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August 02, 2021, 02:23:15 am

Author Topic: 🧬HSC Biology Module 5 (Forum) Guide  (Read 1710 times)  Share 

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Coolmate

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🧬HSC Biology Module 5 (Forum) Guide
« on: January 20, 2021, 02:23:24 pm »
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🧬🧬HSC Biology Module 5 (Forum) Guide
(I recently completed HSC Biology and this is my thoughts on navigating this course)
(Each topic is split into sections, according to the HSC Biology syllabus structure; first dot point to last dot point of the topic)

Credit: NESA 2017 HSC Biology Syllabus (New Syllabus) for dot point and topics

1. Reproduction🧬
What is this topic about?
"Explain the mechanisms of reproduction that ensure the continuity of a species, by analysing sexual and asexual methods of reproduction in a variety of organisms"
The reproduction topic is the first of Module 5 and engages in the procreation of life. This dot point requires students to examine the various methods of reproduction, sexual and asexual, in various organisms from Animalia all the way to Protists (specific organisms are listed on the HSC Biology syllabus). It is important to thoroughly know this content as it is resurfaced in Module 7 for pathogenic adaptations.

"Analyse the features of fertilisation, implantation and hormonal control of pregnancy and birth in mammals"
The following dot point requires you to analyse features of fertilisation (eg. What is required for successful fertilisation? What happens to the egg and sperm once fused together?), implantation (eg. What happens during the five to seven days after fertilisation?) and hormonal control of pregnancy and birth in mammals (eg. Progesterone, Estrogen etc. Where are these hormones produced and what do they do?).

"Evaluate the impact of scientific knowledge on the manipulation of plant and animal reproduction in agriculture"
From this, the next dot point requires you to evaluate the impact how scientific knowledge on the manipulation of plant and animal reproduction in agriculture. For Example, how has the proliferation of scientific knowledge influenced reproductive technologies on plants such as Artificial Pollination or animal reproductive technologies such as, Artificial Insemination. It is good to know 3 reproductive technologies for both Plants and Animals, with notes on each technology for how the proliferation of scientific knowledge has led to manipulation of reproductive processes, then the impact such manipulation has/ will have.

Important Things to Remember
❗ The differences between internal and external fertilisation
❗ The differences between asexual and sexual reproduction
❗ Be able to draw how the hormone levels change during pregnancy and extrapolate information from this

What Examples Do I Need and How Many?
🧪 Know 2 examples from internal and external reproduction (Organism type, method used) and the advantages and disadvantages of both
🧪 Know at least three different types of reproductive technologies
🧪 Know at least 2 hormones in pregnancy, where they are produced and what they do in the body

Definitions for Reproduction Topic:
Spoiler
-   Zygote
-   Fragmentation
-   Regeneration
-   Budding
-   Parthenogenesis
-   Flower
-   Pollination
-   Plasmogamy
-   Karyogamy
-   Spores
-   Different types of hormones, what they do, how their levels change throughout pregnancy



2. Cell Replication🧬
What is this topic about?
"Model the processes involved in cell replication (Mitosis, Meiosis and DNA Replication)"
The Cell Replication topic focalises upon how cells, both somatic and gametes, are produced, how DNA becomes replicated, the composition of DNA and assessing how cell replication affects the continuity of a species. Mitosis is a type of cell division that results in 2 daughter cells each having the same number of chromosomes as the original cell (2n). Meiosis on the other hand is a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes as the original cell (n). You will need to be able to explain the 6 stages of Mitosis and what they do, but also be able to draw them.

The six stages of Mitosis include:
1. Interphase
2. Prophase
3. Metaphase
4. Anaphase
5. Telophase
6. Cytokinesis (IPMATC)

On the other hand, Meiosis includes two stages (Meiosis 1 and Meiosis 2):
Meiosis 1
1. Interphase
2. Prophase I
3. Metaphase I
4. Anaphase I
5. Telophase I
6. Cytokinesis I

Meiosis 2
1. Prophase II
2. Metaphase II
3. Anaphase II
4. Telophase II
5. Cytokinesis II

Independent Assortment, Crossing Over and Random Segregation are all processes that introduce variation during Meiosis. You will also need to know each of these processes and how they each introduce variation into a population and why this is important.

DNA Replication is the next part of this dot point in which you will have to model and just like Mitosis and Meiosis, you will need to be able to draw and describe the process of DNA Replication. There are 3 key steps when modelling DNA Replication, Initiation, and Termination.

"Assess the effect of the cell replication processes on the continuity of species"
The next dot point requires students to assess cell replication processes on the continuity of species, this was one of my favourite dot points. For this, we need to consider the cell replication processes, which encompass of Mitosis, Meiosis and DNA Replication and how each affects the continuum of a species. You will need to explore both the positives and negatives surrounding each one also.

Important Things to Remember
❗ Mitosis duplicates exact copies of somatic cells (2n), whereas Meiosis involves the formation of genetically unique gametes (n)
❗ Mitosis produces 2 daughter cells each (2n), Meiosis produces 4 daughter cells each (n)
❗ The sugar molecule is larger than the phosphate molecule
❗ Phosphate molecule exists along the backbone strands (5’ and 3’)
❗ Adenine goes with Thymine and Guanine goes with Cytosine (A-T, G-C)

What Examples Do I Need and How Many?
🧪 In your Module 5 Biology notes, you should have a diagrammatic representation of Crossing Over, Independent Assortment and Random Segregation and know how they all introduce variation for a species

Definitions for Cell Replication Topic:
Spoiler
-   Mitosis (2n)
-   Diploid
-   Meiosis (n)
-   Haploid
-   DNA Replication
-   Chromosome
-   Chromatid
-   Homologous Chromosome
-   Sister Chromatids
-   Paternal Chromosomes
-   Maternal Chromosomes
-   Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis (Mitosis)
-   Interphase I, Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Cytokinesis I THEN, Interphase II, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telophase II, Cytokinesis II
-   Crossing Over
-   Independent Assortment
-   Random Segregation



3. DNA and Polypeptide Synthesis🧬
What is this topic about?
"DNA existing in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes"
In this dot point you need to know the differences between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes and the composition of the DNA that exists in both. For Example, Prokaryotes have a circular unit of DNA whereas Eukaryotes have a linear unit of DNA.

"Model the Process of Polypeptide Synthesis"
In this dot point, you will need to describe and draw the processes and each step of transcription and translation, whilst assessing why mRNA and tRNA is important in these processes. An assessment of mRNA and tRNA can include, advantages of mRNA to tRNA and vice versa. Next, the syllabus instructs students to analyse the function and importance of Polypeptide Synthesis. This means to identify components, relationships and to draw implications out. For Example, Polypeptide Synthesis allows organisms to become increasingly more complex, due to the rapid production of specific proteins for specific jobs. Likewise, the syllabus then requires students to assess how genes and environments affect phenotypic expression. Genotypes are the genes present in your genome, whilst Phenotypes are observable characteristics such as hair or eye colour. The environment can have a substantial influence on how genes are expressed, for example, some genes may be ‘switched on’, under appropriate environmental conditions like the cold or hot.

"Protein Structure and Function"
For this dot point, you will need to know and draw the four different types of structures that a protein can exist in, these include:
-   Primary
-   Secondary
-   Tertiary
-   Quarternary
You will also be required to know the components that make each of these structures. For Example, Alpha Helices and Beta Sheets are what make up the Secondary Structure of a Protein. Likewise, proteins have many different functions including, transport and storage, structure and support, enzymes and act as chemical messengers.

Important Things to Remember
❗ Know the process of Polypeptide Synthesis extremely well as NESA can ask you any question they want on a specific part of the process
❗ How Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes store their DNA units (Prokaryotes = Circular; Eukaryotes = Linear)
❗ Differences between the four protein structures; (Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quarternary)

What Examples Do I Need and How Many?
🧪 Chemical composition of each of the four protein structures
🧪 Know at least 3 examples for the functions of Proteins

Definitions for DNA and Polypeptide Synthesis Topic:
Spoiler
-   Prokaryote
-   Eukaryote
-   Circular DNA
-   Linear DNA
-   Cytoplasm
-   Histones
-   Nucleosome
-   mRNA
-   tRNA
-   Polypeptide
-   Peptide Chain
-   Codon
-   Anti-Codon
-   Gene
-   Allele
-   Genotype
-   Phenotype
-   Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quarternary Structures



4. Genetic Variation🧬
What is this topic about?
"Modelling Meiosis (Crossing Over of Homologous Chromosomes, Fertilisation and Mutations)"
For this section of the Genetic Variation topic, it is necessary that you understand what Crossing Over is when involving Homologous Chromosomes, how it allows for genetic variation and be able to model your explanation of this (usually by a sketch). Likewise, for Fertilisation you need to be able to define fertilisation, how fertilisation creates new alleles through parental alleles combining and also be able to draw a diagram to illustrate this. In addition to Crossing Over and Fertilisation, you will also need to know Mutation. Specifically, you will need to know the definition of mutation, how it occurs, why it occurs and how this affects genetic variation. For mutation, you must also sketch your reasoning in a visual way, for example, providing a diagram of a Duplication Mutation, with labels on the outside, identifying the different parts.

"Model Formation of New Combinations of Genotypes Produced during Meiosis"
This dot point section focuses on the ability to interpret examples of autosomal, sex-linkage, co-dominance, incomplete dominance and multiple alleles, when given stimuli. You will need to know the definitions of all of these terms, know examples of them and be able to apply your knowledge behind these terms to a given question. It would also be wise to thoroughly know how to differentiate between these terms.

"Frequency Data and Analysing SNP’s"
This dot point is very example heavy, requiring you to collect, record and present data to represent frequencies of a characteristics in a population. The syllabus instructs students to examine frequency data and analyse Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP). A ‘Frequency Data’ example is Sickle Cell Disease. When analysing SNP’s, you must, define what a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is, the percentage it accounts for all variation in the world, whether specific types of SNP’s affect different cultures, populations or regions and why this is the case. It is important that you memorise and understand this information. An Example of an SNP is ‘Crohn’s Disease’, an Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), whose SNP is positioned on Chromosome 16, and if the individual has T:T alleles, they are at a 35x higher risk of developing Crohn’s Disease. An important but additional piece of knowledge you need is an understanding of population genetics (which combines concepts of Mendelian Genetics and Darwinian Evolution). This includes knowing information and definitions of, ‘Gene Pool’, ‘Genetic Diversity’ and ‘Populations’.

Important Things to Remember
❗ Know difference between Autosomal Inheritance and Sex-Linked Inheritance (X Dominant or Recessive)
❗ Know how to construct, read, and extrapolate information from Pedigrees and Punnet Squares
❗ Different symbols for Pedigrees

What Examples Do I Need and How Many?
🧪 Examples of different organisms for Autosomal, Sex-Linkage, Co-Dominance, Incomplete Dominance and Multiple Alleles
🧪 You will need examples of frequency data. This includes inheritance patterns and frequency data to support claims. A common example is blood groups, using, A, B, O, AB (include Negative’s and Positive’s also called ‘Rhesus Factor’)
🧪 SNP and genetic data for population genetics, such as Crohn’s Disease. As an extension, you could also add the source of where you retrieved the information from.

Definitions for Genetic Variation Topic:
Spoiler
-   Gene
-   Allele
-   Dominant Allele
-   Recessive Allele
-   Co-Dominance
-   Incomplete Dominance
-   Multiple Alleles
-   Sex-Linkage
-   Pedigree
-   Genotype
-   Phenotype
-   Heterozygous
-   Homozygous
-   Paternal (In regard to homologous chromosomes)
-   Maternal (In regard to homologous chromosomes)
-   Autosome
-   Autosomal Inheritance
-   Autosomal Recessive
-   X-Linked Dominant
-   X-Linked Recessive
-   Punnet Square
-   Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
-   Macroevolution
-   Microevolution



5. Inheritance Patterns in a Population🧬
What is this topic about?
"DNA Sequencing and DNA Profiling"
As this is a short, but information rich topic, the only thing you really need to know here is in regards to DNA Sequencing and DNA Profiling. Specifically, for each technology, you will need to know the method used, the type of data that can be obtained from these technologies and how this technology can be used to investigate inheritance patterns. An additional thing to know would be the advantages, disadvantages, and differences of both technologies; this can be woven into your answer to questions, illustrating a deeper understanding of the topic.

"Population Genetics"
-   "Use of Population Genetics Data in conservation management"
For this dot point, find at least 2 current large scale collaborative projects for conservation management, for example, Crop Trust. In your notes, have an explanation of this project and how that project assists in conservation management of certain species of animals or plants, such as Rhinos and how it allowed us to understand conservation on Earth.

-   "Population genetics studies used to determine the inheritance of a disease or disorder"
Like before, for this dot point find at least 2 current large scale collaborative studies, like the Human Genome Project (HGP). In your notes provide an explanation of this project/ collaborative study and assess how it was used to determine the inheritance of diseases or disorders and what engaging in these studies allowed us to understand.

-   "Population genetics relating to human evolution"
Like the previous two dot points, this dot point focuses on students finding at least 2 current large scale collaborative projects/ studies. From these projects/ studies, students must then extrapolate informative data (numerical and non-numerical) and use their named example project/ study to be able to answer questions based on this dot point.

Important Things to Remember
❗ It is very important to know, understand and thoroughly be able to explain the method of DNA Sequencing and DNA Profiling, as NESA can ask you detailed specific questions on these topics
❗ Know why inheritance patterns are significant for not only research, but understanding our place on Earth
❗ You will need examples of different types of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP)

What Examples Do I Need and How Many?
🧪 DNA Sequencing and DNA Profiling - Method, type of data and what each are used for
🧪 Large Scale Collaborative Project such as the Human Genome Project (HGP)

Definitions for Inheritance Patterns in a Population Topic:
Spoiler
-   DNA Sequencing
-   DNA Profiling
-   Gel Electrophoresis
-   Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)
-   Inheritance Patterns
-   Haplotype
« Last Edit: February 07, 2021, 09:10:39 pm by Coolmate »
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K888

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Re: 🧬HSC Biology Module 5 (Forum) Guide
« Reply #1 on: January 20, 2021, 06:14:06 pm »
+6
This is absolutely awesome. Thanks so much for making this guide, Coolmate! I'm gonna go ahead and pre-emptively thank you on behalf of a lot of future Bio students! ;D

Coolmate

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  • Respect: +452
Re: 🧬HSC Biology Module 5 (Forum) Guide
« Reply #2 on: January 20, 2021, 06:54:20 pm »
+5
This is absolutely awesome. Thanks so much for making this guide, Coolmate! I'm gonna go ahead and pre-emptively thank you on behalf of a lot of future Bio students! ;D

Thanks K888! I'm glad it will help future Biology students and I'm excited to share it ;D

Coolmate 8)
🤯HSC 2020:🤯
🔥Advanced Maths🔥 - 📚Advanced English📚 - ☄️Physics☄️ - ✌Biology✌ - 🙏SOR 1🙏 - 👨‍💻IPT👨‍💻


🎓University 2021 - 2025:
Bachelor of Science (Biology) / Bachelor of Information Technology (Cyber Security)


👊Need Motivation Click Here!💪         🌴Bio Marking and Feedback!

🧬Biology Guide:
🧪Module 5