive and respond to touching a hot stove, and was 3-4 marks, then you'd go into detail about how the brain receives the message.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 17, 2017, 10:28:31 am
Can someone please explain the reasons why salivation and digestion is decreased when the sympathetic nervous system is activated (fight-flight-freeze response)?

Also, when talking about the spinal reflex (reflex arc), should I mention that the brain receives the message about the pain only after the response has been initiated? Or should I not mention it, and just explain how the reflex itself occurs without input from the brain?

Thanks!

Adding to halo's response, digestion - which salivation falls under - isn't needed to deal with the immediate stressor, so it's consuming unnecessary energy that could be otherwise used to deal with the threat.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: juliae on October 17, 2017, 10:45:28 am
Hi everyone,
Does anyone know if there are any answers to the sample exam available?
I know VCAA doesn't release any but I'm just wondering if there is any where else to find some.
Thank you!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 17, 2017, 10:47:11 am
Can you say glutamate has a role in the development of a phobia because it is involved in the classical conditioning that precipitates the phobia? Or is it simply chemicals such as GABA, adrenaline etc. that are involved in the precipitation of the phobia via the fear response? I'm not sure if this is true but I vaguely remember reading somewhere that glutamate only has a role in learning under normal circumstances, and not in states of arousal.

Also, I'm a bit confused between what a confounding and extraneous variable is. I sort of get it, but can someone please explain this to me with examples?
Thanks!

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 17, 2017, 11:08:34 am
Hi everyone,
Does anyone know if there are any answers to the sample exam available?
I know VCAA doesn't release any but I'm just wondering if there is any where else to find some.
Thank you!!

http://www.epsychvce.com/vcaa-sample-exam-solutions.html
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 17, 2017, 11:29:19 am
Also, I'm a bit confused between what a confounding and extraneous variable is. I sort of get it, but can someone please explain this to me with examples?

An extraneous variable is any variable other than the IV that may cause a change in the participant's response/results (DV) in an unwanted way, whereas a confounding variable is something other than the IV that has definitely caused a change in the DV, making it impossible to tell what actually caused the change in the DV (if it was the IV or some other variable).

An example of this could be something like individual participant differences in an experiment that is testing maths ability. More intelligent kids who are better at maths may score higher than those who are less intelligent (extraneous variable, which could also become a confounding variable) rather than them scoring higher because of the effect of the IV (which could be the type of test, or way the topic was taught). A confounding variable in this situation could be something like kids having sugar before doing the test (not instructed to do so by the experimenter), which may result in the kids doing much better due to being on a sugar high and being more alert, rather than because of the type of test (or whatever the IV was)- the results would be affected in an unwanted way due to this.

I hope I explained this alright and that it makes sense to you!!
Sorry I couldn't think of a better example  ::)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 17, 2017, 06:06:57 pm
Okay cool. Also just a few questions:
Do you think its better to write under subheadings or better not to do that?
How much do you write for the response approximately? Because I don't know how long it should be. The SAMPLE exam gives 1 and 1/2 pages so do u usually fill that up?
Also, how long do you think should be spent on it?

Thanks!!
Subheadings are good but you wouldn't lose marks for not using them.
More than 10 minutes. I spend quite a lot of time and paper on it but I add detail that doesn't need to be there etc. as I have spare time due to finishing MC very very quickly. (I think I wrote 5 pages on my trial, which was wayyyyyy excessive and I didn't get any extra marks for it)? I wouldn't recommend you to spend as much time as I do unless you can do so without adversely impacting the rest of your paper so I find it difficult to say what would be good for you.
Sorry, I know that's not paticularly helpful, but it really does come down to what you can afford to spend on it.

Can someone please explain the reasons why salivation and digestion is decreased when the sympathetic nervous system is activated (fight-flight-freeze response)?

Also, when talking about the spinal reflex (reflex arc), should I mention that the brain receives the message about the pain only after the response has been initiated? Or should I not mention it, and just explain how the reflex itself occurs without input from the brain?

Thanks!
Expanding on what halo and boooom have said (as I didn't see their posts until after this was already typed):
Spending energy and resources  on digestion isn't worth it if your life is in danger. Would you a) send extra glucose and oxygen to muscles that can help you run etc or b) send these resources to the stomach so it keeps on breaking down food etc. ?

Use marks/context is a guide. 4-6 marks on a spinal reflex situation - definitely talk about the brain.
 2 marks on "contrast dropping a mug with boiling water to dropping a lukewarm mug" - very likely not needed
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: EdwinaB19 on October 17, 2017, 06:18:38 pm

Can you say glutamate has a role in the development of a phobia because it is involved in the classical conditioning that precipitates the phobia? Or is it simply chemicals such as GABA, adrenaline etc. that are involved in the precipitation of the phobia via the fear response? I'm not sure if this is true but I vaguely remember reading somewhere that glutamate only has a role in learning under normal circumstances, and not in states of arousal.

Glutamate has a role in long-term potentiation which is a biological contributing factor for the development of phobias. GABA doesn't play a role in arousal because it's a inhibitory neurotransmitter.

It'd be more relevant in terms of psychological contributing factors to discuss the role that adrenaline has in the precipitation of phobias by classical classical conditioning. Adrenaline enhances the formation of the emotional component of the traumatic memory in the amygdala.

That is as far as I've understood throughout the course.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 17, 2017, 06:57:31 pm
I have 2 questions;

- How is 'reconstruction' used to retrieve information from memory and demonstrate its existence within memory?
- Is 'impaired ability to perform monotonous tasks' a valid behavioural impairment for partial sleep deprivation?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 17, 2017, 08:05:14 pm
Guys, I still don't the distinction between stress, anxiety and phobia
and also the distinction between mentally healthy, mental health problems and mental disorder.

Can someone help please??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on October 17, 2017, 10:19:19 pm
Is it possible for secondary appraisal to occur at the same time as primary appraisal?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 18, 2017, 08:11:18 am
Guys, I still don't the distinction between stress, anxiety and phobia
and also the distinction between mentally healthy, mental health problems and mental disorder.

Can someone help please??

Essentially stress and anxiety is part of everyday life, whereas a phobia isn't. Also, anxiety is a feeling that something is going to wrong, and stress is a feeling that you can't cope.

Mental healthy, problem and disorder are all different degrees of mental health. Mental health problems causes some distress, generally short term, whereas a mental disorder provides prolonged distress that impairs normal everyday functioning.

Is it possible for secondary appraisal to occur at the same time as primary appraisal?

No, you have to perceive something as stressful (so primary appraisal) before you can secondly appraise it.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 18, 2017, 08:34:15 am
Guys, I still don't the distinction between stress, anxiety and phobia
and also the distinction between mentally healthy, mental health problems and mental disorder.

Stress vs anxiety vs phobia
Stress is physiological and psychological arousal resulting from a stressor perceived to be challenging or exceeding an individual's ability to cope.
Anxiety also involves similar physiological arousal (increased heart rate, dilation of pupils, suppression of digestion). However, unlike when you feel stressed, when you experience anxiety the threat or stressor is not usually immediately present. Instead, you feel worried or uneasy that something bad/unpleasant might happen. Most people experience stress and anxiety to some degree, and on their own they are not mental disorders (although they can contribute to them).
A phobia, on the other hand, is a mental disorder. It's a type of anxiety disorder (mental disorder involving feelings of extreme anxiety which prevent sufferer from functioning normally) that is characterised by excessive, unreasonable, intense and persistent fear of a particular object or situation, which is usually out of proportion to the danger posed by the object or situation. Stress and anxiety are usually considered rational - phobias are almost always irrational.

Mentally healthy vs mental health problems vs mental disorder
Someone who is mentally healthy realises their own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to their community. They tend to have a high level of functioning, social and emotional wellbeing and resilience to stressors.
Mental health problems have a negative effect on the way a person thinks, feels or behaves, but it is to a lesser extent and shorter duration than a mental disorder. Compared to someone who is mentally healthy, they are more likely to have sleep problems, have difficulty coping, find it hard to concentrate or experience temporary impairment.
Someone with a mental disorder usually has an impaired ability to function effectively in everyday life because of certain thoughts/feelings/behaviours.

Hope this helps, let me know if you need anything clarified!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 18, 2017, 12:30:09 pm
Is dopamine excitatory or inhibitory?
I keep hearing such mixed answers about it, some saying it is excitatory and others saying it's inhibitory!
How would a lack of either its excitatory/inhibitory effects result in Parkinson's disease?
Please help!! Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 18, 2017, 12:36:41 pm
Stress vs anxiety vs phobia
Stress is physiological and psychological arousal resulting from a stressor perceived to be challenging or exceeding an individual's ability to cope.
Anxiety also involves similar physiological arousal (increased heart rate, dilation of pupils, suppression of digestion). However, unlike when you feel stressed, when you experience anxiety the threat or stressor is not usually immediately present. Instead, you feel worried or uneasy that something bad/unpleasant might happen. Most people experience stress and anxiety to some degree, and on their own they are not mental disorders (although they can contribute to them).
A phobia, on the other hand, is a mental disorder. It's a type of anxiety disorder (mental disorder involving feelings of extreme anxiety which prevent sufferer from functioning normally) that is characterised by excessive, unreasonable, intense and persistent fear of a particular object or situation, which is usually out of proportion to the danger posed by the object or situation. Stress and anxiety are usually considered rational - phobias are almost always irrational.

Mentally healthy vs mental health problems vs mental disorder
Someone who is mentally healthy realises their own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to their community. They tend to have a high level of functioning, social and emotional wellbeing and resilience to stressors.
Mental health problems have a negative effect on the way a person thinks, feels or behaves, but it is to a lesser extent and shorter duration than a mental disorder. Compared to someone who is mentally healthy, they are more likely to have sleep problems, have difficulty coping, find it hard to concentrate or experience temporary impairment.
Someone with a mental disorder usually has an impaired ability to function effectively in everyday life because of certain thoughts/feelings/behaviours.

Hope this helps, let me know if you need anything clarified!


thankyou so much!! :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 18, 2017, 12:38:26 pm
According to the modifications to the study design, we don't need to know sleep apnoea or narcolepsy right??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: insanipi on October 18, 2017, 12:41:03 pm
Is dopamine excitatory or inhibitory?
I keep hearing such mixed answers about it, some saying it is excitatory and others saying it's inhibitory!
How would a lack of either its excitatory/inhibitory effects result in Parkinson's disease?
Please help!! Thanks :)
Hey there! I'm not so sure about the effects of dopamine on Parkinson's disease, but from my own studies, dopamine is classified as a 'special' neurotransmitter- with both excitatory and inhibitory properties. :)
(Someone feel free to correct me on this, as I'm no psych expert :) )
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 18, 2017, 12:44:34 pm
According to the modifications to the study design, we don't need to know sleep apnoea or narcolepsy right??
Yep, we don't! Just need to know about sleep-onset insomnia and sleep walking
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on October 18, 2017, 02:49:45 pm
is cortisol released during the fight flight freeze response? i thought it was just adrenaline and noradrenaline, and cortisol comes later via the HPA axis, but im now being told that its released during FFF! So that means its released during the countershock stage (alarm reaction) of GAS. Please tell me if thats correct :)

Also, are people's immune systems lowered and therefore vulnerable to illness during resistance or exhaustion? ive been told resistance but it doesnt make sense to me, i thought it was exhaustion cause body has cortisol present for long periods of time. can someone clarify this for me and explain why! thank you so much
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on October 18, 2017, 03:36:30 pm
hi all, we know the autonomic nervous system is self regulating (ie independently of the brain) but we also know that the ANS enables communication between the CNS and visceral muscles, organs and glands. Why would this be so if it does not require the brain?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 18, 2017, 04:42:15 pm
is cortisol released during the fight flight freeze response? i thought it was just adrenaline and noradrenaline, and cortisol comes later via the HPA axis, but im now being told that its released during FFF! So that means its released during the countershock stage (alarm reaction) of GAS. Please tell me if thats correct :)

Also, are people's immune systems lowered and therefore vulnerable to illness during resistance or exhaustion? ive been told resistance but it doesnt make sense to me, i thought it was exhaustion cause body has cortisol present for long periods of time. can someone clarify this for me and explain why! thank you so much

As far as I know, FFF activates the HPA axis which releases adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol.  This is what I understand from the Cambridge textbook anyway (pg88). My teacher has emphasised that we don't need to talk about the HPA axis when talking about FFF since it's not in the study design. I also doubt you need to know about the pathways for how certain stress hormones are released, so that might be something to keep in mind.
Also, yes cortisol is released in countershock when FFF is activated.

I've been told that in the resistance phase cortisol circulates the body and suppresses the immune system, making your body more vulnerable to illnesses. Cortisol doesn't necessarily need to be in your bloodstream for a really long time for it to suppress the immune system, hence people's vulnerability to illnesses can increase in the resistance phase. Also, for some people, the resistance phase may actually go on for a long time, so their immunity would definitely be compromised.
 I would imagine that the longer the cortisol circulates your body, the more vulnerable you become to illness, so it would make sense that in exhaustion phase your susceptibility is higher to illnesses than in resistance, but that doesn't mean that immunity isn't compromised in the resistance phase.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 18, 2017, 05:02:41 pm
hi all, we know the autonomic nervous system is self regulating (ie independently of the brain) but we also know that the ANS enables communication between the CNS and visceral muscles, organs and glands. Why would this be so if it does not require the brain?
The autonomic nervous system is self regulating not because it works independently of the brain, but because it  doesn't require voluntary/conscious control from the individual. There is still a lot of communication between the ANS and the brain - both too and from. You don't need to know this, but take for example your heart rate. When it is too high or too low, a "cardiac centre" in the medulla oblongata of the brain either initiates the parasympathetic NS to lower heart rate or sympathetic NS to increase it (which are the branches of the ANS).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 18, 2017, 06:28:24 pm
is cortisol released during the fight flight freeze response? i thought it was just adrenaline and noradrenaline, and cortisol comes later via the HPA axis, but im now being told that its released during FFF! So that means its released during the countershock stage (alarm reaction) of GAS. Please tell me if thats correct :)

Also, are people's immune systems lowered and therefore vulnerable to illness during resistance or exhaustion? ive been told resistance but it doesnt make sense to me, i thought it was exhaustion cause body has cortisol present for long periods of time. can someone clarify this for me and explain why! thank you so much

in the resistance stage, you have high resistance to the stressor, but start to become vulnerable to other things eg. Illness
In the exhaustion stage , you are very vulnerable to both the stressor and other stimuli (such as illness, and at this stage you probably will be ill)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 18, 2017, 07:29:01 pm
Is dopamine excitatory or inhibitory?
I keep hearing such mixed answers about it, some saying it is excitatory and others saying it's inhibitory!
How would a lack of either its excitatory/inhibitory effects result in Parkinson's disease?
Please help!! Thanks :)

Second insanpi's answer - dopamine produces both excitatory and inhibitory effects. You don't have to acknowledge this in your discussion of its role in dopamine though. Just know that it's responsible for stimulation (i.e excitation) of the motor cortex, and consequently, control of all motor commands and movements.

Questions of my own (and bump for my previous ones ::)?):
- How is acquisition defined in classical conditioning?
- How does the stress response precipitate a specific phobia?
- How does adrenaline improve consolidation of emotionally arousing events?
- How does elaborative rehearsal improve storage and recall of LTM?
- Do GABA agonists imitate GABA's inhibitory function or increase it?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 18, 2017, 08:46:54 pm
Quote
How is acquisition defined in classical conditioning?
Acquisition is when the UCR and NS are successfully paired through repeated associations, leading to the UCR becoming the CR, and the NS the CS.
(It's a bit sloppy but its the best I can think of)

Quote
How does the stress response precipitate a specific phobia?
I think you could offer more than one explanation, but the one I'm going to go with is classical conditioning. In this situation, the potentially phobic stimulus is initially the NS, the UCS is anything that produces a fear response and UCR is the fear response. Through repeated (idk if it has to be repeated as some people get phobias from one exposure) associations, the fear response becomes the CR and the phobic stimulus becomes CS.

Quote
How does adrenaline improve consolidation of emotionally arousing events?
When you experience an emotionally arousing event, your body releases adrenaline, which then causes the amygdala to release noradrenaline, which then signals to the nearby hippocampus that the memory is important and should be remembered. This then enhances its storage into LTM.

Quote
How does elaborative rehearsal improve storage and recall of LTM? 
Ok I'm not sure exactly how to answer this question, so you can disregard my attempt if you want.
I think, basically, in elaborative rehearsal you're just giving new info meaning through associating it to stuff you already know. This makes it easier to store the new info because you already have a basis of neural connections which you can add the new info to. So then when you recall LTM, you have stronger synaptic connections (because the neural pathway representing the LTM is connected to other pathways you associated it to) for it than if you hadn't used elaborative rehearsal.
I also think elaborative rehearsal gets you to think more deeply about the info, and that in itself means you're paying more attention to it.  According to Atkinson-Shiffrin model, it's then more likely to move from sensory memory to STM to LTM.



Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 18, 2017, 09:03:04 pm
Quote
Do GABA agonists imitate GABA's inhibitory function or increase it?
I'm not sure about other GABA agonists, but benzodiazepines work by increasing how 'receptive' GABA receptors are to GABA on postsynaptic neurons, increasing GABA activity. The amount of GABA remains the same when you use these.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on October 18, 2017, 11:12:35 pm
Is it possible for secondary appraisal to occur at the same time as primary appraisal?

No, you have to perceive something as stressful (so primary appraisal) before you can secondly appraise it.

According one of the VCAA responses actually, "primary and secondary appraisals can interact with one another and are often undertaken simultaneously". I believe this is because as you make a primary appraisal (doesn't always have to be a conscious decision though), you can also think about what approach/coping strategies at the same time that you can take to deal with the stressor. It is considered to be a limitation of the transactional model. This is from question 4 in the 2015 VCAA paper. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: boooom on October 19, 2017, 12:01:13 am
According one of the VCAA responses actually, "primary and secondary appraisals can interact with one another and are often undertaken simultaneously". I believe this is because as you make a primary appraisal (doesn't always have to be a conscious decision though), you can also think about what approach/coping strategies at the same time that you can take to deal with the stressor. It is considered to be a limitation of the transactional model. This is from question 4 in the 2015 VCAA paper. :)

Oh whoopsie - nevermind me then :P
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 19, 2017, 09:42:53 am
Can someone please explain the definitions of context-specific effectiveness and coping flexibility with examples? I keep getting confused between the two! Thanks  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 19, 2017, 10:11:49 am
Can someone please explain the definitions of context-specific effectiveness and coping flexibility with examples? I keep getting confused between the two! Thanks  :)

So context-specific effectiveness is when your coping strategy is suitable for dealing with a stressful situation. For example, if you have exams coming up and you're stressed, a coping strategy where you plan your time, take breaks for relaxation and study to achieve your goals would be considered to have context-specific effectiveness (because this is what will help you be prepared for your exams). If instead, you decided to just exercise or meditate everyday and not study to relieve the stress, this is considered to be not a suitable way to deal with the stressful situation. Exercise and meditation definitely helps relieve stress, but it won't deal with the stressful situation itself - the context (exams).

Coping flexibility is the ability to change your coping strategies according to the demands of different stressful situations. So for example, a stressful situation right now might be exams, and my coping strategy would be to plan my time and study. Once exams are over, I want to get a job and that kind of situation requires a different coping strategy - I  might need to practice giving interviews so I can get over my nerves, learn breathing techniques so I can stay calm in the interview etc. And then maybe when exam results come out, I'll face a different kind of stressful situation (might not be happy with ATAR etc), and my coping strategy may be positive self-talk, getting encouragement from family and considering different options for my education in uni. If I'm able to change from each coping strategy to the other depending on the circumstances, then I'd have coping flexibility.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 19, 2017, 08:38:13 pm
What are we all saying for Cognitive aspects that are affected in an individual upon Partial and Total sleep deprivation?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 19, 2017, 09:00:30 pm
What are we all saying for Cognitive aspects that are affected in an individual upon Partial and Total sleep deprivation?


I made a list of affective, cognitive, and behavioural changes die to sleep deprivation earlier in this thread which may be useful for you :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 20, 2017, 08:43:28 am
What are we all saying for Cognitive aspects that are affected in an individual upon Partial and Total sleep deprivation?

Here’s a few:
- difficulty concentrating
- impaired memory
- difficulty problem solving/decision making
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 20, 2017, 05:56:33 pm
Hey everyone, I was just wondering.

We did an experiment at school and it was about classical conditioning. So if was basically just 4 students who has 1 student each 4and we just tested them using Wizz fizz.

So what would be the experiential design, I'm confused.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 20, 2017, 06:31:59 pm
Hey everyone, I was just wondering.

We did an experiment at school and it was about classical conditioning. So if was basically just 4 students who has 1 student each 4and we just tested them using Wizz fizz.

So what would be the experiential design, I'm confused.
Repeated measures? Since they all got exposed to the IV being the Wizz Fizz.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 21, 2017, 12:24:18 pm
Hi guys, just some questions on TSSM 2013 MCQ.

Q2: Cooper is completing a timed English essay, During this task Cooper has thoughts about his party on the weekend, the next English task he has to complete and about 'schoolies week' at the end of the school year. Cooper's state of consciousness can be best described as?
a. Normal waking consciousness
b. altered state of consciousness
c. focused state of consciousness
d. selective state of consciousness
I answered B, since Cooper seems to be daydreaming, but the solutions say he is in normal waking consciousness? I thought daydreaming was an ASC, not a NWC.

Q22: The amygdala is involved with the processing of which type of memories?
a. Iconic
b. Short term
c. Long Term
d. Traumatic
I answered D, since it encodes emotional information in, but the solutions say C. I would have thought that this is correct, but not the most correct answer?

Q34: Which of the following best described long term potentiation?
a. Axon of the postsynpatic neuron is active while the presynaptic neuron is firing, the synapse is strengthened
b. Axon of the presynaptic neuron is active while the postsynaptic neuron is firing, the synapse is strengthened
c. Axon of the presynaptic neuron is active while the postsynaptic neuron is firing, the synapse is weakened
d. Axon of the postsynpatic neuron is active while the presynaptic neuron is firing, the synapse is weakened.
The answered A, since the presynaptic neuron fires while post synaptic neuron receives, but the solutions say it is B?

Q47: In operant conditioning, the stimulus comes ___ the response, whereas in classical conditioning it comes ___ the response
a. before, after
b. after, before
c. before, before
d. after, after
I answered C, since i always thought the antecedent was also considered the discriminative stimulus for which the behaviour occurs in response to? The solutions say it is B. Is the consequence considered the stimulus in operant conditioning, or is it both the antecedent and consequence, or just the antecedent?

Also relating to OC, is the response voluntary, or both voluntary and involuntary. I thought that the CC response is involuntary while the OC response is voluntary since you make a conscious decision to act in a way according to the consequence you receive.

TIA!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 21, 2017, 12:37:53 pm
Hi guys, just some questions on TSSM 2013.
Q2: Cooper is completing a timed English essay, During this task Cooper has thoughts about his party on the weekend, the next English task he has to complete and about 'schoolies week' at the end of the school year. Cooper's state of consciousness can be best described as?

Well it's definitely NOT an ASC, and I'll yell you why.

1. If he was in an ASC then he would not be able to focus on the English exam
2. If you recall, consciousness is described by William James as being ongoing, like a stream of water, and this is because our content of consciousness is constantly changing. This is why Cooper, although he is completing his English exam, is thinking about other things, such as 'schoolies week' and the
3. You need to be careful, questions like this have been on MC before, and the correct answer is ALWAYS NWC.
4. If you still need clarifications, please let me know. I don't know if you understood it, but it's pretty straight forward, because imagine if Cooper was in an ASC he would have lowered awareness and would not be able to concentrate [typical characteristics of an ASC]
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 21, 2017, 12:46:18 pm
Hi guys, just some questions on TSSM 2013 MCQ.


Q47: In operant conditioning, the stimulus comes ___ the response, whereas in classical conditioning it comes ___ the response
a. before, after
b. after, before
c. before, before
d. after, after
I answered C, since i always thought the antecedent was also considered the discriminative stimulus for which the behaviour occurs in response to? The solutions say it is B. Is the consequence considered the stimulus in operant conditioning, or is it both the antecedent and consequence, or just the antecedent?

Also relating to OC, is the response voluntary, or both voluntary and involuntary. I thought that the CC response is involuntary while the OC response is voluntary since you make a conscious decision to act in a way according to the consequence you receive.

TIA!


Now with this question, The 'stimulus' as I believe is referring to the type of reinforcement of punishment. Now obviously this comes after the behavior. For example if a child was throwing a tantrum and I positively reinforce him by giving him a lollipop, then the lollipop in this case is the 'stimulus'. So the presence or removal of a stimulus, always occurs AFTER the behavior.

With CC, You already answered it correctly, because your option said the stimulus comes BEFORE the behavior, which is correct, just think of Pavlovs experiment, the bell and meat powder came before the response of salivation [response]
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 21, 2017, 12:51:41 pm
Question 22 and 34 were a bit of a grey area. The amygdala I would also assume is involved in traumatic memories, but you need to keep in mind that these emotional memories are encoded so that they are stored as long-term memories. Which may be why option C is the corect answer.


Question 34, is really weird, I agree with the option you choose. That just makes so much more sense. can anyone lend a helping hand over here please????
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 21, 2017, 12:54:52 pm
Well it's definitely NOT an ASC, and I'll yell you why.

1. If he was in an ASC then he would not be able to focus on the English exam
2. If you recall, consciousness is described by William James as being ongoing, like a stream of water, and this is because our content of consciousness is constantly changing. This is why Cooper, although he is completing his English exam, is thinking about other things, such as 'schoolies week' and the
3. You need to be careful, questions like this have been on MC before, and the correct answer is ALWAYS NWC.
4. If you still need clarifications, please let me know. I don't know if you understood it, but it's pretty straight forward, because imagine if Cooper was in an ASC he would have lowered awareness and would not be able to concentrate [typical characteristics of an ASC]

Oh okay, that makes sense. How would you differentiate between a daydream being an ASC where they cannot focus, lower attention etc. and just a NWC as you described?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 21, 2017, 12:56:16 pm

Now with this question, The 'stimulus' as I believe is referring to the type of reinforcement of punishment. Now obviously this comes after the behavior. For example if a child was throwing a tantrum and I positively reinforce him by giving him a lollipop, then the lollipop in this case is the 'stimulus'. So the presence or removal of a stimulus, always occurs AFTER the behavior.

With CC, You already answered it correctly, because your option said the stimulus comes BEFORE the behavior, which is correct, just think of Pavlovs experiment, the bell and meat powder came before the response of salivation [response]


Thanks! So would you say to 'ignore' the antecedent as a stimulus?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 21, 2017, 01:04:14 pm
Thanks! So would you say to 'ignore' the antecedent as a stimulus?

Yes- think of it (the 'stimulus' that comes after the behaviour in OC) as the stimulus that determines whether the behaviour will be repeated again in the future. So yes, when talking about whether the stimulus comes before or after the behaviour in OC, were talking about the 'consequence' (after) stimulus, NOT the antecedent stimulus (you can 'ignore it' in this case) :)

Hope that made sense
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 21, 2017, 01:04:50 pm
Question 22 and 34 were a bit of a grey area. The amygdala I would also assume is involved in traumatic memories, but you need to keep in mind that these emotional memories are encoded so that they are stored as long-term memories. Which may be why option C is the corect answer.


Question 34, is really weird, I agree with the option you choose. That just makes so much more sense. can anyone lend a helping hand over here please????

Yeah, I understand how they are encoded as LTM, making both C and D correct. But I would have thought that D is the 'better answer'. Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 21, 2017, 01:06:41 pm
Yeah, I understand how they are encoded as LTM, making both C and D correct. But I would have thought that D is the 'better answer'. Thanks!

I would say that C is the better answer because the amygdala is involved in encoding all emotional long-term memories (doesn't have to be traumatic), so that is why C is the better answer
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 21, 2017, 01:09:04 pm
Oh okay, that makes sense. How would you differentiate between a daydream being an ASC where they cannot focus, lower attention etc. and just a NWC as you described?

Good question. With the practice exams I have been doing [from VCAA] they would make the distinction clear-cut. If Cooper was in an ASC they would say that he is not focusing on his exam, or they would ACTUALLY say that he is daydreaming about the next English exam or the 'schoolies week'. Now you need to realize that the fact the Cooper is actually doing his exam, is indicative of a NWC because if he was daydreaming, he would only be thinking about his internal thoughts[ such as his next English exam] and he would not be able to focus on his external environment- which in this scenario is he English exam] If the question said that he was not completing his exam because he was thinking about other things [internal thoughts] , then that would be an ASC. I'll try and find the MC questions that are similar to this one so that you can practice on them. However, this would be deemed a trick question, because a large proportion would have chosen ASC like you.

feel free to ask more questions for clarifications! The more you know, the better.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 21, 2017, 01:18:05 pm
Thanks! So would you say to 'ignore' the antecedent as a stimulus?

You could think of it that way, as just ígnoring the antecedent as the stimulus. But either way the stimulus would still occur after the response. I'll illustrate with the use of an example.

Antecedent is the green light. Ben crosses the road: see even if you used the antecedent as the 'stimulus', the response of crossing the road would still come AFTER the stimulus [green light]

However, if you ignore the antecedent stimulus, then here is an example: [using the consequence as the stimulus]

Behavior is crossing the road, Ben nearly gets hit by a car. The stimulus of 'nearly getting hit by a car' [positive punishment] still comes AFTER the behavior of crossing the road.


So either way you like to look at it, the stimulus comes AFTER the response. whether the response be the antecedent [ green light] or crossing the road].


So basically you can think of it anyway you want, but the way the question is worded, it is asking you when the stimulus is presented [before or after] in relation to the RESPONSE. so the response is the way Ben  'responds to the antecedent, or in other words it is Ben's behavior to the antecedent.


Do you understand that, please let me know if you don't and I could try to explain it differently.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 21, 2017, 01:40:50 pm
Oh okay, that makes sense. How would you differentiate between a daydream being an ASC where they cannot focus, lower attention etc. and just a NWC as you described?

Hey again Peter,

Regarding the VCAA exam questions I have found 2 for you. This will demonstrate to you how clear and unambiguous VCAA make the distinction between an ASC and a NWC.

The first question is from VCAA 2002 Exam 1. Question 36.

Q. 36: Louis underwent hypnosis as a treatment to help him quit smoking. Afterwards, he was surprised to learn that he had been under hypnosis for half an hour because it seemed to him that only 15 minutes had passed. Louis has most likely experienced:

A. a state of normal waking consciousness
B. an altered state of consciousness.
C. A stream of consciousness
D. an automatic process.

Obviously, the correct answer is B. Adding on to what I said earlier, if the scenario involved some one in a ASC. they would hint it to you, for example they would say something about lowered level of awareness, pr amplified emotions, or in this scenario, they said something about Louis not being able to accurately perceive the passage of time [which is characteristic of an ASC]. So in a nutshell, if the answer was ASC, then there would be a characteristic of an ASC in the question.

This next question is symmetric to the one you came across on the TSSM exam. It is extracted from VCAA Exam 1 2003. Question 32.

Adrienne is completing a test. During the task, Adrienne has thoughts about the part-time work roster her employer changed recently, the party she is attending the next day, and the prospect of getting her Learners permit next week. What is the best way of describing her state of consciousness.

A. normal waking consciousness
B. Altered state of consciousness
C. Focused state of consciousness
D. selective sate of consciousnesses.


Now, I assume you'd know by now that the answer is indeed A. NWC. and I'm going to be honest here, when I first did this I also chose B. But know that I read the examiners report, I released it was really stupid thing because that just doesn't make sense. Because if he was in a ASC. then he would not be able to think about so may things. So as you can see the answer is A, and it's good that you know now because a similar question may come by in the exam.


In relation to the examiners report for this question, only 46% answer A correctly and 34% answers B. the comment on the report is verbatim:

The flow of thoughts described for Adrienne in this question is a
concrete example of William James’ hypothetical construct of the
stream of consciousness referred
 to in the previous question.


Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 21, 2017, 02:03:45 pm
How does random allocation remove the extraneous variable of individual participant differences?
Is it because there is a more even spread of participant variables?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 21, 2017, 03:14:43 pm
I would say that C is the better answer because the amygdala is involved in encoding all emotional long-term memories (doesn't have to be traumatic), so that is why C is the better answer
Makes sense! Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 21, 2017, 03:15:34 pm
Good question. With the practice exams I have been doing [from VCAA] they would make the distinction clear-cut. If Cooper was in an ASC they would say that he is not focusing on his exam, or they would ACTUALLY say that he is daydreaming about the next English exam or the 'schoolies week'. Now you need to realize that the fact the Cooper is actually doing his exam, is indicative of a NWC because if he was daydreaming, he would only be thinking about his internal thoughts[ such as his next English exam] and he would not be able to focus on his external environment- which in this scenario is he English exam] If the question said that he was not completing his exam because he was thinking about other things [internal thoughts] , then that would be an ASC. I'll try and find the MC questions that are similar to this one so that you can practice on them. However, this would be deemed a trick question, because a large proportion would have chosen ASC like you.

feel free to ask more questions for clarifications! The more you know, the better.

Good to know! Thank you!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 21, 2017, 03:17:49 pm
Hey again Peter,

Regarding the VCAA exam questions I have found 2 for you. This will demonstrate to you how clear and unambiguous VCAA make the distinction between an ASC and a NWC.

The first question is from VCAA 2002 Exam 1. Question 36.

Q. 36: Louis underwent hypnosis as a treatment to help him quit smoking. Afterwards, he was surprised to learn that he had been under hypnosis for half an hour because it seemed to him that only 15 minutes had passed. Louis has most likely experienced:

A. a state of normal waking consciousness
B. an altered state of consciousness.
C. A stream of consciousness
D. an automatic process.

Obviously, the correct answer is B. Adding on to what I said earlier, if the scenario involved some one in a ASC. they would hint it to you, for example they would say something about lowered level of awareness, pr amplified emotions, or in this scenario, they said something about Louis not being able to accurately perceive the passage of time [which is characteristic of an ASC]. So in a nutshell, if the answer was ASC, then there would be a characteristic of an ASC in the question.

This next question is symmetric to the one you came across on the TSSM exam. It is extracted from VCAA Exam 1 2003. Question 32.

Adrienne is completing a test. During the task, Adrienne has thoughts about the part-time work roster her employer changed recently, the party she is attending the next day, and the prospect of getting her Learners permit next week. What is the best way of describing her state of consciousness.

A. normal waking consciousness
B. Altered state of consciousness
C. Focused state of consciousness
D. selective sate of consciousnesses.


Now, I assume you'd know by now that the answer is indeed A. NWC. and I'm going to be honest here, when I first did this I also chose B. But know that I read the examiners report, I released it was really stupid thing because that just doesn't make sense. Because if he was in a ASC. then he would not be able to think about so may things. So as you can see the answer is A, and it's good that you know now because a similar question may come by in the exam.


In relation to the examiners report for this question, only 46% answer A correctly and 34% answers B. the comment on the report is verbatim:

The flow of thoughts described for Adrienne in this question is a
concrete example of William James’ hypothetical construct of the
stream of consciousness referred
 to in the previous question.




Perfect! Thanks so much again for the help :) Good luck to you as well!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 21, 2017, 04:37:34 pm
Perfect! Thanks so much again for the help :) Good luck to you as well!

Thanks Peter, all the best!!!  ;)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 21, 2017, 05:25:22 pm
Hi guys. Are we allowed to use abbreviations when talking about classical conditioning (for example, neutral stimulus=NS), without defining it first by putting it in brackets? So like instead of going "the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is ..." are we able to just say "the UCS is..."?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 21, 2017, 05:28:28 pm
Hi guys. Are we allowed to use abbreviations when talking about classical conditioning (for example, neutral stimulus=NS), without defining it first by putting it in brackets? So like instead of going "the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is ..." are we able to just say "the UCS is..."?


Nope, you have to define it first.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on October 22, 2017, 10:53:57 am
With specific environmental triggers in relation to specific phobia, does it count as a specific environmental trigger if its vicariously? eg. parent telling you a story. My understanding that its only direct exposure, but i have conflicting sources of info that tell me otherwise :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 22, 2017, 11:20:07 am
Hi,

I just had a few questions over things I've seen in exams.

For Lazarus and Folkman, I remember reading that even if you had a primary appraisal of threat or harm/loss, you could secondarily appraise that you had adequate coping resources and thus not have a stress response. Is this correct?

Where are implicit memories stored because I thought that the cerebral cortex stored well-learned implicit memories and the cerebellum encoded and temporarily stored implicit memories, SO Im not sure what to answer.

Also, for the precipitation of phobia, would you talk about glutamate (LTP and the strengthening of the neural connections relating to the fear response) or adrenaline (role in consolidating emotionally significant events) or possibly both??

And for the question; outline two devices that could be used to help determine if an individual is in an ASC. What would you talk about?? Obviously an EEG, but I'm unsure what an EMG or EOG or sleep diary etc would show if a person was in an ASC for the 2nd mark.

Finally, for the question; Jonah sleeps an average of 7 hours each night. When he is asleep, about 1/5 of his sleep time is spent in R.EM sleep. Jonah is most likely to be;
1
13
40
90

I answered D because my teacher specifically told us that adults sleep 8 hours so I thought it couldn't be C, so what would an elderly person's R.E.M. show and how many hours of sleep would they get?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 22, 2017, 11:22:21 am
With specific environmental triggers in relation to specific phobia, does it count as a specific environmental trigger if its vicariously? eg. parent telling you a story. My understanding that its only direct exposure, but i have conflicting sources of info that tell me otherwise :)

Yep, it can be both (direct or indirect exposure)!

Such as:
e.g.) Spiders
- Directly getting bitten by a spider
- Seeing someone else being bitten by a spider and freaking out
- Hearing about it on news/radio
- Seeing it in a movie

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: **** on October 22, 2017, 11:35:42 am
Hi,

I just had a few questions over things I've seen in exams.

For Lazarus and Folkman, I remember reading that even if you had a primary appraisal of threat or harm/loss, you could secondarily appraise that you had adequate coping resources and thus not have a stress response. Is this correct? Yes

Also, for the precipitation of phobia, would you talk about glutamate (LTP and the strengthening of the neural connections relating to the fear response) or adrenaline (role in consolidating emotionally significant events) or possibly both?? Neither. These aren't the precipitating factors that are listed in the study design; stick to them instead.

And for the question; outline two devices that could be used to help determine if an individual is in an ASC. What would you talk about?? Obviously an EEG, but I'm unsure what an EMG or EOG or sleep diary etc would show if a person was in an ASC for the 2nd mark.
I would say depends on the type of ASC, but generally speaking, I would go with EMG. ASC has less self-control --> less able to control muscles --> less muscle tone --> lower electrical reading on EMG

Finally, for the question; Jonah sleeps an average of 7 hours each night. When he is asleep, about 1/5 of his sleep time is spent in R.EM sleep. Jonah is most likely to be;
1
13
40
90

I answered D because my teacher specifically told us that adults sleep 8 hours so I thought it couldn't be C, so what would an elderly person's R.E.M. show and how many hours of sleep would they get?
 Proportion of REM sleep for most of the lifespan is 20 - 25% but it decreases when you reach old age. It also becomes shorter and more fragmented; search up 'elderly hypnograms' if you want a graphical illustration. Hours of sleep is generally 6 ish.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 22, 2017, 12:35:10 pm


Thank you!!!!!!

For the second question, I probably shouldn't have used the word precipitate, as I more meant the NT/NH associated with stress response and LTP in developing a phobia.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Ashjames on October 22, 2017, 12:52:12 pm
Hey Guys,

For biological treatment of phobias, do benzodiazepines MIMIC GABA function or do they INCREASE GABA function?

Does elaborative rehearsal increase LTM and maintenance rehearsal increase STM- is this true?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on October 22, 2017, 01:07:29 pm
Hey Guys,

For biological treatment of phobias, do benzodiazepines MIMIC GABA function or do they INCREASE GABA function? Benzo's mimic GABA function and act on GABA receptors in order to increase the inhibitory effect on GABA, if that made sense aha.

Does elaborative rehearsal increase LTM and maintenance rehearsal increase STM- is this true? Not quite, as LTM has a relatively permanent duration and capacity, and all elaborative rehearsal does it transfer information from STM into LTM. STM has a duration of 18-30 seconds and a capacity of 5-9 items. All maintenance rehearsal does is increase the duration of time the information is in STM.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 22, 2017, 06:31:51 pm
One of the practice exams stated that the duration of short-term memory is 12-30 seconds, however I usually put 18-30 seconds. It's the same for sensory memory, for it's capacity I usually write 0.2-4 seconds (iconic and echoic) but the prac exam had 0.3-4 seconds.

Basically, will VCAA be this strict if these were questions on the upcoming exam? It's pretty unlikely that we'd get a question this simple, but I wanted to make sure just in-case.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 22, 2017, 06:35:58 pm
One of the practice exams stated that the duration of short-term memory is 12-30 seconds, however I usually put 18-30 seconds. It's the same for sensory memory, for it's capacity I usually write 0.2-4 seconds (iconic and echoic) but the prac exam had 0.3-4 seconds.

Basically, will VCAA be this strict if these were questions on the upcoming exam? It's pretty unlikely that we'd get a question this simple, but I wanted to make sure just in-case.
Yes. VCAA are quite strict about having the exact ranges for these durations.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on October 22, 2017, 06:52:12 pm
One of the practice exams stated that the duration of short-term memory is 12-30 seconds, however I usually put 18-30 seconds. It's the same for sensory memory, for it's capacity I usually write 0.2-4 seconds (iconic and echoic) but the prac exam had 0.3-4 seconds.

Basically, will VCAA be this strict if these were questions on the upcoming exam? It's pretty unlikely that we'd get a question this simple, but I wanted to make sure just in-case.
My teacher is a VCAA assessor and has also written several psych textbooks, what he told us was to basically mention the duration of STM is 18-20, sometimes up to 30 seconds, and we'd never go wrong with this.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 22, 2017, 07:51:07 pm
One of the practice exams stated that the duration of short-term memory is 12-30 seconds, however I usually put 18-30 seconds. It's the same for sensory memory, for it's capacity I usually write 0.2-4 seconds (iconic and echoic) but the prac exam had 0.3-4 seconds.

Basically, will VCAA be this strict if these were questions on the upcoming exam? It's pretty unlikely that we'd get a question this simple, but I wanted to make sure just in-case.
I doubt you'd lose marks for stating 0.2-4. However if you quoted some similar figured eg.  0.1, you would not get the mark
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 22, 2017, 09:41:48 pm
Can we write in pencil for the psych exam? I know VCAA tells us to use pen, but will they still mark my exam if I've written in pencil?
Title: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 22, 2017, 09:52:53 pm
Can we write in pencil for the psych exam? I know VCAA tells us to use pen, but will they still mark my exam if I've written in pencil?
They will still mark it, if you did it in pencil.
But I would recommend pen as pencil doesn't scan well. This makes it harder for the assessor to mark your exam and could make you lose marks due to being unable to see your answer.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 23, 2017, 08:06:06 pm
What stage of the GAS is cortisol released?

I've heard it's released in resistance, but am hearing conflicting opinions where it is released in the countershock stage of alarm reaction.

Thoughts??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 23, 2017, 08:09:01 pm
What stage of the GAS is cortisol released?

I've heard it's released in resistance, but am hearing conflicting opinions where it is released in the countershock stage of alarm reaction.

Thoughts??
What stage of the GAS is cortisol released?

I've heard it's released in resistance, but am hearing conflicting opinions where it is released in the countershock stage of alarm reaction.

Thoughts??

In the counter shock stage, adrenaline is released. However as we enter the resistance stage our body needs extra resources and energy to cope with the stressor, which is why cortisol is released in the resistance stage.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 23, 2017, 09:01:47 pm
In the counter shock stage, adrenaline is released. However as we enter the resistance stage our body needs extra resources and energy to cope with the stressor, which is why cortisol is released in the resistance stage.

Yeah, I agree with you aswell, but I've also heard otherwise- that cortisol is also released in small amounts in countershock, but mainly adrenaline (and sympathetic NS- FFF), as it is a short-term response to stress. After, when the body reaches resistance stage, a more long-term way to deal with the stress is achieved through the release of cortisol alone, without adrenaline.

This kinda makes sense because for example in the exam, our heart rate and breathing rate is not increased and were not sweating rapidly for the whole 2 hours and 45 minutes, but to keep us energised and going for a longer amount of time, cortisol is released.

Now I'm getting confused as to what I should be saying?!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on October 23, 2017, 09:42:15 pm
just wanted to ask for clarification on some questions that I got wrong on a practice exam:

can punishment act as a reinforcer (wrong answer: punishment decreases likelihood of avoidance behaviours)

can the response in operant conditioning be both voluntary and involuntary (as opposed to just being voluntary)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 23, 2017, 09:56:09 pm
Yeah, I agree with you aswell, but I've also heard otherwise- that cortisol is also released in small amounts in countershock, but mainly adrenaline (and sympathetic NS- FFF), as it is a short-term response to stress. After, when the body reaches resistance stage, a more long-term way to deal with the stress is achieved through the release of cortisol alone, without adrenaline.

This kinda makes sense because for example in the exam, our heart rate and breathing rate is not increased and were not sweating rapidly for the whole 2 hours and 45 minutes, but to keep us energised and going for a longer amount of time, cortisol is released.

Now I'm getting confused as to what I should be saying?!

Don't be confused, every resources I've used says what I told you previously, I know it does make sense to you that way but even VCAA questions I've attempted say that cortisol is released in the resistance stage.

In relation to your example, when you enter the exam, adrenaline is predominant, however, when you start to chill out, that's cortisol at work. It could be possible that there is a minor amount of cortisol during the counter shock stage, but not mentioned in many resources I've read.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 23, 2017, 10:25:45 pm
Don't be confused, every resources I've used says what I told you previously, I know it does make sense to you that way but even VCAA questions I've attempted say that cortisol is released in the resistance stage.

In relation to your example, when you enter the exam, adrenaline is predominant, however, when you start to chill out, that's cortisol at work. It could be possible that there is a minor amount of cortisol during the counter shock stage, but not mentioned in many resources I've read.


Alright. I'm gonna trust u on this one!! Thanks for the help  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 23, 2017, 10:28:28 pm
Alright. I'm gonna trust u on this one!! Thanks for the help  :)

Pretty sure it's correct, I would say I'm 100% sure it's correct but then my head will get bigger ;). If you're still unsure ask and someone else will answer it for you, but they'll most likely say what I said

Good Luck with your exams!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 23, 2017, 10:32:46 pm
just wanted to ask for clarification on some questions that I got wrong on a practice exam:

can punishment act as a reinforcer (wrong answer: punishment decreases likelihood of avoidance behaviours)


Yes, punishment can inadvertently act as a reinforcer. For example, say you are trying to stop a student from talking in class by telling them off in front of everyone. This seems like you are positively punishing them (provision of a stern warning etc.), however, this could also act as a positive reinforcer by providing attention towards them.

I'm not too sure about the OC question either, so if someone could provide some insight, that would be much appreciated!
Also, I think i recognise these questions from a past exam right?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 23, 2017, 10:43:38 pm
Yeah, I agree with you aswell, but I've also heard otherwise- that cortisol is also released in small amounts in countershock, but mainly adrenaline (and sympathetic NS- FFF), as it is a short-term response to stress. After, when the body reaches resistance stage, a more long-term way to deal with the stress is achieved through the release of cortisol alone, without adrenaline.

This might contradict other answers, but according to the Oxford textbook (pg90), cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline are released in countershock phase, and cortisol continues to be released and circulated around the body in the resistance phase. I'm not sure if you trust wikipedia, but it also says the same thing as this textbook. I've checked a few other sites and they say more or less the same thing too. However, there are also some resources saying cortisol is released in resistance only... soooo idk. I guess just know it is definitely released in resistance phase - that's all you need to know for the most likely questions on cortisol anyways (about how it increases susceptibility to illness)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 24, 2017, 09:35:22 am
This might contradict other answers, but according to the Oxford textbook (pg90), cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline are released in countershock phase, and cortisol continues to be released and circulated around the body in the resistance phase. I'm not sure if you trust wikipedia, but it also says the same thing as this textbook. I've checked a few other sites and they say more or less the same thing too. However, there are also some resources saying cortisol is released in resistance only... soooo idk. I guess just know it is definitely released in resistance phase - that's all you need to know for the most likely questions on cortisol anyways (about how it increases susceptibility to illness)


Yeah exactly! See now I'm just worried that I will say the wrong thing.. I don't know what to do. My textbook (jacaranda) doesn't mention cortisol being released in countershock, but yours does, and I've heard it from others. I'm assuming (hoping) they will give us the mark for saying either opinion, because different resources are saying conflicting things!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 24, 2017, 04:08:56 pm
Yeah exactly! See now I'm just worried that I will say the wrong thing.. I don't know what to do. My textbook (jacaranda) doesn't mention cortisol being released in countershock, but yours does, and I've heard it from others. I'm assuming (hoping) they will give us the mark for saying either opinion, because different resources are saying conflicting things!

Okay, so I do agree with cortisol being released in the in the aftershock stage, but it my only be released in SMALL AMOUNTS. The resistance stage is Predominately CORTISOL and the counter shock stage is PREDOMINANTLY ADRENALINE. There may be other hormones released during the stages, but adrenaline and cortisol are the MAIN hormones released in the counter shock and resistance stage respectively. 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 24, 2017, 04:18:26 pm
Okay, so I do agree with cortisol being released in the in the aftershock stage, but it my only be released in SMALL AMOUNTS. The resistance stage is Predominately CORTISOL and the counter shock stage is PREDOMINANTLY ADRENALINE. There may be other hormones released during the stages, but adrenaline and cortisol are the MAIN hormones released in the counter shock and resistance stage respectively. 

this explanation sounds reasonable to me
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: **** on October 24, 2017, 04:18:38 pm
Yeah exactly! See now I'm just worried that I will say the wrong thing.. I don't know what to do. My textbook (jacaranda) doesn't mention cortisol being released in countershock, but yours does, and I've heard it from others. I'm assuming (hoping) they will give us the mark for saying either opinion, because different resources are saying conflicting things!

VCAA will always mark it as correct if it's in a textbook - words from my teacher who is an examiner.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 24, 2017, 06:06:03 pm
Okay, so I do agree with cortisol being released in the in the aftershock stage, but it my only be released in SMALL AMOUNTS. The resistance stage is Predominately CORTISOL and the counter shock stage is PREDOMINANTLY ADRENALINE. There may be other hormones released during the stages, but adrenaline and cortisol are the MAIN hormones released in the counter shock and resistance stage respectively. 
VCAA will always mark it as correct if it's in a textbook - words from my teacher who is an examiner.

THANKS SO MUCH GUYS!!!  :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on October 25, 2017, 01:22:32 pm
Hey guys!
Are the 3 distinct factors that contibute to the context specific effectiveness of a stress response assumed preknowlege? because it's not in our textbooks and mmy teacher didn't know it, but it popped up in one of the practice exams?
Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 25, 2017, 02:55:07 pm
Hey guys!
Are the 3 distinct factors that contibute to the context specific effectiveness of a stress response assumed preknowlege? because it's not in our textbooks and mmy teacher didn't know it, but it popped up in one of the practice exams?
Thanks

Is that from the ACED exam or Access? I think I remember doing it- I crossed it out, it made no sense!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 25, 2017, 09:45:50 pm
Hey guys!
Are the 3 distinct factors that contibute to the context specific effectiveness of a stress response assumed preknowlege? because it's not in our textbooks and mmy teacher didn't know it, but it popped up in one of the practice exams?
Thanks

I don't think that is relevant. What exam and year is that from?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: rnrn on October 25, 2017, 09:50:54 pm
I don't think that is relevant. What exam and year is that from?

Not Novashock, but it's from Aced's 2017 paper, short answer question 2 c)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on October 26, 2017, 10:47:16 am
Hi guys
What sort of score range would I need to achieve on the exam if I was aiming for a 45+???
Thank you :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 26, 2017, 11:10:57 am
Guys, just wondering, what order do you complete the sections of the exam?

I tend to do it from start to end: MC, short answer then the 10-marker.

What about you guys? and how do you find timing when doing it in your particular order?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 26, 2017, 11:25:20 am
Guys, just wondering, what order do you complete the sections of the exam?

I tend to do it from start to end: MC, short answer then the 10-marker.

What about you guys? and how do you find timing when doing it in your particular order?

I also completed the exam in the way you and finished all the questions with 10 minutes to spare for checking and improving answers.
There is no real cut and dry way of doing it.
Some do the 10-mark question first and for others the short-answer. It is mainly a personal choice, it wouldn't worry too much about what you do.

If you find that you are going overtime, identify the reason for it.
Is it because your don't know the content well?
Are you putting too much information in your answer?
It may not have to do with the order you do it in, but feel free to experiement in your practice exams.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on October 26, 2017, 02:35:31 pm
Hi guys when i have been doing practice exams, especially the sample exam for this year, I keep losing marks for not defining something.
Im not sure when I should or shouldn't include a definition when a question doesn't even ask for one?
A lot of questions allocate one mark just for defining a concept but other times they don't
Any advice for knowing when to include a definition???

thank you
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: LPadlan on October 26, 2017, 06:14:44 pm
Hi guys, i just need some clarification. Depressants clearly put you into ASC but apparently stimulants do put you into ASC as well, so does that mean a stimulant like caffeine would put you into ASC? Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 27, 2017, 10:36:36 am
Hi guys, i just need some clarification. Depressants clearly put you into ASC but apparently stimulants do put you into ASC as well, so does that mean a stimulant like caffeine would put you into ASC? Thanks

Yep, both stimulants and depressants put you into an induced altered state of consciousness.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 27, 2017, 01:00:25 pm
Guys, you know how the recency effect doesn't occur after a delay, is there anything that happens to prevent primacy effect from occurring?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 27, 2017, 03:16:13 pm
Guys, you know how the recency effect doesn't occur after a delay, is there anything that happens to prevent primacy effect from occurring?
No
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 28, 2017, 12:42:04 am
Guys, you know how the recency effect doesn't occur after a delay, is there anything that happens to prevent primacy effect from occurring?

I'm sure there's "some" factor that might affect it, but in terms of our VCE course it's pretty much assumed that there's always going to be a primacy effect, as these words will enter LTM.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 28, 2017, 08:59:48 am
How do you guys structure a classical conditioning and operant conditioning response? Like what keys words etc. do we need to include.

Eg. If it asked, (for operant conditioning), how could Jane stop her daughters behaviour of talking in class?

And for classical conditioning too.


Thanks!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 28, 2017, 09:54:49 am
How do you guys structure a classical conditioning and operant conditioning response? Like what keys words etc. do we need to include.

Eg. If it asked, (for operant conditioning), how could Jane stop her daughters behaviour of talking in class?

And for classical conditioning too.


Thanks!!

OPERANT CONDITIONING
IF it said use the three-phase model of operant conditioning, then you would mention the:
- Antecedent (Being in class)
- Behaviour (Jane talks in class- Jane's mother is notified)
- Consequence (Jane's mother uses response cost- she takes away Jane's phone for 2 weeks (desired stimulus), to decrease the likelihood that she will continue talking in class in the future (undesirable behaviour).

IF it said what made Jane's behaviour of talking in class stop/decrease, you would just mention the consequence of response cost. This would usually be a 2 mark question (1 mark for saying response cost, and the other for explaining how her behaviour of talking in class would be decreased through the removal of a desirable stimulus) ----> you could also use positive punishment.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
IF it said using the language of classical conditioning, then you could mention all the NS,UCS,UCR.... in the form of a sentence/story.

IF it said use the three-phase model/process of classical conditioning, then you would have to integrate the NS, UCS.... into before conditioning, during conditioning (acquisition) and after conditioning.

Before conditioning:
NS---> NR
UCS---> UCR--->

During conditioning (acquisition):
NS+UCS---> UCR (through repeated association)- or could occur just once in phobias

After conditioning:
CS---> CR
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 28, 2017, 10:18:27 am
OPERANT CONDITIONING
IF it said use the three-phase model of operant conditioning, then you would mention the:
- Antecedent (Being in class)
- Behaviour (Jane talks in class- Jane's mother is notified)
- Consequence (Jane's mother uses response cost- she takes away Jane's phone for 2 weeks (desired stimulus), to decrease the likelihood that she will continue talking in class in the future (undesirable behaviour).

IF it said what made Jane's behaviour of talking in class stop/decrease, you would just mention the consequence of response cost. This would usually be a 2 mark question (1 mark for saying response cost, and the other for explaining how her behaviour of talking in class would be decreased through the removal of a desirable stimulus) ----> you could also use positive punishment.

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
IF it said using the language of classical conditioning, then you could mention all the NS,UCS,UCR.... in the form of a sentence/story.

IF it said use the three-phase model/process of classical conditioning, then you would have to integrate the NS, UCS.... into before conditioning, during conditioning (acquisition) and after conditioning.

Before conditioning:
NS---> NR
UCS---> UCR--->

During conditioning (acquisition):
NS+UCS---> UCR (through repeated association)- or could occur just once in phobias

After conditioning:
CS---> CR


Okay thanks!!


Also, would it be okay if we called the consequence 'punishment' instead of 'positive punishment'?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 28, 2017, 11:43:31 am
Okay thanks!!


Also, would it be okay if we called the consequence 'punishment' instead of 'positive punishment'?

It would be safer to specify positive punishment, it's only one word so it shouldn't take more than a second or two.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 28, 2017, 04:57:30 pm
Hey just a quick question!

Do we need to know the Sympathetic Adreno Medullay System or the HPA axis??

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 28, 2017, 05:46:20 pm
Hey just a quick question!

Do we need to know the Sympathetic Adreno Medullay System or the HPA axis??

Thanks
I don't know the first thing you listed, but to be safe I think you should know the role of the HPA axis with reference to cortisol
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 28, 2017, 07:57:58 pm
How's everyone feeling about the psych exam coming up?

I feel quite stressed, especially about the 10-marker because I don't really know if the online samples (eg. from epsych) are reliable...
I have been writing under subheadings and I don't even know if that's allowed...

Do you guys write under subheadings?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 28, 2017, 08:23:06 pm
How's everyone feeling about the psych exam coming up?

I feel quite stressed, especially about the 10-marker because I don't really know if the online samples (eg. from epsych) are reliable...
I have been writing under subheadings and I don't even know if that's allowed...

Do you guys write under subheadings?

Out of all the subjects I've had this year, I'm most comfortable with and confident about psych, so I'm not feeling too stressed out atm. Please don't stress too much - it is going to be to your detriment to do so in these last few days, and trust me, you know so much you'll be absolutely fine.
Remember, everyone is in the same position with the 10 marker - we all don't know what to expect besides a rough idea from the sample exam and possibly company papers. The best you can do is go in and write as much relevant stuff as you can for the question. Writing under subheadings is fine - I know some people's teachers recommended it. I personally don't do it (but I should).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 28, 2017, 10:53:20 pm
Quick question,

If the exam asks us to identify the response that is activated by the sympathetic NS, do we say ' fight=flight' of 'fight-flight-freeze' ?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 28, 2017, 10:55:56 pm
Something that gets me is Observational Learning VS Social Learning Theory. Are these the same thing or are they describing two different theories?? On last years VCAA exam it asked for a similaritiy and difference between Operant conditioning and the Social Learning Theory, and then said that one of the answers was that the social learning theory comprised of five stages, attention, retention, reproduction, motivation and reinforcement whilst operant conditioning had three phases.. but isnt this observational learning???

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 28, 2017, 11:00:34 pm
Something that gets me is Observational Learning VS Social Learning Theory. Are these the same thing or are they describing two different theories?? On last years VCAA exam it asked for a similaritiy and difference between Operant conditioning and the Social Learning Theory, and then said that one of the answers was that the social learning theory comprised of five stages, attention, retention, reproduction, motivation and reinforcement whilst operant conditioning had three phases.. but isnt this observational learning???

Thanks :)

same theory. Different name. Don't get confused.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 28, 2017, 11:41:49 pm
Quick question,

If the exam asks us to identify the response that is activated by the sympathetic NS, do we say ' fight=flight' of 'fight-flight-freeze' ?



You would say fight-flight-freeze as that is what it's called in the study design:
if you are wondering this because of the 'freeze' response not being activated the parasympathetic nervous system (not the sympathetic ns), you would still add it in as the fight and flight are more dominant in the name"fight-flight-freeze" and it therefore all comes under the sympathetic ns (if that makes sense)

I'm sorry that wasn't the best explanation, let me know if you want me to explain it better!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 29, 2017, 12:19:28 am
You would say fight-flight-freeze as that is what it's called in the study design:
if you are wondering this because of the 'freeze' response not being activated the parasympathetic nervous system (not the sympathetic ns), you would still add it in as the fight and flight are more dominant in the name"fight-flight-freeze" and it therefore all comes under the sympathetic ns (if that makes sense)

I'm sorry that wasn't the best explanation, let me know if you want me to explain it better!
I'm still a bit confused because isn't the Freeze response governed by the parasympathetic NS?

Like if the scenario said the response is activated by the sympathetic NS, wouldn't you say just the fight-flight response [since the freeze response is by the parasympathetic?]
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 29, 2017, 08:10:06 am
I'm still a bit confused because isn't the Freeze response governed by the parasympathetic NS?

Like if the scenario said the response is activated by the sympathetic NS, wouldn't you say just the fight-flight response [since the freeze response is by the parasympathetic?]

Say fight-flight-freeze, the sympathetic NS is also involved in the freeze response
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 29, 2017, 10:27:50 am
Say fight-flight-freeze, the sympathetic NS is also involved in the freeze response

Yep^
The freeze response kinda involves both- I'm assuming they'll stay away from any questions about this because its very unclear and everyone has different opinions
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 29, 2017, 12:07:04 pm
Hi guys,
For conscious and unconscious responses (i.e. spinal reflex), what nervous systems are used?

I know that for conscious responses, the somatic NS detects the sensory, send it to the brain (via spinal cord) where it is processed and the motor message is initiated to enact voluntary skeletal muscle movement via the somatic nervous system.
I also know that we have responses such as pupil dilation is all controlled by the autonomic NS. However, I'm a bit confused on what nervous systems are used for a spinal reflex, e.g. flinching from a hot pan

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 29, 2017, 01:18:41 pm
Hi guys,
For conscious and unconscious responses (i.e. spinal reflex), what nervous systems are used?

I know that for conscious responses, the somatic NS detects the sensory, send it to the brain (via spinal cord) where it is processed and the motor message is initiated to enact voluntary skeletal muscle movement via the somatic nervous system.
I also know that we have responses such as pupil dilation is all controlled by the autonomic NS. However, I'm a bit confused on what nervous systems are used for a spinal reflex, e.g. flinching from a hot pan

Thanks

This is also controlled by the somatic NS. Although the spinal reflex is involuntary, it still occurs through the somatic NS, because it involves the use of the skeletal muscles of the body.

We can eliminate the autonomic NS being an option, as this regulates the functioning of visceral muscles (non-skeletal), organs and glands, and it does not control skeletal muscles such as arm muscles (this is the somatic NS's role).

It also does involve the CNS due to it being a SPINAL reflex (as the spinal cord is in the CNS).

Hope this is a thorough enough explanation!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: forbiddensoulxx on October 29, 2017, 02:42:14 pm
Hey guys, I know what the reconstructive nature of memory is, but am just wondering if anyone can give me a good way of expressing it if a question asked for it,
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 29, 2017, 02:50:08 pm
Hey guys, I know what the reconstructive nature of memory is, but am just wondering if anyone can give me a good way of expressing it if a question asked for it,

A memory is never consolidated and transferred into LTM in it's exact form, it is instead encoded so that it can neurologically placed into LTM. As a result the contents of a memory is combined with other stored memories to form what is believed to be a more accurate or coherent memory. What other information it is stored with is based on an individuals personal beliefs, personalties, experiences etc. When the memory is retrieved, it may be retrieved with other pieces of information that didn't actually happen, but have now been incorporated into the memory. 

In the same way, by retrieving a memory each time, new pieces of information can be added to a memory that did not actually happen (like what happens with leading questions)

Basically if it comes up in a question I think it's important to mention the fact that memories are encoded and not stored in their exact replica form, so they are combined with other pieces of information to make a more coherent and accurate memory, which can therefore distort the memory

AND

by retrieving the memory, it is subject to further reconstruction as new pieces of information may be added to the memory.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 29, 2017, 07:54:13 pm
Okay these 2 questions have been buzzing in my mind and I need them answered:

Do benzodiazepines INCREASE or IMITATE GAB function???

What branch of the autonomic NS governs the Freeze response?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 29, 2017, 08:24:55 pm
Okay these 2 questions have been buzzing in my mind and I need them answered:

Do benzodiazepines INCREASE or IMITATE GAB function???

Benzodiazepines mimic the role of GABA (they are GABA agonists), and make the GABA receptors on the post synaptic neuron more responsive to GABA, in order to calm anxiety.

What branch of the autonomic NS governs the Freeze response?

The parasympathetic nervous system dominates over the sympathetic nervous system (heart rate decreases and blood pressure drops) 
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 29, 2017, 08:29:15 pm
Some questions:

1. Do we have know what the decisional balance is in the transtheoretical model of change?

2. What are the advantages and limitations of video monitoring and also sleep diaries in sleep labs?

3. What's a good example of a speed and accuracy cognition test to measure consciousness?

4. Can someone please just sum up reliability and validity- I cannot seem to understand it (also, how can I tell if an experiment is both reliable and valid?)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: zofromuxo on October 29, 2017, 08:43:10 pm
2. What are the advantages and limitations of video monitoring and also sleep diaries in sleep
Video Monitoring
 Advantage
-People can sleep in their natural environment
 Disadvantage  
-Interpretation can be subjective and don't tell us what internally is happening to the person

Sleep Dairies
 Advantage
-Tell us the internal components such as the thoughts of the participants

 Disadvantage
-The description may not be accurate and truthful
-Key information may be left out
-Can the description be interpreted?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 29, 2017, 08:56:10 pm


Thanks!!
What would an advantage of video monitoring be if it was used in a sleep lab?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: halo on October 29, 2017, 10:12:26 pm
Some questions:
3. What's a good example of a speed and accuracy cognition test to measure consciousness?
4. Can someone please just sum up reliability and validity- I cannot seem to understand it (also, how can I tell if an experiment is both reliable and valid?)
3. I'm not sure if this is what you're looking for, but you could measure response time to obstacles in a driving simulator (it's really specific but we did a prac on this at school so thats why I remember it). The speed aspect of it would be how quickly you react to the obstacle, and the accuracy would be if you react to the obstacle at all
4. reliability refers to whether the results of an experiment are dependable and can be repeated if the experiment was done again. Validity is if the procedure for the experiment measures what it is supposed to measure

For example, if you wanted to see if body temp dropped before you fell asleep but your thermometer wasn't working properly and you got an inaccurate reading, then your results wouldn't be valid, because your results don't actually indicate the real temperature. However, if you still got the same results every time you measured the temperature, your results would be reliable
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on October 29, 2017, 10:24:28 pm
1. Do we have know what the decisional balance is in the transtheoretical model of change?

Might be good to know if you are asked a question on the stages in the transtheoretical model, maybe? The decisional balance is just where individuals in the contemplation stage weigh up the pros and cons in changing their behaviour, and think about the possibility of changing their behaviour.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 29, 2017, 10:34:38 pm
Does the Cerebral Cortext only store long-term explicit memories? It doesn't have any involvement in Implicit memories right?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on October 30, 2017, 12:39:28 am
Does the Cerebral Cortext only store long-term explicit memories? It doesn't have any involvement in Implicit memories right?


Yes, the cerebral cortex only stores explicit memories. The cerebellum is involved in the encoding and storage of implicit procedural memories.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 30, 2017, 09:11:55 am
Yes, the cerebral cortex only stores explicit memories. The cerebellum is involved in the encoding and storage of implicit procedural memories.

Actually I learned that the cerebral cortex stores well-learned implicit memories and that the cerebellum only encodes and temporarily stores implicit memories? Not sure which is right.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 30, 2017, 09:18:53 am
Actually I learned that the cerebral cortex stores well-learned implicit memories and that the cerebellum only encodes and temporarily stores implicit memories? Not sure which is right.

I learned this as well; that the cerebellum initially forms and temporarily stores procedural memories, and is then transferred to the cerebral cortex for long term storage. Cerebellum also forms and stores simple reflexes acquired through classical conditioning.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: peter.g15 on October 30, 2017, 09:31:31 am
Hi guys,
With Little Albert and the ethical considerations that would have been breached/upheld, multiple exams are giving conflicting answers on which ones were breached, for example, some say that there was informed consent, but others say that there was not.

What would be the safest answers to go with apart from the 'no psychological harm to participants' and the lack of debriefing to extinguish his fear response?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 30, 2017, 10:22:24 am
Guys, for the role of the stress response in contributing the development of a specific phobia, does that refer to the stress response being triggered for an irrational fear? so the response is extreme? but how does this contribute to the development?

Same for long term potentiation in the development of a specific phobia? Does this refer to constantly thinking about the fear? because wouldn't exposure to the fear help them to overcome it?
I'm just trying here but not completely sure how these link to specific phobia.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 30, 2017, 11:21:43 am
Hi guys,
With Little Albert and the ethical considerations that would have been breached/upheld, multiple exams are giving conflicting answers on which ones were breached, for example, some say that there was informed consent, but others say that there was not.

What would be the safest answers to go with apart from the 'no psychological harm to participants' and the lack of debriefing to extinguish his fear response?

I would say confidentially as his pictures, and the results of the study, were released to the general public without his mother's consent.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 30, 2017, 11:24:43 am
Hi guys,
With Little Albert and the ethical considerations that would have been breached/upheld, multiple exams are giving conflicting answers on which ones were breached, for example, some say that there was informed consent, but others say that there was not.

What would be the safest answers to go with apart from the 'no psychological harm to participants' and the lack of debriefing to extinguish his fear response?


I would also say withdrawal rights, as even after Little Albert showed severe distress, Watson made no effort to end the experiment. Also, little Albert attempted to crawl away many times but they just pulled him back in.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: nm2xo on October 30, 2017, 11:37:27 am
Can someone please explain the role of the amygdala and the cerebellum in the role of classically conditioned memory?
Is the amygdala for the memory of it, and the cerebellum for the reflex? I'm so confused! Thanks :D
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 30, 2017, 11:56:38 am
Can someone please explain the role of the amygdala and the cerebellum in the role of classically conditioned memory?
Is the amygdala for the memory of it, and the cerebellum for the reflex? I'm so confused! Thanks :D
The amygdala is responsible for emotional (esp fear) classically conditioned reflexes
The cerebellum is responsible for simple motor classically conditioned reflexes
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 30, 2017, 12:22:13 pm
Guys, for the role of the stress response in contributing the development of a specific phobia, does that refer to the stress response being triggered for an irrational fear? so the response is extreme? but how does this contribute to the development?

Same for long term potentiation in the development of a specific phobia? Does this refer to constantly thinking about the fear? because wouldn't exposure to the fear help them to overcome it?
I'm just trying here but not completely sure how these link to specific phobia.

Yes, could someone explain this as I don't know how to talk about LTP and the stress response for phobia??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 30, 2017, 12:42:51 pm
Yes, could someone explain this as I don't know how to talk about LTP and the stress response for phobia??

LTP:
-'fire together wire together'
-Repeated activation of neural pathways increases the synaptic strength of connections within it, making this pathway easier to activate in the future
LTP w/ fear response
-"fear pathways" (dont use this term in exam, this is just to explain) are activated, increasing synaptic strength in pathways connecting the stimulus to fearful feelings, behaviours and thoughts, and increases synaptic strength within pathways responsible for fear, anxiety etc aswell
-This increases the likelihood of activation of these pathways in the future
-Basically it becomes a viscous cycle
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: syubi on October 30, 2017, 01:11:46 pm
I learned this as well; that the cerebellum initially forms and temporarily stores procedural memories, and is then transferred to the cerebral cortex for long term storage. Cerebellum also forms and stores simple reflexes acquired through classical conditioning.

Ooh, I'm not too sure then!! I might check with my teacher on that one.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 30, 2017, 03:08:14 pm
LTP:
-'fire together wire together'
-Repeated activation of neural pathways increases the synaptic strength of connections within it, making this pathway easier to activate in the future
LTP w/ fear response
-"fear pathways" (dont use this term in exam, this is just to explain) are activated, increasing synaptic strength in pathways connecting the stimulus to fearful feelings, behaviours and thoughts, and increases synaptic strength within pathways responsible for fear, anxiety etc aswell
-This increases the likelihood of activation of these pathways in the future
-Basically it becomes a viscous cycle

Makes sense but is the stimulation of the neural pathway responsible for fear due to them constantly thinking about it or actual exposure to the stimulus. Because wouldn't exposure to the stimulus help them to overcome it through desensitization?

Also, what about the stress response?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 30, 2017, 04:08:14 pm
Makes sense but is the stimulation of the neural pathway responsible for fear due to them constantly thinking about it or actual exposure to the stimulus. Because wouldn't exposure to the stimulus help them to overcome it through desensitization?

Also, what about the stress response?

When someone with phobia is exposed to the stimulus, they may engage in catastrophic thinking, experience the FFF response etc and rather than becoming desensitised the phobia can be reinforced.
Rumination (dwelling on it without deciding on a solution) works hand-in-hand with LTP

Experiencing the stress response may involve hyperventilation, which can then increase the person's panic and potentially induce a panic attack. The stress response is maladaptive in specific phobia as the adrenaline, pounding heart etc. won't actually help the person - normal functioning is being suspended for no good reason. The person may then associate the phobic stimulus with FFF through classical conditioning, leading to it always being activated in the presence of the stimulus.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 30, 2017, 04:09:19 pm
Makes sense but is the stimulation of the neural pathway responsible for fear due to them constantly thinking about it or actual exposure to the stimulus. Because wouldn't exposure to the stimulus help them to overcome it through desensitization?


Bascially, LTP is a PERPETUATING risk factor for a phobia, meaning that it maintains the onset of the specific phobia. It neurologically strengthens the associatoin between a phobic stimulus and a fear or anxiety response through its activity at the syapse. The more times a phobic stimulus is encountered, the more the fear response will be strengthened through long term potentiaion.

This usually results when a person encounters the specific situation in which they have a phobia, and it is not likely that they will overcome the phobia by themselves. For example a person who is scared of flying in planes will still most likely be scared whenever they take a flight, regardless if they have flown a lot in the past. The association is so strong between their phobia of planes and experieicing anxiety that synaptic transmission responsible for these neural pathway will be very efficient.

I hope this helped a little. It is a difficult concept to grasp initially.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on October 30, 2017, 04:18:22 pm
if we're asked about why a child recovers from brain damage faster than an adult do we talk about developmental and adaptive plasticity as in past years? or just that children have higher levels of neural plasticity and this reduces throughout the lifespan??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 30, 2017, 04:26:45 pm
if we're asked about why a child recovers from brain damage faster than an adult do we talk about developmental and adaptive plasticity as in past years? or just that children have higher levels of neural plasticity and this reduces throughout the lifespan??

As far as I'm aware, this is not a part of the current study design, and is therefore not examinable. However, to answer your question I'm pretty sure you would emphasise the role of adaptive plasticity in a child.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on October 30, 2017, 04:30:58 pm
does synaptic pruning occur during LTD or is that only in developmental plasticity? what changes occur to the synapse during LTD?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 30, 2017, 04:34:40 pm
does synaptic pruning occur during LTD or is that only in developmental plasticity? what changes occur to the synapse during LTD?

I've just re-checked the study design and both ADAPTIVE and DEVELOPMENTAL plasiticty are not listed in either Unit 3 or 4. I've listed the dot-points below from this area.

Neural basis of learning and memory
• neural plasticity and changes to connections between neurons (including long-term potentiation and long-term
depression) as the fundamental mechanisms of memory formation that leads to learning
• the role of neurotransmitters and neurohormones in the neural basis of memory and learning (including the role of
glutamate in synaptic plasticity and the role of adrenaline in the consolidation of emotionally arousing experiences).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 30, 2017, 05:04:28 pm
Hey guys,

What are some examples of speed and accuracy's task that measure an individuals state of consciousness apart from driving simulators.

Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 30, 2017, 05:10:24 pm
does synaptic pruning occur during LTD or is that only in developmental plasticity? what changes occur to the synapse during LTD?

For LTD just think the opposite of LTP. The neural connections weaken due to:
-less neurotransmitters being released
-less receptors
-less uptake channels
-pruning

Hey guys,

What are some examples of speed and accuracy's task that measure an individuals state of consciousness apart from driving simulators.

Thanks!
-digit-symbol substitution
-pattern identification
-tracking a moving object with a mouse
-simple arithmetic tasks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on October 30, 2017, 05:49:32 pm
do we need to know about how old age affects memory
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 30, 2017, 05:52:23 pm
do we need to know about how old age affects memory
no
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on October 30, 2017, 06:00:31 pm
i think i was told to assume that if a q says 'reinforcement' to assume it means positive reinforcement and 'punishment' as positive punishment. SO if we are asked the difference between 'reinforcement and negative punishment' for example, do we describe the difference between positive reinforcement and negative punishment, or the difference between positive/negative reinforcement and negative punishment?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on October 30, 2017, 06:21:44 pm
do we need to know how to manage stress in terms of biopsychosocial framework (besides from exercise and maybe social support)?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on October 30, 2017, 06:41:25 pm
do we need to know how to manage stress in terms of biopsychosocial framework (besides from exercise and maybe social support)?
I don't believe you do need to know it under a biospsychosocial framework because the different coping strategies (context-specific effectiveness, coping flexibility, exercise and approach and avoidance coping strategies)are not definite under a certain category.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on October 30, 2017, 07:00:27 pm
question from 2016 exam:
Zahra is a first-time mother. When her baby boy was eight weeks old, Zahra’s mother, who lives overseas,
came to stay for six weeks to help care for her new grandson and to help Zahra adjust to her new role as
a parent. Zahra also started attending a group for new parents, run by a maternal and child health nurse
through her local council, where she meets once a week with a group of five other first-time parents.
Explain how one source of social support identified in the scenario could help alleviate Zahra’s stress
response associated with caring for a newborn.


I identified a source of social support - attending group for new parents and said that this would allow her to learn new info about caring for her baby and that it was an approach coping strategy. In the answer for a mark you had to say how this causes stress to reduce through changing appraisals of coping
I did not explicitly say that she would change her appraisal of coping but is saying that she used an approach coping strategy to deal with the stress sufficient for the marks?

thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 30, 2017, 09:03:53 pm
question from 2016 exam:
Zahra is a first-time mother. When her baby boy was eight weeks old, Zahra’s mother, who lives overseas,
came to stay for six weeks to help care for her new grandson and to help Zahra adjust to her new role as
a parent. Zahra also started attending a group for new parents, run by a maternal and child health nurse
through her local council, where she meets once a week with a group of five other first-time parents.
Explain how one source of social support identified in the scenario could help alleviate Zahra’s stress
response associated with caring for a newborn.


I identified a source of social support - attending group for new parents and said that this would allow her to learn new info about caring for her baby and that it was an approach coping strategy. In the answer for a mark you had to say how this causes stress to reduce through changing appraisals of coping
I did not explicitly say that she would change her appraisal of coping but is saying that she used an approach coping strategy to deal with the stress sufficient for the marks?

thanks
I think that you wouldn't get full marks, because you didn't explain how it would alleviate her stress, and that's what the question is asking for
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 30, 2017, 09:17:07 pm
What is a good definition for the evolutionary theory of sleep?

And what are 2 (good, easy to understand) pieces of evidence?

Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on October 30, 2017, 09:37:00 pm
I think that you wouldn't get full marks, because you didn't explain how it would alleviate her stress, and that's what the question is asking for

What would you suggest writing to say how it would alleviate her stress?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 30, 2017, 09:40:53 pm
What is a good definition for the evolutionary theory of sleep?

And what are 2 (good, easy to understand) pieces of evidence?

Thanks!

The evolutionary theory of sleep proposes that sleep evolved to enhance survival by protecting an organism by making it inactive during the part of the day where they are most at threat.

Evidence that supports this theory includes:

Smaller animals with a large number of predators tend to sleep longer than larger animals with a small amount of predators.
Humans sleep at night as we are not well equipped to see in the dark, making us more vulnerable to harm.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 30, 2017, 09:51:05 pm
What is a good definition for the evolutionary theory of sleep?

And what are 2 (good, easy to understand) pieces of evidence?

Thanks!

can someone answer this for restorative purpose of sleep too please
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 30, 2017, 10:00:35 pm
can someone answer this for restorative purpose of sleep too please

Restorative theory of sleep proposes that sleep allows our body's physical and mental resources to be replenished from activities that occur throughout normal-waking-consciousness.

Evidence:
Marathon runners spend more time asleep (stage 3/4 NREM) the night after conducting a marathon, in order to replenish their body's physical resouces.

I can't think of a second point of evidence for this theory.... maybe someone else can write one down :))
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 30, 2017, 10:10:32 pm
What would you suggest writing to say how it would alleviate her stress?
I think you could approach this in a few different ways such as:
-having access to additional resources from this group resulting in reappraisal

- or tack on a "thereby reducing the signifance of the stressor and therefore the threat it poses" line

can someone answer this for restorative purpose of sleep too please

Proposes that the purpose of sleep is to facillitate growth and repair.

-REM is for psychological
-NREM is for physiological

Evidence for this includes
-marathon runners tend to sleep longer after a competition
-newborns spending a lot of time in REM (lots of mental growth as a newborn)
-feeling refreshed after waking up in the morning
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 30, 2017, 10:15:27 pm
Evidence for this includes
-marathon runners tend to sleep longer after a competition
-newborns spending a lot of time in REM (lots of mental growth as a newborn)
-feeling refreshed after waking up in the morning


Could another possible piece of evidence be that we experience REM rebound following a period of sleep/REM deprivation?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 30, 2017, 10:19:36 pm
Could someone describe what the decisional balance is in terms of the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change? It's not even discussed in my textbook. Do we need to explain it in terms of each of the 5 stages?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 30, 2017, 10:24:06 pm
Could someone describe what the decisional balance is in terms of the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change? It's not even discussed in my textbook. Do we need to explain it in terms of each of the 5 stages?

I found some notes on it. It's pretty much just that if the pros in favour of behaviour change outweigh the cons for change, then a person may be more likely to make a change in their behaviour. If the cons of changing outweighs the pros of changing, then no behaviour change will be initiated.

We don't need to know this for VCE purposes, from what I've heard this is at uni level :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: K888 on October 31, 2017, 01:12:40 am
Could someone describe what the decisional balance is in terms of the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change? It's not even discussed in my textbook. Do we need to explain it in terms of each of the 5 stages?
Didn't do psych, so will trust jrose006 that this is out of the VCE scope. :)

If you're curious about it, I've studied it at uni, and will expand on it a bit - basically decisional balance is essentially just the pros and cons of the behaviour change, as jrose006 touched on. And this shifts as you move along the stages - in pre-contemplation, the cons outweight the pros. In contemplation, the pros and cons generally carry a pretty equal weighting. However, in the preparation and action stages, the pros outweigh the cons (I think the fact that the pros outweigh the cons is what makes people move into these stages). And as you move into the maintenance stage - the pros of maintaining the change generally should outweigh the cons (to avoid relapse).

Wikipedia has a pretty good explanation of how it all fits in and lays it out pretty nicely. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 31, 2017, 08:34:54 am
Guys, I'm really confused about this question that my teacher gave:

A number of devices are often used to monitor sleep patterns in sleep clinics.
Name one of these devices, list what it measures and clearly explain how its recordings can distinguish between REM and NREM sleep.

Then she wrote a note saying: The EMG would not be an appropriate instrument because - these answers demonstrate a key point that these devices detect, amplify and record electrical activity, not movement.

Um? I thought that EMG measured the electrical activity of the muscles in the body???
So confused...


I don't trust my teacher anyway. So I'll ask you guys, the EMG can be used right? because it literally has 'electro' in the name.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 31, 2017, 09:06:08 am
Guys, I'm really confused about this question that my teacher gave:

A number of devices are often used to monitor sleep patterns in sleep clinics.
Name one of these devices, list what it measures and clearly explain how its recordings can distinguish between REM and NREM sleep.

Then she wrote a note saying: The EMG would not be an appropriate instrument because - these answers demonstrate a key point that these devices detect, amplify and record electrical activity, not movement.

Um? I thought that EMG measured the electrical activity of the muscles in the body???
So confused...


I don't trust my teacher anyway. So I'll ask you guys, the EMG can be used right? because it literally has 'electro' in the name.

Yeh you're right, it does. The electrical activity comes from movement- the higher the electrical activity, the more movement there is in the muscles of the body.
I'm not really sure what your teacher is trying to say?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 31, 2017, 09:43:23 am
how would you define/describe sleep/wake shifts in adolescents, shift work and jet lag?

Also, what do we need to know about sleepwalking and sleep onset insomnia?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on October 31, 2017, 10:05:15 am
how would you define/describe sleep/wake shifts in adolescents, shift work and jet lag?

Also, what do we need to know about sleepwalking and sleep onset insomnia?

First question:
well firstly they are circadian rhythm phase disorders.
Sleep: is a reversible behavioral state of perceptual disengagement from and unresponsiveness to the environment.

Sleep-wake cycle shift in adolescents: is the change in the timing of the major sleep episode. Also referred to as the delayed sleep phase disorder because the entire sleep-wake cycle is delayed by 1-2 hours resulting in teenagers going to sleep later and waking up later (due to delayed release of melatonin).
Shift-work: main thing you need to know is that a fixed schedule for workers is better than a rotating schedule so that they are not constantly resetting the circadian sleep-wake cycle.
Jet lag: is a sleep disorder due to a disturbance in the circadian sleep-wake cycle caused by rapid travel across multiple time zones. Also flying west is best due to phase-delay where the day is lengthened in the country you are arriving in allowing you to better adjust yourself to the new sleep-wake cycle (as compared to phase-advance where the day is shortened).

2nd question:
Sleep walking (parasomnia):  involves getting up from bed and walking about or performing other behaviors while asleep.
Sleep-onset insomnia(dyssomnia): involves persistent difficult falling asleep at the usual sleep time.


Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 31, 2017, 10:49:46 am
Thanks!!
One more quick question,
0.05 BAC is the same as 17 hours of sleep deprivation
0.1 BAC same as 24 hours sleep deprivation.

Is that right?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on October 31, 2017, 10:51:11 am
Thanks!!
One more quick question,
0.05 BAC is the same as 17 hours of sleep deprivation
0.1 BAC same as 24 hours sleep deprivation.

Is that right?

Yep.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on October 31, 2017, 11:03:10 am
For the sources of stress (daily pressures, life events etc) do you think we would be required to know precise definitions to explain them or if we have an understanding of what they are would that be sufficient?
for instance in a question that mentioned major stressors would i be required to state that they are 'an event that is extraordinarily stressful or disturbing for everyone who experiences it' or are there other ways of achieving the marks?

thank you
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on October 31, 2017, 11:14:31 am
another question sorry in the GAS in resistance, the parasympathetic nervous system is predominant
I understand the sympathetic response doesn't last long but I dont really get why the parasympathetic is predominant if the stressor is still present

also an old vcaa exam required an explanation of the role of the sympathetic NS in the exhasution stage and it said as the stressor is still present the sympathetic NS would be activated
SO does this mean that the sympathetic NS is still mildly activated throughout the whole GAS? But I dont understand how this would work if only one division of the ANS can be dominant at one time?

thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on October 31, 2017, 01:20:53 pm
Hello,
Are we required to know about polysynaptic and monosynaptic reflexes?
Thank you
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on October 31, 2017, 01:45:42 pm
Are we required to know about polysynaptic and monosynaptic reflexes?
Well, considering I've never heard of till now, I'm gonna say no.

Also guys, can someone give me like a concrete definition for each stage of observational learning with an example, I keep screwing that up.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on October 31, 2017, 01:51:57 pm
Attention - the learner must be paying attention to the observed behaviour and must be actively watching
retention - learner makes a mental representation of what they have observed and retains this
reproduction - observer must be physically and intellectually capable of converting mental representation into action
motivation - observer must have motivation to perform the behaviour
(note - must say perform not learn)
Reinforcement - a behaviour is more likely to be performed again when is reinforced

things in bold - must say to get the mark according to vcaa
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on October 31, 2017, 02:14:09 pm
Attention - the learner must be paying attention to the observed behaviour and must be actively watching
retention - learner makes a mental representation of what they have observed and retains this
reproduction - observer must be physically and intellectually capable of converting mental representation into action
motivation - observer must have motivation to perform the behaviour
(note - must say perform not learn)
Reinforcement - a behaviour is more likely to be performed again when is reinforced

things in bold - must say to get the mark according to vcaa

I was aware of mental representation, but not he other 2! Thanks soooooo much for this, you're a legend!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Frantic Zealot on October 31, 2017, 03:00:36 pm
Hey!

I just completed a practice exam and there was a reoccurring supposed error that I made around the same based question in both the multi-choice and short answer.

Do people who use serial recall immediately after the words were read out have only the primacy effect? I thought it was both recency and primacy effect. There was the word "slowly" used but I didn't think that would've effected the recency effect.

Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on October 31, 2017, 03:12:55 pm
Hey!

I just completed a practice exam and there was a reoccurring supposed error that I made around the same based question in both the multi-choice and short answer.

Do people who use serial recall immediately after the words were read out have only the primacy effect? I thought it was both recency and primacy effect. There was the word "slowly" used but I didn't think that would've effected the recency effect.

Thanks!

The serial position effect shows that free recall is better for items at the beginning and end of the list, however with serial recall, because it involves reproducing the information in the exact order it was read out, we tend to recall only the items at the beginning of the list (primacy effect) because the capacity of the STM is exceeded once we progress through the list. Therefore, due to constant rehearsal of items at the beginning of the list and the displacement of items in STM as we progress through the list, only the primacy effect is present.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 31, 2017, 03:35:03 pm
How can the behaviour/response be involuntary in operant conditioning?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on October 31, 2017, 03:35:32 pm
Have inferential statistics been taken off the course?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Novashock on October 31, 2017, 03:59:40 pm
How can the behaviour/response be involuntary in operant conditioning?

pretty sure they can't, involuntary learning is only in classical conditioning right?

Attention - the learner must be paying attention to the observed behaviour and must be actively watching
retention - learner makes a mental representation of what they have observed and retains this
reproduction - observer must be physically and intellectually capable of converting mental representation into action
motivation - observer must have motivation to perform the behaviour
(note - must say perform not learn)
Reinforcement - a behaviour is more likely to be performed again when is reinforced

THANK YOU OMG
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 31, 2017, 04:01:42 pm
Have inferential statistics been taken off the course?
Yes, you do NOT need to know p-values
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 31, 2017, 04:25:52 pm
pretty sure they can't, involuntary learning is only in classical conditioning right?


Yeah, that's what I thought too but recently I've come across some questions about comparing the nature of the responses in OC and CC, and the answers have said (this is from a few different companies) that the response in OC can be both voluntary and involuntary!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on October 31, 2017, 05:05:36 pm
How can the behaviour/response be involuntary in operant conditioning?


There can be some aspects that are involuntary, but it's mainly voluntary. My textbook doesn't expand much further on that.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 31, 2017, 06:14:38 pm
hold on, quick question, for observational learning in the 'attention stage', should they be actively watching the behaviour only or the behaviour AND the consequence??

and should reference to behaviour AND consequence be carried through when describing other stages too??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 31, 2017, 06:42:46 pm
hold on, quick question, for observational learning in the 'attention stage', should they be actively watching the behaviour only or the behaviour AND the consequence??

and should reference to behaviour AND consequence be carried through when describing other stages too??

I think these type of questions would refer mainly towards a certain type of action or behaviour an individual is trying to learn, and therefore as a result it would only be necessary to mention the relevant behaviour.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 31, 2017, 07:56:03 pm
Does anyone wanna chat about Question 8d on the VCAA 2017 trial paper?
I really don't know what they want for 2 marks as I have so much to say!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on October 31, 2017, 08:01:21 pm
Hey guys, can someone please explain to me how standard deviation works and how if the standard deviation is lower the results are more accurate?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 31, 2017, 08:03:51 pm


Is that the one about reliability and validity? Wouldn't you just define each and apply?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on October 31, 2017, 08:05:04 pm

Yeah, could someone also explain this please, because originally I thought that the study lacked in validity because the participants may have experienced performance impairment due to the experimental design of the study (repeated measures), especially on day 2 and 3. However the answers say to not only define it but state that the results are valid.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 31, 2017, 08:05:29 pm
Does anyone know how to explain the reason for depression in Parkinson's sufferers?

Also, what is meant by a evidence-based intervention?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on October 31, 2017, 08:10:26 pm
Does anyone know how to explain the reason for depression in Parkinson's sufferers?

Also, what is meant by a evidence-based intervention?
As far as I know, the reason for the depression in Parkinson's disease is due to the lack of the neurotransmitter GABA.
Evidence-based interventions are just treatments that have been found effective on the basis reliable research evidence/studies
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: pha0015 on October 31, 2017, 08:12:58 pm
I think these type of questions would refer mainly towards a certain type of action or behaviour an individual is trying to learn, and therefore as a result it would only be necessary to mention the relevant behaviour.

attention needs to be paid to both the behaviour displayed by the model and its consequences, although as specified by bandura, learning can take place even if the learner didn't view the consequences
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 31, 2017, 08:15:21 pm
Yeah, could someone also explain this please, because originally I thought that the study lacked in validity because the participants may have experienced performance impairment due to the experimental design of the study (repeated measures), especially on day 2 and 3. However the answers say to not only define it but state that the results are valid.

Well I doubt that performance impairment would effect results as the days the participants were required for testing were one week apart i.e. participants have plenty of time to recover. Therefore, because there were no CV's and the IV had a systematic effect on the DV, the results could be considered as valid.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on October 31, 2017, 08:19:34 pm
Yeah, could someone also explain this please, because originally I thought that the study lacked in validity because the participants may have experienced performance impairment due to the experimental design of the study (repeated measures), especially on day 2 and 3. However the answers say to not only define it but state that the results are valid.

What answers are you using?
Also, I don't think that the question requires you to assess the experiment in terms of those terms, but rather just define them and put them into context. ie.
validity - refers to whether the procedure tested what the research intended to measure. eg. whether the effectiveness of the measurement of the mean number of driver errors is an accurate indicator of driver performance.
Reliability - refers to whether the results obtained are consistent and dependent over time. eg. whether other studies researched similar stuff came up with similar results, or if the procedure was repeated more times over the next couple of months would the results stay consistent...
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 31, 2017, 08:26:56 pm
How would you guys describe the steps in a spinal reflext? like what key terms MUST we use??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on October 31, 2017, 08:28:58 pm
What answers are you using?
Also, I don't think that the question requires you to assess the experiment in terms of those terms, but rather just define them and put them into context. ie.
validity - refers to whether the procedure tested what the research intended to measure. eg. whether the effectiveness of the measurement of the mean number of driver errors is an accurate indicator of driver performance.
Reliability - refers to whether the results obtained are consistent and dependent over time. eg. whether other studies researched similar stuff came up with similar results, or if the procedure was repeated more times over the next couple of months would the results stay consistent...


Yeah see I wasn't sure if they wanted a definition or an evaluation of if it was valid/reliable or not. They did say 'explain what is meant my reliability and validity', so do they mean to do it just like you said, just simply define and link it?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on October 31, 2017, 08:31:52 pm
Yeah see I wasn't sure if they wanted a definition or an evaluation of if it was valid/reliable or not. They did say 'explain what is meant my reliability and validity', so do they mean to do it just like you said, just simply define and link it?
Well yes that is what I would assume as that is what the question asks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on October 31, 2017, 08:37:46 pm
How would you guys describe the steps in a spinal reflext? like what key terms MUST we use??
I would say definitely reference the three types of neurons, what their role is, the spinal cord and depending on whether the question asks you to explain why it is unconscious, you would probably have to state that the interneurons send a message to the motor neurons to initiate the response which occurs prior to the brain receiving the message from the spinal cord (and hence the movement occurs before the sensory input is processed and hence before we are consciously aware of it).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 31, 2017, 08:46:54 pm
Sorry for the multitude of questions, but...

Are circadian rhythm disorders (e.g. jet lag) considered as a parasomnia or dysomnia or neither??

cause on one of my exams I have a 10 marker asking to explain the difference between dysomnias and parasomnias w/ reference to an example and I was wondering if I could talk about jet lag and shift work etc. and if not what else I could talk about for 10 marks?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 31, 2017, 08:52:07 pm
How would you guys describe the steps in a spinal reflext? like what key terms MUST we use??

Perhaps the following;

Example; touching hot pan
Sensory receptors detect the heat of the pan and this sensory information travels via sensory neurons to the spinal cord. Interneurons in the spinal cord relay this information to motor neurons. Motor information travels via motor neurons to the hand causing a withdrawal reflex of the hand from the hot pan. Depending on the depth of the question, you might also like to add that as this spinal reflex is occurring, sensory neurons would convey the sensory message further up to the brain, where this information would be received/processed and felt as pain after the withdrawal reflex occurs.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on October 31, 2017, 09:02:05 pm
Perhaps the following;

Example; touching hot pan
Sensory receptors detect the heat of the pan and this sensory information travels via sensory neurons to the spinal cord. Interneurons in the spinal cord relay this information to motor neurons. Motor information travels via motor neurons to the hand causing a withdrawal reflex of the hand from the hot pan. Depending on the depth of the question, you might also like to add that as this spinal reflex is occurring, sensory neurons would convey the sensory message further up to the brain, where this information would be received/processed and felt as pain after the withdrawal reflex occurs.
When you mention that "sensory neurons would convey the sensory message further up to the brain", I think that would be incorrect as it is the spinal cord that connects the brain with the peripheral nervous system, and hence it would be the interneurons in the spinal cord that relay the sensory information up to the brain.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on October 31, 2017, 09:14:37 pm
When you mention that "sensory neurons would convey the sensory message further up to the brain", I think that would be incorrect as it is the spinal cord that connects the brain with the peripheral nervous system, and hence it would be the interneurons in the spinal cord that relay the sensory information up to the brain.

That's a good point, but I thought that interneurons only convey information between motor and sensory neurons, therefore they can't 'relay' information as such.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on October 31, 2017, 09:21:39 pm
That's a good point, but I thought that interneurons only convey information between motor and sensory neurons, therefore they can't 'relay' information as such.

Predominantly in the brain, there are no sensory or motor neurons, only interneurons. Therefore I believe its more correct to state that interneurons relay the message regarding the stimuli to the brain, in which the brain interprets the stimuli as pain.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on October 31, 2017, 09:28:36 pm
Sorry for the multitude of questions, but...

Are circadian rhythm disorders (e.g. jet lag) considered as a parasomnia or dysomnia or neither??

cause on one of my exams I have a 10 marker asking to explain the difference between dysomnias and parasomnias w/ reference to an example and I was wondering if I could talk about jet lag and shift work etc. and if not what else I could talk about for 10 marks?
Circadian phase disorders aren't considered either


Things to discuss:
-what is a dysomnia
-what is sleep onset insomnia
-what negative impacts can it have
-how can it be treated
-sleep hygiene
-what is a parasomnia
-what is sleepwalking
-when is it most likely to occur
-what negative impacts can it have
-what ages is it most common for
-parasomnia can lead to dysomnia but not the other way around

Remember that the response isn't scored in the usual dot-point method, and instead high-med-low
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 31, 2017, 10:05:57 pm
Circadian phase disorders aren't considered either


Things to discuss:
-what is a dysomnia
-what is sleep onset insomnia
-what negative impacts can it have
-how can it be treated
-sleep hygiene
-what is a parasomnia
-what is sleepwalking
-when is it most likely to occur
-what negative impacts can it have
-what ages is it most common for
-parasomnia can lead to dysomnia but not the other way around

Remember that the response isn't scored in the usual dot-point method, and instead high-med-low

What would be the negative effects of sleep walking?

Also, its most common in children right? does anyone know a reason for this?

Also, is there any way to reduce it?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on October 31, 2017, 10:29:37 pm
also guys,

is this correct: the amygdala is involved in the encoding and formation of emotional memories and the cerebellum is involved in the encoding, formation and storage of procedural memories such as conditioned reflexes.

So the fear response may be formed in the amygdala then stored in the cerebellum. right?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on November 01, 2017, 08:18:36 am
also guys,

is this correct: the amygdala is involved in the encoding and formation of emotional memories and the cerebellum is involved in the encoding, formation and storage of procedural memories such as conditioned reflexes.

So the fear response may be formed in the amygdala then stored in the cerebellum. right?

As far as I know, all memories (implicit or explicit) are stored in the cerebral cortex, but the amygdala as you said encodes conditioned emotional responses. I'm not too sure whether it retrieves conditioned emotional response (but I know that it definitely retrieves explicit memories) because I know for sure that the cerebellum is involved in the encoding and retrieval of implicit memories.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theomccoy on November 01, 2017, 10:00:34 am
Hi! I have been confused about the length of the sleep stages in the first cycle vs the total length of the average sleep cycle, because they don't add up to make 90 minutes.

How long on average is each stage?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on November 01, 2017, 10:11:25 am
Just a quick question,
is LTD a result of weak low frequency stimulation of pre synaptic axon terminal or post synaptic axon terminal?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on November 01, 2017, 10:25:32 am
Just a quick question,
is LTD a result of weak low frequency stimulation of pre synaptic axon terminal or post synaptic axon terminal?


presynaptic axon terminal
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: saraaburns on November 01, 2017, 10:58:54 am
Quick questions?

Is the challenge component of the Lazarus and Folkman model considered eustress or distress? Whereas, are threat and harm/loss considered distress? I've been hearing this from sample answers for the 2017 sample and I just want to confirm. I've never heard it expressed like this before.

Also, where are emotional classically conditioned memories (such as Little Albert's fear of white rats) stored; the cerebellum or amygdala? Would it be better to say that the amygala plays a role in the encoding, storage, and retrieval of emotional classically conditioned responses rather than giving a definite answer? I know simple reflexes from CC are stored in the cerebellum (such as blinking your eye at a puff of air) but not sure about emotional ones.

Good luck for tomorrow  :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -273.15 on November 01, 2017, 11:44:53 am
so for theta waves they can be present when doing a creative activity
what is an example of this?
For instance if painting, that is 'creative' but i would not think that it involves theta waves
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 11:59:31 am
Hey Guys,

Hope everyone is going well with their final study!! Best of luck for tomorrow :)

Just some quick questions:

1. When Stratified Sampling is done by a researcher, is random sampling used to select participants from each stratum?

2. Is there any difference between matched participants and independent groups, other than the fact that participants are matched on one of more participant variable in matched participants?


Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on November 01, 2017, 12:39:34 pm
Hey Guys,

Hope everyone is going well with their final study!! Best of luck for tomorrow :)

Just some quick questions:

1. When Stratified Sampling is done by a researcher, is random sampling used to select participants from each stratum?
It can be. This is called random-stratified sampling.

2. Is there any difference between matched participants and independent groups, other than the fact that participants are matched on one of more participant variable in matched participants?
Not really- there is a pretest involved to pair up participants based on the relevant characteristics (in a matched-participants design)


Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: psychologie on November 01, 2017, 01:04:38 pm
DO WE OPERATIONALISE OUR HYPOTHESIS
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 01:06:20 pm
DO WE OPERATIONALISE OUR HYPOTHESIS
No
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: rnrn on November 01, 2017, 01:08:17 pm
DO WE OPERATIONALISE OUR HYPOTHESIS

If asked to otherwise no.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 01:12:21 pm
If asked to otherwise no.
As far as I know it is not part of the study design, however they can ask to operationalise the variables.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on November 01, 2017, 01:31:18 pm
HELP

Explain whether Loftus’s research findings on the reconstructive nature of memory are relevant to long-term memories other than episodic memories.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: kaii on November 01, 2017, 01:41:42 pm
Hi, do the examiners prefer dot-point form or essay-format answers? Will they deduct a mark if I use dot-points? My teacher told me that vcaa is moving away from this type of writing and wants the students to write their answers like in essays.
Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on November 01, 2017, 01:52:24 pm
Hi, do the examiners prefer dot-point form or essay-format answers? Will they deduct a mark if I use dot-points? My teacher told me that vcaa is moving away from this type of writing and wants the students to write their answers like in essays.
Thanks!
Yeah could someone please answer that as well cause my teacher told me that I should always aim to use dot-points in my answers.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 01:54:59 pm
Hey guys, do we need to know about proactive and retroactive interference? The CheckPoints book keeps mentioning it, but I can’t find it in my textbook.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on November 01, 2017, 01:56:59 pm
Hey guys, do we need to know about proactive and retroactive interference? The CheckPoints book keeps mentioning it, but I can’t find it in my textbook.

We don't need to know it
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on November 01, 2017, 02:01:26 pm
what would u say are the negative effects of sleep walking?? and also how would you treat sleep walking??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 02:01:46 pm

We don't need to know it

Okay that’s good!! Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 02:06:22 pm

what would u say are the negative effects of sleep walking?? and also how would you treat sleep walking??

Negative effects: higher risk of injury, sleep inertia/confusion if awoken, and studies show more daytime sleepiness/fatigue in sleepwalkers than non-sleep walkers.

Treatment: I’m not sure of any direct treatments, but I’m pretty sure that anxiety and stress can cause sleep walking, so treatments for stress (meditation or exercise) may indirectly help to reduce sleepwalking.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 02:21:02 pm

so for theta waves they can be present when doing a creative activity
what is an example of this?
For instance if painting, that is 'creative' but i would not think that it involves theta waves

Theta waves can be present when daydreaming or imagining, drawing, or painting like you said.

Also, you may know this, but theta waves can also be present when someone is very drowsy. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 02:24:17 pm
Do you mean Alpha waves?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 02:38:01 pm

Do you mean Alpha waves?

Okay I’m a bit confused now.. my textbook says ‘dream-like visual imagery’, would that not count as imagining something?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: colin.j on November 01, 2017, 03:32:04 pm
Hey guys,
would question 13 (section b) of the 2016 exam paper be relevant to the current study design
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 03:42:50 pm

Hey guys,
would question 13 (section b) of the 2016 exam paper be relevant to the current study design

Yes, you will need to be able to briefly design an experiment based on a given hypothesis
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 03:55:17 pm
Guys how would you distinguish between something that is appraised as benign-positive or something that is viewed as a challenge? What's the difference? How would you define benign-positive?
Title: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 04:26:29 pm
Guys how would you distinguish between something that is appraised as benign-positive or something that is viewed as a challenge? What's the difference? How would you define benign-positive?

Benign-positive is when the stimuli/event is not stressful, but poses the potential for growth. It is usually associated with positive emotions. This evaluation is a part of the primary appraisal stage of the transactional model.

However, for a stressor to be viewed as a challenge, it must be primarily appraised as stressful. Then, a further mini-appraisal occurs (this is not a secondary appraisal) when the stimuli/event is assessed through its harm/loss, potential threat, and challenge. Challenge is the assessment for personal gain or growth.

So, a challenge is an evaluation for potential gain or growth from a stressful situation, whilst a benign-positive evaluation is the deduction that a stimuli/event poses growth, and is not stressful.

Hopefully that helps :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: kaii on November 01, 2017, 04:28:58 pm
Will the cortical areas of the brain  be assessed on the exam? I'm not sure if its included in the study design.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 04:31:58 pm
Will the cortical areas of the brain  be assessed on the exam? I'm not sure if its included in the study design.

Nope. Not in the study design! But make sure you know the roles of the hippocampus, cerebellum, amygdala and cerebral cortex in terms of memory formation.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 04:33:21 pm
Does anyone know in which stages the Parasympathetic NS is active in the GAS? I know the Sympathetic NS is activated during counter-shock in the alarm reaction phase, and then the sympathetic nervous system is also active during the resistance stage, but apparently the parasympathetic nervous system is to?

Thanks :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theomccoy on November 01, 2017, 04:49:43 pm
Does anyone have a clear explanation of the role of glutamate in learning/memory?

I understand but can't put it into words to form a clear explanation! Pleaaase!
Title: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 04:49:51 pm
Does anyone know in which stages the Parasympathetic NS is active in the GAS? I know the Sympathetic NS is activated during counter-shock in the alarm reaction phase, and then the sympathetic nervous system is also active during the resistance stage, but apparently the parasympathetic nervous system is to?

Thanks :)

During the resistance phase, the body attempts to adapt to the stressor. This involves the parasympathetic nervous system becoming active to reduce some of that initial arousal of the alarm reaction stage. :)

Edit: it’s important to note that both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems can be active at the same time, performing different roles. One system is usually dominant though, and in the resistant phase, I think the dominant system would be the parasympathetic nervous system.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 05:02:32 pm

Does anyone have a clear explanation of the role of glutamate in learning/memory?

I understand but can't put it into words to form a clear explanation! Pleaaase!

If that were an exam question, here’s what I would say:

According to Hebb’s rule ‘neurons that fire together, wire together’, learning and memory occurs when an excitatory neurotransmitter is repeatedly sent across the synaptic gap which allows it to strengthen the connection between the two neurons. Because glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, it plays a large role in learning/memory by strengthening the adjacent neurons connections, and making them more likely to fire again together in the future. The continued strengthening of a synapse increases the efficiency of the message, decreasing the chance the information will be forgotten, and promoting learning and memory.

This answer definitely isn’t perfect though so if anyone would like to add on, please do
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 05:09:42 pm
On the exam do i refer to receptor sites being located on the dendrites of the post-synaptic neuron or the dendritic spines of the post-synaptic neuron.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 05:14:09 pm
Okay I’m a bit confused now.. my textbook says ‘dream-like visual imagery’, would that not count as imagining something?
Alpha waves are associated with being awake and alert but still generally relaxed (particularly if eyes are closed).
Theta waves are associated with being drowsy OR creative tasks/imaginative activities. It is uncommon during NWC except for creativity.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 05:29:53 pm
Alpha waves are associated with being awake and alert but still generally relaxed (particularly if eyes are closed).
Theta waves are associated with being drowsy OR creative tasks/imaginative activities. It is uncommon during NWC except for creativity.

However daydreaming is an altered-state of consciousness that occurs, and an EEG would detect mostly alpha-like waves..
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theomccoy on November 01, 2017, 05:32:00 pm
If that were an exam question, here’s what I would say:

According to Hebb’s rule ‘neurons that fire together, wire together’, learning and memory occurs when an excitatory neurotransmitter is repeatedly sent across the synaptic gap which allows it to strengthen the connection between the two neurons. Because glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, it plays a large role in learning/memory by strengthening the adjacent neurons connections, and making them more likely to fire again together in the future. The continued strengthening of a synapse increases the efficiency of the message, decreasing the chance the information will be forgotten, and promoting learning and memory.

This answer definitely isn’t perfect though so if anyone would like to add on, please do


thanks legend! this helped heaps.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on November 01, 2017, 05:34:18 pm
PLEASE HELP!

Does the hippocampus/cerebellum/amygdala also retrieve memories?

Does the cerebral cortex permanently store procedural memories, or just temporarily store them?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaline on November 01, 2017, 05:43:11 pm
what specifically do we need to know about the hippocampus and the hypothalamus for the psych exam?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 05:53:34 pm
Would being given a photo of year 6 classmates and being asked to recall the names of the individuals be an example of cued-recall or recognition (I am pretty confident that it is cued-recall but of the practice exams says otherwise).
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on November 01, 2017, 05:54:57 pm
Would being given a photo of year 6 classmates and being asked to recall the names of the individuals be an example of cued-recall or recognition (I am pretty confident that it is cued-recall but of the practice exams says otherwise).

Cued recall; you're not merely selecting the correct option out of a list of options, as would be the case with recognition.

(Disclaimer: has been a while, happy to be corrected.)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 05:59:54 pm
PLEASE HELP!

Does the hippocampus/cerebellum/amygdala also retrieve memories?

Does the cerebral cortex permanently store procedural memories, or just temporarily store them?

From Grivas textbook: 'the hippocampus probably has a role in the retrieval of explicit memories.' So, if possible, I probably wouldn't mention the hippocampus having a role in retrieval. The textbook also doesn't mention the amygdala or the cerebellum having a role in retrieving memories either.

Yeah, procedural memories are permanently stored in the cerebral cortex. They're temporarily stored in the cerebellum :)

what specifically do we need to know about the hippocampus and the hypothalamus for the psych exam?

You must know about: the hippocampus' role in consolidation, the influence on long term memory if it is damaged, and the hypothalamus' role in the HPA axis.

Pretty sure that's it, but if there's anything I missed please add on!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaline on November 01, 2017, 06:07:41 pm
Do we need to know anything about the role of the thalamus?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on November 01, 2017, 06:13:11 pm
Cued recall; you're not merely selecting the correct option out of a list of options, as would be the case with recognition.

(Disclaimer: has been a while, happy to be corrected.)

Correct Joseph41!

it is recognition because there are other options available [for example the names of other students in your class]

f it was cued recall, they would give you the beggining of each students name and tell you to remember it.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on November 01, 2017, 06:15:25 pm
 was just wondering, how would we apply the CBT to a person with sleep onset insomnia,
Like I get the behavioral; component, but what kind of thoughts would you be challenging with them in the cognitive component??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 06:20:11 pm
Correct Joseph41!

it is recognition because there are other options available [for example the names of other students in your class]

f it was cued recall, they would give you the beggining of each students name and tell you to remember it.

I'm pretty sure it's actually cued recall and not recognition, because you're trying to retrieve the names of people, and therefore the photo of the classmates faces would serve as a cue to aid the recall of the name. If it was recognition, than a list of names would be presented of the year six classmates names.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 06:24:57 pm
was just wondering, how would we apply the CBT to a person with sleep onset insomnia,
Like I get the behavioral; component, but what kind of thoughts would you be challenging with them in the cognitive component??

They may be having thoughts such as 'if there were nothing wrong with me, I'd be able to sleep' or 'I'll never get to sleep', which will only cause frustration, anger, and anxiety, causing further difficulties sleeping. Through CBT these thoughts can be challenged, such as replacing them with logical thoughts like 'even people with sleep-onset insomnia will get to sleep eventually' or 'I always fall asleep eventually, even if it takes awhile, I just have to wait' to aid relaxation and promote sleep.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 06:25:11 pm
How would you use bright light therapy to get a person to feel tired at 10:00 pm and not 12:00 AM,

How would you use bright light therapy to get a person to feel tired at 12:00 AM and not 10:00 PM.

Thanks
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: saraaburns on November 01, 2017, 06:27:44 pm
was just wondering, how would we apply the CBT to a person with sleep onset insomnia,
Like I get the behavioral; component, but what kind of thoughts would you be challenging with them in the cognitive component??

During the cognitive component, you challenge the dysfunctional thoughts that might inhibit them from sleeping and replace them with desirable thoughts. For example, a year 12 student with sleep-onset insomnia might worry about not being able to sleep at night which may cause them to wake up late and miss their exam or sleep deprivation may cause them to fail their exam. This might cause them to have trouble sleeping at night and not be able to sleep for 30+ minutes after they get in bed, a symptom of sleep-onset insomnia. CBT removes those dysfunctional thoughts, such as by reminding the person that they've never missed an exam before and have had a great average throughout the year, and therefore the likelihood of them missing the exam or failing is very low. Obviously behavioral is sleep-hygiene (good sleep habits) and stimulus control therapy (associate the bed with sleeping)

Good luck for tomorrow :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on November 01, 2017, 06:30:59 pm
Can someone please explain reappraisal? Thanks!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: saraaburns on November 01, 2017, 06:31:57 pm
How would you use bright light therapy to get a person to feel tired at 10:00 pm and not 12:00 AM,

How would you use bright light therapy to get a person to feel tired at 12:00 AM and not 10:00 PM.

Thanks

The idea of BLT is that you administer the light when the individual would usually be asleep, shifting their sleep-wake cycle.
Your first example refers to DELAYED circadian rhythm phase disorder (such as with adolescence). Administer BLT at around 6am or in the morning when the individual would usually be asleep, allowing them to stay awake during that time and shifting their sleep-wake cycle FORWARD to the desirable time.

Second example is ADVANCED circadian rhythm phase disorder (shift work/jet lag when travelling west/elderly sleep patterns). Administer BLT at 6pm, when the individual is close to going asleep. This allows them to continue to stay awake when they would usually be asleep, shifting their sleep-wake cycle BACKWARDS to the time they should be going to sleep.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: saraaburns on November 01, 2017, 06:35:41 pm

Can someone please explain reappraisal? Thanks!

Reappraisal isn't in the study design for Lazarus and Folkman so you don't need to know it. Pretty sure it's just an individual evaluating the significance of the situation again (for primary) and re-evaluating coping resources (for secondary). But 100% not mentioned so I wouldn't worry about it :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Joseph41 on November 01, 2017, 06:37:11 pm
I'm pretty sure it's actually cued recall and not recognition, because you're trying to retrieve the names of people, and therefore the photo of the classmates faces would serve as a cue to aid the recall of the name. If it was recognition, than a list of names would be presented of the year six classmates names.



Agreed - this is what I was contending earlier.

Perhaps poorly worded.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 06:39:02 pm
The idea of BLT is that you administer the light when the individual would usually be asleep, shifting their sleep-wake cycle.
Your first example refers to DELAYED circadian rhythm phase disorder (such as with adolescence). Administer BLT at around 6am or in the morning when the individual would usually be asleep, allowing them to stay awake during that time and shifting their sleep-wake cycle FORWARD to the desirable time.

Second example is ADVANCED circadian rhythm phase disorder (shift work/jet lag when travelling west/elderly sleep patterns). Administer BLT at 6pm, when the individual is close to going asleep. This allows them to continue to stay awake when they would usually be asleep, shifting their sleep-wake cycle BACKWARDS to the time they should be going to sleep.

This helped a lot! Thank you!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: saraaburns on November 01, 2017, 06:43:22 pm
This helped a lot! Thank you!

All good! Sorry I just realised that travelling west is delayed and east is advanced oops. Good luck :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 06:45:50 pm
Alcohol induces alpha brain waves?
Meditating induces theta?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on November 01, 2017, 06:48:16 pm
Alcohol induces alpha brain waves?
Meditating induces theta?
Yes. Remember that alcohol is a depressant, and that a meditative state can be considered an ASC
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 06:52:27 pm
Do altered states of consciousness mostly show theta brain waves?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on November 01, 2017, 06:54:01 pm
Do altered states of consciousness mostly show theta brain waves?

Nah, but having theta waves suggests that the person MAY be in an ASC
Eg rem sleep is an ASC but has beta-like waves
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on November 01, 2017, 06:59:51 pm
I hope the 10-marker is on neurons, memory or something like that and NOT sleep :/
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on November 01, 2017, 07:03:22 pm
I hope the 10-marker is on neurons, memory or something like that and NOT sleep :/

If you prepare for the worst you'll be able to cope with anything that happens :)
Might want to quickly brush up your understand as doubtless there'll be questions about sleep somewhere
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: maria.ali on November 01, 2017, 07:29:56 pm
Do we have to know about the role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and 'zeitgebers' in sleep or is that too much information and not needed?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theomccoy on November 01, 2017, 07:35:23 pm
DO WE NEED TO KNOW HPA AXIS
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 07:38:27 pm
Do we have to know about the role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and 'zeitgebers' in sleep or is that too much information and not needed?
Yes definitely the suprachiasmatic nucleus (about how it detects incoming light and sends the information to the pineal gland where a decision is made about how much melatonin is to be released.
I'm not too sure about zeitgebers however the concept is not too difficult and they can just be described as environmental time cues.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 07:41:57 pm
DO WE NEED TO KNOW HPA AXIS
I would assume yes since it is involved in the resistance stage of the GAS model as well as important in the way cortisol is secreted.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Tara777 on November 01, 2017, 07:46:21 pm
Is the freeze response due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system or the parasympathetic nervous system?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Angelx001 on November 01, 2017, 07:47:26 pm
Psych VCAA 2015 exam question 10c??
Students could gain one mark for identifying punishment (or negative punishment) as the learning
principle. Positive punishment was not an acceptable response (this relates to application of an
negative stimulus, rather than taking away a desired stimulus). The act of taking away a desired
activity/positive reinforcer as a consequence for an undesirable behaviour (i.e. not completing
homework) is what makes this punishment, rather than negative reinforcement. Students could
then gain another mark if they explained how punishing the undesirable behaviour (i.e. not doing
homework) might be effective in producing the desired response. This aspect of the question
focused on motivating a desired response. The best response to this aspect of the question was to
indicate that punishment of the undesirable behaviour may motivate Najida to do her homework so
as to avoid this punishment.

Is the answer produced by vcaa contradicting?? Can't tell whether it's saying negative reinforcement or punishment is the answer? Can someone explain please? THANK YOU!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 07:47:43 pm
DO WE NEED TO KNOW HPA AXIS

Yes, but don't worry! All you need to know is that during stress, the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to release ACTH (a hormone) which travels through the blood stream, stimulating the adrenal gland to release cortisol. This response takes a few minutes to occur, but is very long lasting.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 07:51:16 pm
Is the freeze response due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system or the parasympathetic nervous system?

Both! It's sort of like having one foot on the brake and one foot on the accelerator of a car. The parasympathetic NS is active to help the organism remain still and undetected, whilst the sympathetic NS is active to allow the organism a 'boost' to escape or fight as soon as the opportunity arises.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 07:52:28 pm
Psych VCAA 2015 exam question 10c??
Students could gain one mark for identifying punishment (or negative punishment) as the learning
principle. Positive punishment was not an acceptable response (this relates to application of an
negative stimulus, rather than taking away a desired stimulus). The act of taking away a desired
activity/positive reinforcer as a consequence for an undesirable behaviour (i.e. not completing
homework) is what makes this punishment, rather than negative reinforcement. Students could
then gain another mark if they explained how punishing the undesirable behaviour (i.e. not doing
homework) might be effective in producing the desired response. This aspect of the question
focused on motivating a desired response. The best response to this aspect of the question was to
indicate that punishment of the undesirable behaviour may motivate Najida to do her homework so
as to avoid this punishment.

Is the answer produced by vcaa contradicting?? Can't tell whether it's saying negative reinforcement or punishment is the answer? Can someone explain please? THANK YOU!!
The answer means negative punishment or response cost.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Angelx001 on November 01, 2017, 08:01:27 pm
The answer means negative punishment or response cost.

Thank you !!!

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Butterflygirl on November 01, 2017, 08:24:15 pm
Do you guys use the terms positive punishment and negative punishment or punishment and response cost, respectively????
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 08:30:11 pm
Thank you !!!
I generally specify both by explicitly stating one and then putting the other version in brackets however it shouldn't matter.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 08:36:46 pm
lol wrong quote
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on November 01, 2017, 08:37:02 pm
Yes, but don't worry! All you need to know is that during stress, the hypothalamus stimulates the pituitary gland to release ACTH (a hormone) which travels through the blood stream, stimulating the adrenal gland to release cortisol. This response takes a few minutes to occur, but is very long lasting.

Can we use the abbreviation ACTH or is it not acceptable?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Angelx001 on November 01, 2017, 08:39:34 pm
Do we need to know about sprouting/ re- routing (adaptive plasticity)?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 08:43:31 pm
Do we need to know about sprouting/ re- routing (adaptive plasticity)?
I have heard people saying that adaptive and developmental plasticity are not examinable however neural plasticity is. However further input would be appreciated.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: saraaburns on November 01, 2017, 08:45:21 pm
Quick question - do Benzodiazepines MIMIC the role of GABA? or do they act selectively on GABA receptors increasing their inhibitory effects? Different sources giving different answers  :-\
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 08:47:15 pm
Can we use the abbreviation ACTH or is it not acceptable?

As far as I'm aware, examiners won't deduct a mark for using abbreviations. Especially in this case as ACTH isn't a huge part of the course.

But, if you happen to remember that ACTH stands for adrenocorticotropic hormone then definitely state it. :)
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Mariamnourine on November 01, 2017, 08:48:11 pm
Quick question - do Benzodiazepines MIMIC the role of GABA? or do they act selectively on GABA receptors increasing their inhibitory effects? Different sources giving different answers  :-\

i too was sooo confused at this, but if you look through previous posts, I asked this question and I got a reply that Bezodiazepines act as agonists, therefore they MIMIC GABA function. Anyone got differing thoughts on this?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaline on November 01, 2017, 08:55:11 pm
do we need to know anything about the thalamus?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 08:55:58 pm
i too was sooo confused at this, but if you look through previous posts, I asked this question and I got a reply that Bezodiazepines act as agonists, therefore they MIMIC GABA function. Anyone got differing thoughts on this?
Hard to tell but I'm pretty sure that the wording means that they directly affect the GABA receptors on the post-synaptic neuron by changing their shape to make them more receptive to the activity of GABA which means that the neurons are more likely to resist excitation and react more to inhibition. ie. it amplifies the effect of GABA
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: 31415926535 on November 01, 2017, 08:56:26 pm
Good luck to all the beautiful people on here for tomorrow!

Absolutely smash it !!!!
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 08:57:29 pm
do we need to know anything about the thalamus?
No
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 09:00:14 pm
i too was sooo confused at this, but if you look through previous posts, I asked this question and I got a reply that Bezodiazepines act as agonists, therefore they MIMIC GABA function. Anyone got differing thoughts on this?
Also as far as the Jacaranda textbook goes about it, an agonist is "a drug or medication that stimulates a neurotransmitter's activity.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Angelx001 on November 01, 2017, 09:01:52 pm
Can single blind procedure refer to the experimenter not knowing which groups participants are in or is it only for participants not knowing which group they're in? Also thanks for answering my other question :)

And can someone explain question 57 2013 psych vcaa exam??
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on November 01, 2017, 09:06:54 pm
 
Can we use the abbreviation ACTH or is it not acceptable?
I don't think anyone in the state will be writing out adenocoriticotropic hormone, just write ACTH unless you are feeling especially paranoid.
Likewise for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA), and I'm not even going to try to type out AMPA's full name

Can single blind procedure refer to the experimenter not knowing which groups participants are in or is it only for participants not knowing which group they're in? Also thanks for answering my other question :)

And can someone explain question 57 2013 psych vcaa exam??
It only refers to the participants not knowing

57.  In learning, neurons communicate with eachother. When neurons communicate the dendrite receives neurotransmitters
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaline on November 01, 2017, 09:08:09 pm
Is the synapse the same thing as the synaptic gap - can you use those terms interchangeably?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Bri MT on November 01, 2017, 09:10:27 pm
Is the synapse the same thing as the synaptic gap - can you use those terms interchangeably?
Some definitions of the synapse include the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaline on November 01, 2017, 09:12:36 pm
I understand and I've read multiple times that excitatory neurotransmitters make a post-synaptic neuron more likely to fire and inhibitory the opposite, but what does 'firing' actually mean? Does a neuron firing refer to the neural impulse travelling down the axon of the post-synaptic neuron? I'm not really sure..
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 09:13:42 pm
Can single blind procedure refer to the experimenter not knowing which groups participants are in or is it only for participants not knowing which group they're in? Also thanks for answering my other question :)

And can someone explain question 57 2013 psych vcaa exam??
No, where the experimenter doesn't know would be called the double-blind procedure, where the participants also do not know where they are allocated.
For the exam question, the answer is B. The answer cannot be A since dendrites do not contain terminal buttons which secrete the neurotransmitters into the synaptic gap/cleft. These are called axon terminals. B is correct as that is the correct function of dendrites (to receive the neurotransmitters and to send the relevant messages to the soma). The answer cannot be C (to be honest this choice doesn't even make sense to me but I'm making the assumption that they meant the axon) since the dendrites send the impulses to the soma. And it cannot be D since dendrites aren't able to perform higher level functions such as that of integrating and processing information.
Hope that helps. If you need more clarification I'll do my best
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 09:15:15 pm
I don't think anyone in the state will be writing out adenocoriticotropic hormone, just write ACTH unless you are feeling especially paranoid.
Likewise for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA), and I'm not even going to try to type out AMPA's full name
It only refers to the participants not knowing

57.  In learning, neurons communicate with eachother. When neurons communicate the dendrite receives neurotransmitters
NMDA and AMPA are not part of the study design.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: isobelj on November 01, 2017, 09:16:09 pm
I understand and I've read multiple times that excitatory neurotransmitters make a post-synaptic neuron more likely to fire and inhibitory the opposite, but what does 'firing' actually mean? Does a neuron firing refer to the neural impulse travelling down the axon of the post-synaptic neuron? I'm not really sure..

Yes, exactly! It's just an action potential occurring in a post-synaptic neuron.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: anicawajswelner on November 01, 2017, 09:18:31 pm
What are the factors that influence the success of operant conditioning!?!?!?
Like the timing of the consequence after the behaviour, the appropriateness of the consequence to the behaviour, scheduled reinforcement etc?

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Angelx001 on November 01, 2017, 09:27:25 pm

57.  In learning, neurons communicate with eachother. When neurons communicate the dendrite receives neurotransmitters


thanks! but why cant question 57 be answer D?
Also i looked at one of the VCAA past exams and it said that a single blind procedure should be used so experimenters do not know which group participants are in (since it is impossible for participants not to know which group theyre in so can't use double blind)- this this was the green valley one 2014 i think, so im confused?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: -elcee on November 01, 2017, 09:31:54 pm
Not sure how forums work, but in response to the operant conditioning question :

Order : reinforcement or punishment must come AFTER the response
Timing : reinforcement or punishment immediately after the response
Appropriateness : for a stimulus to be a reinforcer, it must either provide a pleasant consequence for it's recipient to increase the desirable behaviour. Contrastingly, for a stimulus to be a punisher, it must provide an unpleasant consequence and thus decrease the undesirable behaviour.

Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 09:32:45 pm

thanks! but why cant question 57 be answer D?
Also i looked at one of the VCAA past exams and it said that a single blind procedure should be used so experimenters do not know which group participants are in (since it is impossible for participants not to know which group theyre in so can't use double blind)- this this was the green valley one 2014 i think, so im confused?
Did you see my answer to your question?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Angelx001 on November 01, 2017, 09:40:33 pm
Did you see my answer to your question?
Yeah i looked at your answer
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Angelx001 on November 01, 2017, 09:41:06 pm
Are both adrenaline & noradreline hormones AND neurotransmitters?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: Globe on November 01, 2017, 09:50:34 pm
Are both adrenaline & noradreline hormones AND neurotransmitters?

Yes.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: emmaline on November 01, 2017, 10:01:25 pm
Where are implicit memories stored? I know explicit memories are stored in the cerebral cortex but I don't know about implicit memories, I know they're formed in the cerebellum but where are they stored in the long term?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: theONEandONLY1 on November 01, 2017, 10:09:59 pm
After a few days of sleep deprivation, it is most likely that a person would experience
A. no increase in the amount of sleep on the nights following the sleep deprivation
B. an increased amount of sleep on one or more nights
C. an increased amount of slow-wave sleep only
D. an increased amount of REM sleep only

The answer is B however I thought that option D could also be a valid option (ie. I thought that there were two answers). Could some explain why D is incorrect?
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: saraaburns on November 01, 2017, 10:34:01 pm
After a few days of sleep deprivation, it is most likely that a person would experience
A. no increase in the amount of sleep on the nights following the sleep deprivation
B. an increased amount of sleep on one or more nights
C. an increased amount of slow-wave sleep only
D. an increased amount of REM sleep only

The answer is B however I thought that option D could also be a valid option (ie. I thought that there were two answers). Could some explain why D is incorrect?
\

Yes, there is increased REM through REM-rebound. But if you're increasing REM that's going to increase the total amount of sleep as a whole.
Title: Re: Psychology 3/4 Question Thread!
Post by: jrose006 on November 01, 2017, 10:38:41 pm
After a few days of sleep deprivation, it is most likely that a person would experience
A. no increase in the amount of sleep on the nights following the sleep deprivation
B. an increased amount of sleep on one or more nights
C. an increased amount of slow-wave sleep only
D. an increased amount of REM sleep only

The answer is B however I thought that option D could also be a valid option (ie. I thought that there were two answers). Could some explain why D is incorrect?