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September 25, 2021, 10:31:43 pm

Author Topic: VCE Biology Question Thread  (Read 2459979 times)  Share 

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Chocolatepistachio

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13635 on: July 23, 2021, 05:53:41 pm »
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Epinephrine (a hormone/ first messenger) increases the force of contraction of heart muscle. In the absence of epinephrine phenylephrine is used as a drug to increase the force of contraction of heart muscles via a signalling pathway that involves a receptor and cAMP. Which of the following are plausible mechanism of action of phenylephrine.
A phenylephrine is acting as an agonist of epinephrine
B phenylephrine is acting as an antagonist  of epinephrine
C phenylephrine is acting as an allosteric modulator
D phenylephrine is acting as a covalent modulator

Would this be a

Billuminati

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13636 on: July 23, 2021, 06:01:19 pm »
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Epinephrine (a hormone/ first messenger) increases the force of contraction of heart muscle. In the absence of epinephrine phenylephrine is used as a drug to increase the force of contraction of heart muscles via a signalling pathway that involves a receptor and cAMP. Which of the following are plausible mechanism of action of phenylephrine.
A phenylephrine is acting as an agonist of epinephrine
B phenylephrine is acting as an antagonist  of epinephrine
C phenylephrine is acting as an allosteric modulator
D phenylephrine is acting as a covalent modulator

Would this be a

Yes, phenylephrine is a sympathomimetic ie an adrenergic agonist. It activates the same pathway as adrenaline when it binds to the beta-1 adrenoreceptors because it has a similar molecular shape to it.
VCE 2016-2018

2017: Biology [38], Further Maths [44]

2018: Methods [37], French [38], Chem [40], English [44]

ATAR: 98.1

2019- : Bachelor of Biomedical Science at Monash (Scholars), minoring in Chemistry

biology1234

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13637 on: July 23, 2021, 06:16:34 pm »
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In telophase, is two genetically identical cells produced. what is the difference between this and then the next stage cytokinesis

Chocolatepistachio

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13638 on: July 23, 2021, 06:47:21 pm »
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No they are not produced in telophase
In telophase chromosomes clustered at opposite poles decondense back into chromatin as a nuclear envelope reforms around them.The spindle is disassembled

Cytokinesis is the division of the cytoplasm. In animal cells the cleavage furrow forms to divide the cells. In plant cells the cell plate forms

Billuminati

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13639 on: July 23, 2021, 06:49:11 pm »
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In telophase, is two genetically identical cells produced. what is the difference between this and then the next stage cytokinesis

Telophase= separation of genetic material
Cytokinesis= separation of cytoplasm
VCE 2016-2018

2017: Biology [38], Further Maths [44]

2018: Methods [37], French [38], Chem [40], English [44]

ATAR: 98.1

2019- : Bachelor of Biomedical Science at Monash (Scholars), minoring in Chemistry

Chocolatepistachio

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13640 on: July 23, 2021, 06:52:28 pm »
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If someone could help with this question
Using the law of Laplace explain how surfactants stabilise alveoli of different sizes that share the same alveolar duct

Billuminati

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13641 on: July 23, 2021, 07:01:17 pm »
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If someone could help with this question
Using the law of Laplace explain how surfactants stabilise alveoli of different sizes that share the same alveolar duct

It wasn't covered in the 2nd year physiology unit in Monash biomed, but from a quick look at my uni textbook I think you need to explain it in terms of "as radius increases, pressure decreases"
VCE 2016-2018

2017: Biology [38], Further Maths [44]

2018: Methods [37], French [38], Chem [40], English [44]

ATAR: 98.1

2019- : Bachelor of Biomedical Science at Monash (Scholars), minoring in Chemistry

Chocolatepistachio

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13642 on: July 25, 2021, 09:55:53 pm »
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if someone could help with this question

Chocolatepistachio

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13643 on: July 27, 2021, 12:12:32 pm »
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Enkephalins and endorphins are peptide neurotransmitters that function in the perception of pain. This is because
A they interact with specific opioid receptor proteins to produce their effects
B they are small enough to directly enter post synaptic membranes
C they have special membrane channels that let them through the post-synaptic cells
D. They interact with morphine

Would this be a

Billuminati

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13644 on: July 27, 2021, 12:25:09 pm »
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Enkephalins and endorphins are peptide neurotransmitters that function in the perception of pain. This is because
A they interact with specific opioid receptor proteins to produce their effects
B they are small enough to directly enter post synaptic membranes
C they have special membrane channels that let them through the post-synaptic cells
D. They interact with morphine

Would this be a

Yes pretty much every neurotransmitter produce an effect by binding to a receptor, similar to hormones
VCE 2016-2018

2017: Biology [38], Further Maths [44]

2018: Methods [37], French [38], Chem [40], English [44]

ATAR: 98.1

2019- : Bachelor of Biomedical Science at Monash (Scholars), minoring in Chemistry

-Lilac-

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13645 on: July 27, 2021, 04:57:35 pm »
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if someone could help with this question

Is there any more context to this question, maybe from what you have been focusing on in class? There are a few things you could mention here. An obvious one would be whether the cytokine is acting in a paracrine vs autocrine manner. Or you could talk about whether is Is it having an inhibitory or stimulating effect on something.
Bachelor of Science (Biochemistry and Immunology)
Honours (Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

greenpaper

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13646 on: July 30, 2021, 02:56:20 pm »
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Why are adult stem cells not more likely to be rejected by the patient's body than embryonic stem cells.

greenpaper

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13647 on: July 30, 2021, 03:00:16 pm »
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Why are embryonic stem cells easier to isolate and grow in the lab than Adult stem cells

Billuminati

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13648 on: July 30, 2021, 03:07:38 pm »
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Why are adult stem cells not more likely to be rejected by the patient's body than embryonic stem cells.

It's because they have specialised and have developed distinct markers that identify them as non self to the host immune system. Embryonic stem cells don't have this specialisation, they can be easily integrated in a transplant. In fact, due to their tendencies to grow and proliferate, embryonic stem cell transplants are plagued by the problem of too much growth to the degree that it will cause a malignant tumour

Adult stem cells are found scattered in different places that may be hard to reach eg bone marrow whereas you can just grow a ball of embryonic stem cells if ethical guidlines permit it.
« Last Edit: July 30, 2021, 03:09:46 pm by Billuminati »
VCE 2016-2018

2017: Biology [38], Further Maths [44]

2018: Methods [37], French [38], Chem [40], English [44]

ATAR: 98.1

2019- : Bachelor of Biomedical Science at Monash (Scholars), minoring in Chemistry

Chocolatepistachio

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Re: VCE Biology Question Thread
« Reply #13649 on: August 01, 2021, 08:34:43 pm »
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If someone could help with this question
Which of the following chemical messengers is able to cross the phopholipid bilayer of the cell membrane?
A amino acids
B amines (excluding thyroid hormone)
C peptides
D eicosanoids